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State
Washington Regulations
Chapter 173-204 WAC Sediment management standards

Last Update: 12/29/95




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173-204-100
Authority and purpose.
(1) This chapter is promulgated under the authority of chapter 90.48 RCW, the Water Pollution Control Act; chapter 70.105D RCW, the Model Toxics Control Act; chapter 90.70 RCW, the Puget Sound Water Quality Authority Act; chapter 90.52 RCW, the Pollution Disclosure Act of 1971; chapter 90.54 RCW, the Water Resources Act of 1971; and chapter 43.21C RCW, the state Environmental Policy Act, to establish marine, low salinity and freshwater surface sediment management standards for the state of Washington.

(2) The purpose of this chapter is to reduce and ultimately eliminate adverse effects on biological resources and significant health threats to humans from surface sediment contamination by:

(a) Establishing standards for the quality of surface sediments;

(b) Applying these standards as the basis for management and reduction of pollutant discharges; and

(c) Providing a management and decision process for the cleanup of contaminated sediments.

(3) Part III, Sediment quality standards of this chapter provides chemical concentration criteria, biological effects criteria, human health criteria, and other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances criteria which identify surface sediments that have no adverse effects, including no acute or chronic adverse effects on biological resources and no significant health risk to humans, as defined in this regulation. The sediment quality standards provide a regulatory and management goal for the quality of sediments throughout the state.

(4) The sediment criteria of WAC 173-204-320 through173-204-340 shall constitute surface sediment quality standards and be used to establish an inventory of surface sediment sampling stations where the sediments samples taken from these stations are determined to pass or fail the applicable sediment quality standards.

(5) Part IV, Sediment source control standards of this chapter shall be used as a basis for controlling the effects of point and nonpoint source discharges to sediments through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) federal permit program, state water quality management permit programs, issuance of administrative orders or other means determined appropriate by the department. The source control standards establish discharge sediment monitoring requirements and criteria for establishment and maintenance of sediment impact zones.

(6) Part V, Sediment cleanup standards of this chapter establishes administrative procedural requirements and criteria to identify, screen, rank and prioritize, and cleanup contaminated surface sediment sites. The sediment cleanup standards of WAC 173-204-500 through 173-204-590 shall be used pursuant to authorities established under chapters 90.48 and 70.105D RCW.

(7) This chapter establishes and defines a goal of minor adverse effects as the maximum level of sediment contamination allowed in sediment impact zones under the provisions of Part IV, Sediment source control standards and as the cleanup screening levels for identification of sediment cleanup sites and as the minimum cleanup levels to be achieved in all cleanup actions under Part V, Sediment cleanup standards.

(8) Local ordinances establishing requirements for the designation and management of marine, low salinity and freshwater sediments shall not be less stringent than this chapter.

Note: All codes, standards, statutes, rules or regulations cited in this chapter are available for inspection at the Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47703, Olympia, Washington 98504-7703.




[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-100, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-100, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-110
Applicability.
(1) The sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-300 through 173-204-315, and 173-204-350, and the sediment cleanup standards of WAC 173-204-500 through 173-204-580 shall apply to all surface sediments.

(2) The sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320, 173-204-330, and 173-204-340 shall apply to marine, low salinity and freshwater surface sediments, respectively.

(3) The source control standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 shall apply to each person's actions which exposes or resuspends surface sediments which exceed, or otherwise cause or potentially cause surface sediments to exceed, the applicable standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(4) The sediment recovery zone standards of WAC 173-204-590 shall apply to each person's cleanup action decision made pursuant to WAC 173-204-580 where the selected cleanup action leaves in place marine, low salinity, or freshwater sediments that exceed the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(5) The sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 shall not apply:

(a) Within a sediment impact zone as authorized by the department under WAC 173-204-415; or

(b) Within a sediment recovery zone as authorized by the department under WAC 173-204-590; or

(c) To particulates suspended in the water column; or

(d) To particulates suspended in a permitted effluent discharge.

(6) Nothing in this chapter shall constrain the department's authority to make appropriate sediment management decisions on a case-specific basis using best professional judgment and latest scientific knowledge for cases where the standards of this chapter are reserved or standards are not available.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-110, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-120
Antidegradation and designated use policies.
(1) Antidegradation policy. The antidegradation policy of the state of Washington as generally guided by chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW, is applicable to any person's new or increased activity and shall apply to this chapter as follows:

(a) Existing beneficial uses shall be maintained and protected and no further degradation which would interfere with or become injurious to existing beneficial uses shall be allowed.

(b) No degradation of existing sediment quality shall be allowed of waters constituting an outstanding national resource, such as waters of national and state parks and scenic and recreation areas, wildlife refuges, and waters of exceptional recreational or ecological significance.

(c) Whenever surface sediments are of a higher quality (i.e., lower chemical concentrations or adverse biological response) than the criteria assigned to said sediments, the existing surface sediment quality shall be protected and waste and other materials and substances shall not be allowed to contaminate such sediments or reduce the existing sediment quality thereof, except in those instances where:

(i) It is clear, after satisfactory public participation and intergovernmental coordination, that overriding considerations of the public interest will be served;

(ii) All wastes and other materials and substances proposed for discharge that may contaminate such sediments are provided with all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment and/or best management practices;

(iii) The reduction of existing surface sediment quality is authorized by the department; and

(iv) Existing beneficial uses are maintained and protected, and no degradation which would interfere with and/or become injurious to existing sediment beneficial uses and/or causes long-term, irreparable harm to the environment is allowed.

(2) Designated use policy. The policy of the department and the purpose of this chapter shall be to manage waste discharges and sediment quality so as to protect existing beneficial uses and move towards attainment of designated beneficial uses as specified in section 101 (a)(2) of the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC 1251, et seq.) and chapter 173-201 WAC, the Water quality standards for surface waters of the state of Washington. This policy is applicable to any person's existing or proposed actions which may affect surface sediment quality.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-120, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-130
Administrative policies.
The department shall implement this chapter in accordance with the following policies:

(1) The department shall seek to implement, and as necessary modify this chapter to protect biological resources and human health consistent with WAC 173-204-100(2). To implement the intent of this subsection, the department shall use methods that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge consistent with the definitions contained in WAC 173-204-200 (14) and (15), as applicable.

(2) At the interface between surface sediments, ground water or surface water, the applicable standards shall depend on which beneficial use is or could be adversely affected, as determined by the department. If beneficial uses of more than one resource are affected, the most restrictive standards shall apply.

(3) It shall be the goal of the department to modify this chapter so that methods such as confirmatory biological tests, sediment impact zone models, use of contaminated sediment site ranking models, etc., continue to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge as established through ongoing validation and refinement.

(4) Any person or the department may propose an alternate technical method to replace or enhance the application of a specific technical method required under this chapter. Using best professional judgment, the department shall provide advance review and approval of any alternate technical method proposed prior to its application. Application and use of alternate technical methods shall be allowed when the department determines that the technical merit of the resulting decisions will improve the department's ability to implement and meet the intent of this chapter as described in WAC 173-204-100(2), and will remain consistent with the scientific intent of definitions contained in WAC 173-204-200 (14) and (15). The department shall maintain a record of the department's decisions concerning application for use of alternate technical methods pursuant to this subsection. The record shall be made available to the public on request.

(5) Intergovernmental coordination. The department shall ensure appropriate coordination and consultation with federally recognized Indian tribes and local, state, and federal agencies to provide information on and to implement this chapter.

(6) The department shall conduct an annual review of this chapter, and modify its provisions every three years, or as necessary. Revision to this chapter shall be made pursuant to the procedures established within chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act.

(7) Review of scientific information. When evaluating this chapter for necessary revisions, the factors the department shall consider include:

(a) New or additional scientific information which is available relating surface sediment chemical quality to acute or chronic adverse effects on biological resources as defined in WAC 173-204-200 (1) and (7);

(b) New or additional scientific information which is available relating human health risk to marine, low salinity, or freshwater surface sediment chemical contaminant levels;

(c) New or additional scientific information which is available relating levels of other toxic, radioactive, biological and deleterious substances in marine, low salinity, or freshwater sediments to acute or chronic adverse effects on biological resources, or to a significant health risk to humans;

(d) New state or federal laws which have established environmental or human health protection standards applicable to surface sediment; or

(e) Scientific information which has been identified for addition, modification or deletion by a scientific review process established by the department.

(8) Public involvement and education. The goal of the department shall be to provide timely information and meaningful opportunities for participation by the public in the annual review conducted by the department under subsection (6) of this section, and any modification of this chapter. To meet the intent of this subsection the department shall:

(a) Provide public notice of the department's decision regarding the results of its annual review of this chapter, including:

(i) The department's findings for the annual review factors identified in subsection (7) of this section;

(ii) The department's decision regarding the need for modification of this chapter based on its annual review; and

(iii) Identification of a time period for public opportunity to comment on the department's findings and decisions pursuant to this subsection.

(b) Provide public notice by mail or by additional procedures determined necessary by the department which may include:

(i) Newspaper publication;

(ii) Other news media;

(iii) Press releases;

(iv) Fact sheets;

(v) Publications;

(vi) Any other method as determined by the department.

(c) Conduct public meetings as determined necessary by the department to educate and inform the public regarding the department's annual review determinations and decisions.

(d) Comply with the rule making and public participation requirements of chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act, for any revisions to this chapter.

(9) Test sediments evaluated for compliance with the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 and/or the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 and/or the cleanup screening levels criteria of WAC 173-204-520 shall be sampled and analyzed using the Puget Sound Protocols or other methods approved by the department. Determinations made pursuant to this chapter shall be based on sediment chemical and/or biological data that were developed using an appropriate quality assurance/quality control program, as determined by the department.

(10) The statutory authority for decisions under this chapter shall be clearly stated in the decision documents prepared pursuant to this chapter. The department shall undertake enforcement actions consistent with the stated authority under which the action is taken. The process for judicial review of these decisions shall be pursuant to the statutes under which the action is being taken.

(11) When the department identifies this chapter as an applicable, or relevant and appropriate requirement for a federal cleanup action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the department shall identify the entire contents of this chapter as the appropriate state requirement.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-130, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-130, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-200
Definitions.
For the purpose of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) "Acute" means measurements of biological effects using surface sediment bioassays conducted for time periods that are relatively short in comparison to the life cycle of the test organism. Acute effects may include mortality, larval abnormality, or other endpoints determined appropriate by the department.

(2) "Amphipod" means crustacean of the Class Amphipoda, e.g., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, or Eohaustorius estuarius.

(3) "Appropriate biological tests" means only tests designed to measure directly, or through established predictive capability, biologically significant adverse effects to the established or potential benthic or aquatic resources at a given location, as determined by rule by the department.

(4) "Beneficial uses" means uses of waters of the state which include but are not limited to use for domestic, stock watering, industrial, commercial, agricultural, irrigation, mining, fish and wildlife maintenance and enhancement, recreation, generation of electric power, and preservation of environmental and aesthetic values, and all other uses compatible with the enjoyment of the public waters of the state.

(5) "Best management practices" or "BMPs" means schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of surface sediments of the state. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures and practices to control plant site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or water disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

(6) "Bioassay" means a test procedure that measures the response of living plants, animals, or tissues to a sediment sample.

(7) "Chronic" means measurements of biological effects using sediment bioassays conducted for, or simulating, prolonged exposure periods of not less than one complete life cycle, evaluations of indigenous field organisms for long-term effects, assessment of biological effects resulting from bioaccumulation and biomagnification, and/or extrapolated values or methods for simulating effects from prolonged exposure periods. Chronic effects may include mortality, reduced growth, impaired reproduction, histopathological abnormalities, adverse effects to birds and mammals, or other endpoints determined appropriate by the department.

(8) "Contaminated sediment" means surface sediments designated under the procedures of WAC 173-204-310 as exceeding the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(9) "Control sediment sample" means a surface sediment sample which is relatively free of contamination and is physically and chemically characteristic of the area from which bioassay test animals are collected. Control sediment sample bioassays provide information concerning a test animal's tolerance for stress due to transportation, laboratory handling, and bioassay procedures. Control sediment samples cannot exceed the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(10) "Department" means the department of ecology.

(11) "Freshwater sediments" means surface sediments in which the sediment pore water contains less than or equal to 0.5 parts per thousand salinity.

(12) "Low salinity sediments" means surface sediments in which the sediment pore water contains greater than 0.5 parts per thousand salinity and less than 25 parts per thousand salinity.

(13) "Marine finfish rearing facilities" shall mean those private and public facilities located within state waters where finfish are fed, nurtured, held, maintained, or reared to reach the size of release or for market sale.

(14) "Marine sediments" means surface sediments in which the sediment pore water contains 25 parts per thousand salinity or greater.

(15) "Minor adverse effects" means a level of effects that:

(a) Has been determined by rule by the department, except in cases subject to WAC 173-204-110(6); and

(b) Meets the following criteria:

(i) An acute or chronic adverse effect to biological resources as measured by a statistically and biologically significant response relative to reference in no more than one appropriate biological test as defined in WAC 173-204-200(3); or

(ii) A statistically and biologically significant response that is significantly elevated relative to reference in any appropriate biological test as defined in WAC 173-204-200(3); or

(iii) Biological effects per (b)(i) or (ii) of this subsection as predicted by exceedance of an appropriate chemical or other deleterious substance standard, except where the prediction is overridden by direct biological testing evidence pursuant to (b)(i) and (ii) of this subsection; and

(c) Does not result in significant human health risk as predicted by exceedance of an appropriate chemical, biological, or other deleterious substance standard.

(16) "No adverse effects" means a level of effects that:

(a) Has been determined by rule by the department, except in cases subject to WAC 173-204-110(6); and

(b) Meets the following biological criteria:

(i) No acute or chronic adverse effects to biological resources as measured by a statistically and biologically significant response relative to reference in any appropriate biological test as defined in WAC 173-204-200(3); and

(ii) No acute or chronic adverse biological effect per (b)(i) of this subsection as predicted by exceedance of an appropriate chemical or other deleterious substance standard, except where the prediction is overridden by direct biological testing evidence pursuant to (b)(i) of this subsection; and

(iii) Does not result in significant human health risk as predicted by exceedance of an appropriate chemical, biological, or other deleterious substance standard.

(17) "Other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances" means contaminants which are not specifically identified in the sediment quality standards chemical criteria of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 (e.g., organic debris, tributyltin, DDT, etc.).

(18) "Person" means an individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, consortium, joint venture, commercial entity, industry, private corporation, port district, special purpose district, irrigation district, unit of local government, state government agency, federal government agency, Indian tribe, or any other entity whatsoever.

(19) "Practicable" means able to be completed in consideration of environmental effects, technical feasibility and cost.

(20) "Puget Sound basin" or "Puget Sound" means:

(a) Puget Sound south of Admiralty Inlet, including Hood Canal and Saratoga Passage;

(b) The waters north to the Canadian border, including portions of the Strait of Georgia;

(c) The Strait of Juan de Fuca south of the Canadian border; and

(d) All the lands draining into these waters as mapped in water resources inventory areas numbers 1 through 19, set forth in water resources management program established pursuant to the Water Resources Act of 1971, chapter 173-500 WAC.

(21) "Puget Sound protocols" means Puget Sound Estuary Program. 1986. As amended. Recommended Protocols for Measuring Selected Environmental Variables in Puget Sound, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA (looseleaf).

(22) "Reference sediment sample" means a surface sediment sample which serves as a laboratory indicator of a test animal's tolerance to important natural physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment, e.g., grain size, organic content. Reference sediment samples represent the nonanthropogenically affected background surface sediment quality of the sediment sample. Reference sediment samples cannot exceed the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(23) "Sediment impact zone" means an area where the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 are exceeded due to ongoing permitted or otherwise authorized wastewater, storm water, or nonpoint source discharges and authorized by the department within a federal or state wastewater or storm water discharge permit, or other formal department authorization.

(24) "Sediment recovery zone" means an area where the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 are exceeded as a result of historical discharge activities, and authorized by the department as a result of a cleanup decision made pursuant to WAC 173-204-580, Cleanup action decision.

(25) "Site units" means discrete subdivisions of an individual contaminated sediment site that are being evaluated for the purpose of establishing cleanup standards. Site units are based on consideration of unique locational, environmental, spatial, or other conditions determined appropriate by the department, e.g., cleanup under piers, cleanup in eelgrass beds, cleanup in navigational lanes.

(26) "Surface sediments" or "sediment(s)" means settled particulate matter located in the predominant biologically active aquatic zone, or exposed to the water column. Sediment(s) also includes settled particulate matter exposed by human activity (e.g., dredging) to the biologically active aquatic zone or to the water column.

(27) "Test sediment" means a sediment sample that is evaluated for compliance with the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 and/or the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-240-420 and/or the cleanup screening levels criteria of WAC 173-204-520.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-200, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-200, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-300
Purpose.
The sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 include chemical concentration criteria, biological effects criteria, human health criteria, other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances criteria, and nonanthropogenically affected sediment quality criteria which are used to identify sediments that have no adverse effects on biological resources, and correspond to no significant health risk to humans. Designation determinations using the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 shall be conducted as stipulated in WAC 173-204-310, Sediment quality standards designation procedures.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-300, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-310
Sediment quality standards designation procedures.
Any person may use these procedures to determine a sediment's designation using the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340. Any person who designates test sediments using the procedures of this section shall meet the sampling and testing plan requirements of WAC 173-204-600 and records management requirements of WAC 173-204-610. Test sediments designated using the procedures of this section shall be sampled and analyzed using the Puget Sound protocols or other methods approved by the department, and shall use an appropriate quality assurance/quality control program, as determined by the department. A sediment sample that passes the initial designation procedures is designated as complying with the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, until such time as any person or the department confirms the sediment designation as failing the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340. A sediment sample that fails the initial designation procedures is designated as not complying with the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, until such time as any person or the department confirms the sediment designation as passing the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340. A sediment sample that passes or fails the confirmatory designation procedures is designated as such under the procedures of WAC 173-204-310. Sediments shall be designated with the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 as follows:

(1) Initial designation. Sediments that have been chemically analyzed for the applicable chemical concentration criteria of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 shall be designated as follows:

(a) Sediments with chemical concentrations equal to or less than all the applicable chemical and human health criteria are designated as having no adverse effects on biological resources, and not posing a significant health threat to humans, and pass the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(b) Sediments with chemical concentrations which exceed any one applicable chemical or human health criterion in WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 are designated as having adverse effects on biological resources or posing significant human health threats, and fail the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, pending confirmatory designation.

(2) Confirmatory designation. Any person or the department may confirm the designation of sediments which have either passed or failed initial designation procedures listed in subsection (1) of this section using the applicable biological testing of WAC 173-204-315, as required below. Sediment samples that pass all the required confirmatory biological tests are designated as passing the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, notwithstanding the sediment's previous initial designation under subsection (1) of this section. Any sediment sample which fails any one of the required confirmatory biological tests shall be designated as failing the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, notwithstanding the sediment's previous initial designation under subsection (1) of this section. The confirmatory biological test standards are described below.

(a) To confirm the designation of a sediment which either passed or failed any applicable chemical concentration criterion established in WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, the sediment shall be tested for:

(i) Two of the acute effects biological tests described in the applicable standards of WAC 173-204-315; and

(ii) One of the chronic effects biological tests described in the applicable standards of WAC 173-204-315.

(b) Sediments with chemical concentrations which either passed or failed any applicable human health criterion of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 shall be eligible for confirmatory designation as follows: Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(3) Initial and confirmatory designation of sediments which contain other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances. Sediments which contain other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances, as defined in WAC 173-204-200(16), shall be designated by the department using the following procedures.

(a) The department shall:

(i) Identify individual contaminants of concern;

(ii) Identify appropriate and practicable sampling and analysis methodologies;

(iii) Identify test interpretation standards for initial and confirmatory designation; and

(iv) Identify acceptable levels of sediment contamination for sediments which contain other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances.

(b) Where sediment containing other toxic, radioactive, biological or deleterious substances may also be contaminated by chemicals identified in WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, the department shall require application of the appropriate tests and standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, as determined by the department, in addition to any requirements developed pursuant to (a) of this subsection.

(c) The department may use all or some of the sediment biological tests of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 to designate sediments with other toxic, radioactive, biological or deleterious substances in cases where those tests are technically appropriate, as determined by the department.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-310, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-315
Confirmatory marine sediment biological tests.
(1) The following five acute and chronic effects biological tests shall be used to confirm designation of Puget Sound marine sediments using the procedures described in WAC 173-204-310(2). Use of alternate biological tests shall be subject to the review and approval of the department using the procedures of WAC 173-204-130(4).

(a) Acute effects tests.

(i) Amphipod: Ten-day mortality sediment bioassay for the Amphipod, i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, or Eohaustorius estuarius.

(ii) Larval: Any one of the following mortality/abnormality sediment bioassays:

(A) Crassostrea gigas, i.e., Pacific oyster;

(B) Mytilus (edulis) galloprovincialis, i.e., Blue mussel;

(C) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, i.e., Purple sea urchin;

(D) Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, i.e., Green sea urchin; or

(E) Dendraster excentricus, i.e., Sand dollar.

(b) Chronic effects tests.

(i) Benthic infaunal abundance: Abundance of the following major taxa: Class Crustacea, Class Polychaeta, and Phylum Mollusca.

(ii) Juvenile polychaete: Twenty-day growth rate of the juvenile polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata; or

(iii) Microtox saline extract: Decreased luminescence from the bacteria Vibrio fisheri after a fifteen minute exposure.

(2) Performance standards for control and reference sediment biological test results. The biological tests of this section shall not be considered valid unless test results for the appropriate control and reference sediments meet the performance standards of (a) through (e) of this subsection. The department may reject the results of a reference sediment biological test based on unacceptably high variability.

(a) Amphipod: The control sediment shall have less than ten percent mortality over the test period. The reference sediment shall have less than twenty-five percent mortality.

(b) Larval: The seawater control sample shall have less than thirty percent combined abnormality and mortality (i.e., a seventy percent normal survivorship at time-final).

(c) Benthic abundance: The reference benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage shall be representative of areas of Puget Sound removed from significant sources of contaminants, and to the extent possible shall have the following characteristics:

(i) The taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates and the abundances of higher taxonomic groups shall reflect seasonality and natural physical-chemical conditions (e.g., grain size composition and salinity of sediments, water depth) in a reference area, and not be obviously depressed as a result of chemical toxicity;

(ii) Normally abundant species that are known to be sensitive to chemical contaminants shall be present;

(iii) Normally rare species that are known to become abundant only under chemically disturbed conditions shall be rare or absent; and

(iv) The abundances of normally rare species that control community structure through physical modification of the sediment shall be similar to those observed at the test sediment site.

(d) Juvenile polychaete: The control sediment shall have less than ten percent mortality and mean individual growth of = 0.72 mg/ind/day per dry weight basis. The reference sediment shall have a mean individual growth rate which is at least eighty percent of the mean individual growth rate found in the control sediment. Control sediments exhibiting growth below 0.72 mg/ind/day may be approved by the department on a case-by-case basis.

(e) Microtox: Reserved: The department shall determine performance standards on a case-by-case basis as necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-315, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-315, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-320
Marine sediment quality standards.
(1) Goal and applicability.

(a) The sediment quality standards of this section shall correspond to a sediment quality that will result in no adverse effects, including no acute or chronic adverse effects on biological resources and no significant health risk to humans.

(b) The marine sediment quality standards of this section shall apply to marine sediments located within Puget Sound as defined in WAC 173-204-200(19).

(c) Non-Puget Sound marine sediment quality standards. Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(2) Chemical concentration criteria. The chemical concentrations in Table I establish the marine sediment quality standards chemical criteria for designation of sediments.

(a) Where laboratory analysis indicates a chemical is not detected in a sediment sample, the detection limit shall be reported and shall be at or below the Marine Sediment Quality Standards chemical criteria value set in this table.

(b) Where chemical criteria in this table represent the sum of individual compounds or isomers, the following methods shall be applied:

(i) Where chemical analyses identify an undetected value for every individual compound/isomer then the single highest detection limit shall represent the sum of the respective compounds/isomers; and

(ii) Where chemical analyses detect one or more individual compound/isomers, only the detected concentrations will be added to represent the group sum.

(c) The listed chemical parameter criteria represent concentrations in parts per million, "normalized," or expressed, on a total organic carbon basis. To normalize to total organic carbon, the dry weight concentration for each parameter is divided by the decimal fraction representing the percent total organic carbon content of the sediment.

(d) The LPAH criterion represents the sum of the following "low molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon" compounds: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, and Anthracene. The LPAH criterion is not the sum of the criteria values for the individual LPAH compounds as listed.

(e) The HPAH criterion represents the sum of the following "high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon" compounds: Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benz(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Total Benzofluoranthenes, Benzo(a)pyrene, Indeno(1,2,3,-c,d)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and Benzo(g,h,i)perylene. The HPAH criterion is not the sum of the criteria values for the individual HPAH compounds as listed.

(f) The TOTAL BENZOFLUORANTHENES criterion represents the sum of the concentrations of the "B," "J," and "K" isomers.




Table I


Marine Sediment Quality Standards

-- Chemical Criteria



CHEMICAL

PARAMETER MG/KG DRY WEIGHT

(PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) DRY)
ARSENIC 57
CADMIUM 5.1
CHROMIUM 260
COPPER 390
LEAD 450
MERCURY 0.41
SILVER 6.1
ZINC 410


CHEMICAL

PARAMETER MG/KG ORGANIC CARBON

(PPM CARBON)
LPAH 370
NAPHTHALENE 99
ACENAPHTHYLENE 66
ACENAPHTHENE 16
FLUORENE 23
PHENANTHRENE 100
ANTHRACENE 220
2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE 38
HPAH 960
FLUORANTHENE 160
PYRENE 1000
BENZ(A)ANTHRACENE 110
CHRYSENE 110
TOTAL BENZOFLUORANTHENES 230
BENZO(A)PYRENE 99
INDENO (1,2,3,-C,D) PYRENE 34
DIBENZO (A,H) ANTHRACENE 12
BENZO(G,H,I)PERYLENE 31
1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE 2.3
1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE 3.1
1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE 0.81
HEXACHLOROBENZENE 0.38
DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 53
DIETHYL PHTHALATE 61
DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE 220
BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE 4.9
BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE 47
DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE 58
DIBENZOFURAN 15
HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 3.9
N-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE 11
TOTAL PCB'S 12


CHEMICAL

PARAMETER UG/KG DRY WEIGHT

(PARTS PER BILLION (PPB) DRY)
PHENOL 420
2-METHYLPHENOL 63
4-METHYLPHENOL 670
2,4-DIMETHYL PHENOL 29
PENTACHLOROPHENOL 360
BENZYL ALCOHOL 57
BENZOIC ACID 650

(3) Biological effects criteria. For designation of sediments pursuant to WAC 173-204-310(2), sediments are determined to have adverse effects on biological resources when any one of the confirmatory marine sediment biological tests of WAC 173-204-315(1) demonstrate the following results:

(a) Amphipod: The test sediment has a higher (statistically significant, t test, p=0.05) mean mortality than the reference sediment and the test sediment mean mortality exceeds twenty-five percent, on an absolute basis.

(b) Larval: The test sediment has a mean survivorship of normal larvae that is less (statistically significant, t test, p=0.05) than the mean normal survivorship in the reference sediment and the test sediment mean normal survivorship is less than eighty-five percent of the mean normal survivorship in the reference sediment (i.e., the test sediment has a mean combined abnormality and mortality that is greater than fifteen percent relative to time-final in the reference sediment).

(c) Benthic abundance: The test sediment has less than fifty percent of the reference sediment mean abundance of any one of the following major taxa: Class Crustacea, Phylum Mollusca or Class Polychaeta, and the test sediment abundance is statistically different (t test, p=0.05) from the reference sediment abundance.

(d) Juvenile polychaete: The test sediment has a mean individual growth rate of less than seventy percent of the reference sediment mean individual growth rate and the test sediment mean individual growth rate is statistically different (t test, p=0.05) from the reference sediment mean individual growth rate.

(e) Microtox: The mean light output of the highest concentration of the test sediment is less than eighty percent of the mean light output of the reference sediment, and the two means are statistically different from each other (t test, p=0.05).

(4) Marine sediment human health criteria. Reserved: The department may determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(5) Marine sediment other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substances criteria. Other toxic, radioactive, biological or deleterious substances in, or on, sediments shall be at or below levels which cause no adverse effects in marine biological resources, and below levels which correspond to a significant health risk to humans, as determined by the department. The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter pursuant to WAC 173-204-310(3).

(6) Nonanthropogenically affected sediment quality criteria. Whenever the nonanthropogenically affected sediment quality is of a lower quality (i.e., higher chemical concentrations, higher levels of adverse biological response, or posing a greater health threat to humans) than the applicable sediment quality standards assigned for said sediments by this chapter, the existing sediment chemical and biological quality shall be identified on an area-wide basis as determined by the department, and used in place of the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-320, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-320, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-330
Low salinity sediment quality standards.
Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-330, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-340
Freshwater sediment quality standards.
Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-340, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-350
Sediment quality standards inventory.
(1) The department shall gather available data on sediments and produce an inventory of sediment sampling stations which pass or fail the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340. Sediment sampling stations which are evaluated for compliance with the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 and placed on the inventory shall be sampled and analyzed using the Puget Sound Protocols or other methods approved by the department, and shall use an appropriate quality assurance/quality control program, as determined by the department. The sediment quality standards inventory produced per this section shall be used by the department, and made available upon request to the public and other federal, state, and local agencies for the following uses:

(a) To identify and target necessary source control activities, such as discharger monitoring, to eliminate adverse effects on biological resources and significant health threats to humans from sediment contamination;

(b) To identify contaminated sediment cleanup sites per the procedures in WAC 173-204-500 through 173-204-590;

(c) To establish sediment quality ambient monitoring program status and trends analyses and reports;

(d) To identify the sediment quality of areas proposed for dredging, in-water construction, and other actions requiring federal, state, and/or local permits; and

(e) To complete other uses consistent with the intent of this chapter, as determined by the department.

(2) Sources of data. Sediment biological and chemical data shall be gathered by the department for review to produce and update the sediment quality inventory on a biennial basis. Data sources include, but are not limited to:

(a) Sediment data collected by the department for the Puget Sound ambient monitoring program, compliance monitoring of permitted discharges, and special environmental investigations.

(b) Sediment data submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in support of dredging permit applications.

(c) Sediment data collected to identify problem areas and needed source controls in Puget Sound as defined in WAC 173-204-200(19), other marine waters, and all low salinity and freshwater areas in Washington state.

(d) Sediment data used or collected in compliance with chapter 70.105D RCW, and the Model Toxics Control Act cleanup regulation, chapter 173-340 WAC.

(e) Sediment data used or collected in compliance with the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.

(f) Sediment data collected as a requirement of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System or state discharge permit.

(g) Sediment data derived from other studies including:

(i) Federally sponsored monitoring studies.

(ii) Special monitoring studies conducted by local and municipal governments, or private industry.

(iii) Data derived through Washington state department of natural resources administration of use authorizations.

(3) The inventory shall be updated and made available to the public on a biennial basis.



[Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-350, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-400
General considerations.
(1) The standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 specify a process for managing sources of sediment contamination. These procedures include:

(a) Evaluating the potential for a waste discharge to create a sediment impact;

(b) Requiring application for a sediment impact zone authorization;

(c) Verifying whether a discharge has received all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment prior to discharge, and/or application of best management practices;

(d) Analysis and verification of the potential sediment impact;

(e) Determining whether the sediment impact zone would meet maximum allowable contamination requirements;

(f) Evaluating the proposed sediment impact zone in consideration of locational criteria;

(g) Design and/or constrain the sediment impact zone to be as small, and with the least contamination, as practicable; (continued)