CCLME.ORG - Sediment management standards
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(h) Public review of the proposed sediment impact zone authorization;

(i) Issuance of the sediment impact zone authorization with provisions for maintenance and closure; and

(j) Reducing and eventually eliminating the sediment impact zone via renewals and modifications of a sediment impact zone authorization.

(2) Permits and other authorizations of wastewater, storm water, and nonpoint source discharges to surface waters of the state of Washington under authority of chapter 90.48 RCW shall be conditioned so that the discharge receives all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment, and best management practices prior to discharge, as required by chapters 90.48, 90.52, and 90.54 RCW. The department shall provide consistent guidance on the collection, analysis and evaluation of wastewater, receiving-water, and sediment samples to meet the intent of this section using consideration of pertinent sections of the Department of Ecology Permit Writers' Manual, as amended, and other guidance approved by the department.

(3) As determined necessary, the department shall require any person who proposes a new discharge to evaluate the potential for the proposed discharge to cause a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(4) As determined necessary, the department shall require existing permitted discharges to evaluate the potential for the permitted discharge to cause a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(5) Within permits authorizing existing discharges to surface waters of the state of Washington, the department may specify appropriate locations and methodologies for the collection and analysis of representative samples of wastewater, receiving-water, and sediments to evaluate the potential for the discharge to cause a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340.

(6) In establishing the need for, and the appropriate, individual permit monitoring conditions, the department shall consider multiple factors relating to the potential for a discharge to cause a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 including but not limited to:

(a) Discharge particulate characteristics;

(b) Discharge contaminant concentrations, flow, and loading rate;

(c) Sediment chemical concentration and biological effects levels;

(d) Receiving water characteristics;

(e) The geomorphology of sediments;

(f) Cost mitigating factors such as the available resources of the discharger; and

(g) Other factors determined necessary by the department.

(7) As determined necessary to ensure the wastewater discharge does not cause a violation of the applicable standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, except as authorized by the department under WAC 173-204-415, Sediment impact zones, the department shall stipulate permit terms and conditions which include wastewater discharge average and maximum mass loading per unit time, and wastewater discharge average and maximum chemical concentrations within new and existing facility permits authorizing wastewater discharges to surface waters of the state of Washington.

(8) As determined necessary, the department shall modify wastewater discharge permits whenever it appears the discharge causes a violation, or creates a substantial potential to cause a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, as authorized by RCW 90.48.520.

(9) To meet the intent of this section, the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 and the sediment impact zone standards of WAC 173-204-415 through 173-204-420 are not considered to be federal discharge permit effluent limits subject to antibacksliding requirements of the federal Clean Water Act. Discharge permit sediment monitoring and sediment impact zone compliance requirements may be used to establish effluent limits sufficient to meet the standards of this chapter.

(10) As determined necessary, the department shall use issuance of administrative actions under authority of chapters 90.48 or 70.105D RCW to implement this chapter.

(11) Wastewater dilution zones. Water quality mixing zones authorized by the department pursuant to chapter 173-201A WAC, Water quality standards for surface waters of the state of Washington, do not satisfy the standards of WAC 173-204-415, Sediment impact zones.

(12) For the sediment source control standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420, any and all references to violation of, potential to violate, exceedance of, or potential to exceed the applicable standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 shall also apply to the antidegradation and designated use policies of WAC 173-204-120. Any exceedances or potential exceedances of the antidegradation or designated use policies of WAC 173-204-120 shall meet the applicable requirements of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420.

(13) Under no circumstances shall the provisions of sediment source control standards WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 be construed as providing for the relaxation of discharge permit requirements under other authorities including, but not limited to, chapter 90.48 RCW, the Water Pollution Control Act, chapter 90.54 RCW, the Water Resources Act of 1971, and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and amendments.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-400, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-400, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-410
Sediment quality goal and sediment impact zone applicability.
(1) Goal and policies.

(a) It is the established goal of the department to manage source control activities to reduce and ultimately eliminate adverse effects on biological resources and significant health threats to humans from sediment contamination.

(b) The stated policy of the department shall be to only authorize sediment impact zones so as to minimize the number, size, and adverse effects of all zones, with the intent to eliminate the existence of all such zones whenever practicable. The department shall consider the relationship between environmental effects, technical feasibility and cost in determining whether it is practicable to minimize and/or eliminate sediment impact zones.

(c) The department shall implement the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 so as to prevent the creation of new contaminated sediment cleanup sites identified under WAC 173-204-530(4).

(2) A sediment impact zone authorization issued by the department under the authority of chapter 90.48 RCW does not constitute authorization to trespass on lands not owned by the applicant. These standards do not address and in no way alter the legal rights, responsibilities, or liabilities of the permittee or landowner of the sediment impact zone for any applicable requirements of proprietary, real estate, tort, and/or other laws not directly expressed as a requirement of this chapter.

(3) Except as identified in subsection (6)(d) of this section, any person may apply for a sediment impact zone under the following conditions:

(a) The person's discharge is provided with all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment, and meets best management practices as stipulated by the department; and

(b) The person's discharge activity exposes or resuspends sediments which exceed, or otherwise cause or potentially cause sediments to exceed the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, or the antidegradation policy standards of WAC 173-204-120 (1)(a) and (c) within a period of ten years from the later date of either the department's formal approval of the application for a sediment impact zone authorization or the starting date of the discharge.

(4) The department shall only authorize sediment impact zones for permitted wastewater and storm water discharges, and other discharges authorized by the department. The department shall authorize all sediment impact zones via discharge permits or other formal administrative actions.

(5) The department shall not limit the application, establishment, maintenance, or closure of an authorized sediment impact zone via consideration of sediment contamination determined by the department to be the result of unknown, unpermitted or historic discharge sources.

(6) As determined necessary by the department, any person with a permitted discharge shall be required to meet the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420, as follows:

(a) Any person with a new or existing permitted wastewater discharge shall be required to meet the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420;

(b) Any person with a new or existing permitted industrial storm water discharge, regulated as process wastewater in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System or state discharge permits, shall be required to meet the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420;

(c) Any person with a new or existing permitted storm water or nonpoint source discharge, which fully uses all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment, and best management practices as stipulated by the department at the time of the person's application for a sediment impact zone, shall be required to meet the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420;

(d) Any person with a storm water discharge, existing prior to the adoption of this chapter, and determined by the department to not be fully using best management practices stipulated by the department at the time of the person's application for a permit from the department, shall be eligible for a sediment impact zone as follows:

(i) The department shall issue sediment impact zone authorizations with requirements for application of best management practices stipulated by the department on an approved time schedule.

(ii) Sediment impact zones authorized by the department for permitted storm water discharges under the applicability provisions of subsection (6)(d) of this section shall be subject to cleanup action determinations made by the department pursuant to WAC 173-204-500 through 173-204-590 when the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 are exceeded within the authorized sediment impact zone.

(iii) The department shall identify and include best management practices required to meet the sediment impact zone design standards of WAC 173-204-415(4) as soon as practicable within sediment impact zone authorizations established for storm water discharges per WAC 173-204-410 (6)(d).

(7) Dredged material and fill discharge activities subject to authorization under Section 401 of the federal Clean Water Act via chapter 90.48 RCW and chapter 173-225 WAC, establishment of implementation procedures of application for certification, are not subject to the standards of WAC 173-204-415 but are subject to the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-410 and 173-204-420 as follows:

(a) Requirements for dredging activities and disposal sites shall be established by the department using best available dredged material management guidelines and applicable federal and state rules. These guidelines shall include the Puget Sound dredged disposal analysis (PSDDA) dredged material testing and disposal requirements cited in:

(i) Management Plan Report - Unconfined Open-Water Disposal Of Dredged Material, Phase I, (Central Puget Sound), June 1988, or as amended;

(ii) Management Plan Report - Unconfined Open-Water Disposal Of Dredged Material, Phase II, (North And South Puget Sound), September 1989, or as amended; and

(iii) Users Manual For Dredged Material Management In Puget Sound, November 1990, or as amended.

(b) In coordination with other applicable federal and state and local dredged material management programs, the department may issue administrative orders to establish approved disposal sites, to specify disposal site use conditions, and to specify disposal site monitoring requirements.

(c) The department may authorize sediment impact zones for dredged material disposal via federal Clean Water Act Section 401 certification actions.

(d) As determined necessary by the department, the department may authorize sediment impact zones for dredged material disposal via administrative orders issued under authority of chapter 90.48 RCW. The department shall authorize sediment impact zones for all Puget Sound dredged disposal analysis disposal sites via administrative orders issued under authority of chapter 90.48 RCW.

(e) Administrative orders and certifications establishing sediment impact zones for dredged material disposal sites shall describe establishment, maintenance, and closure requirements for the authorized site, consistent with the requirements described in (a) of this subsection.

(8) The source control standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 are applicable in cases where the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 are reserved.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-410, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-410, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-412
Marine finfish rearing facilities.
(1) Purpose. This section sets forth the applicability of this chapter to marine finfish rearing facilities only. This section also identifies marine finfish rearing facility siting, operation, closure and monitoring requirements to meet the intent of this chapter, as applicable.

(2) Applicability. Marine finfish rearing facilities and their associated discharges are not subject to the authority and purpose standards of WAC 173-204-100 (3) and (7), and the marine sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 and the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420, within and including the distance of one hundred feet from the outer edge of the marine finfish rearing facility structure. Marine finfish rearing facilities are not subject to the sediment impact zone standards of WAC 173-204-415.

(3) Sediment monitoring. Sediment quality compliance and monitoring requirements for marine finfish rearing facilities shall be addressed through National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System or other permits issued by the department for facility operation. Marine finfish rearing facilities shall meet the following sediment quality monitoring requirements:

(a) Any person with a new facility shall identify a baseline sediment quality prior to facility operation for benthic infaunal abundance, total organic carbon and grain size in the location of the proposed operation and downcurrent areas that may be potentially impacted by the facility discharge;

(b) Any person with an existing operating facility shall monitor sediment quality for total organic carbon levels and identify the location of any sediments in the area of the facility statistically different (t test, p=0.05) from the total organic carbon levels identified as facility baseline levels or statistically different from the applicable total organic carbon levels as identified in Table 1:


TABLE 1 - Puget Sound Reference Total Organic Carbon Values
Silt-Clay Particles (percent Dry Weight) Total Organic Carbon (percent Dry Weight)
0-20 0.5
20-50 1.7
50-80 3.2
80-100 2.6

(c) The locations and frequency of monitoring for total organic carbon, benthic infaunal abundance and other parameters shall be determined by the department and identified in the applicable National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit;

(d) Antibacterials. Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the methods, procedure, locations, and frequency for monitoring antibacterials associated with the discharge from a marine finfish rearing facility;

(e) Closure. All permitted marine finfish rearing facilities shall monitor sediments impacted during facility operation to document recovery of sediment quality to background levels. The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the methods, procedure, locations, and frequency for monitoring sediments after facility closure.

(4) Sediment impact zones. Marine finfish rearing facilities and their associated discharges that are permitted under a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit are hereby provided a sediment impact zone by rule for any sediment quality impacts and biological effects within and including the distance of one hundred feet from the outer edge of the marine finfish rearing facility structure.

(a) The department may authorize an individual marine finfish rearing facility sediment impact zone for any sediments beyond a distance of one hundred feet from the facility perimeter via National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits or administrative actions. The authorized sediment impact zone shall meet the benthic infaunal abundance requirements of the sediment impact zone maximum criteria, WAC 173-204-420 (3)(c)(iii). Marine finfish rearing facilities that exceed the sediment quality conditions of subsection (3)(b) of this section beyond a distance of one hundred feet from the facility perimeter shall:

(i) Begin an enhanced sediment quality monitoring program to include benthic infaunal abundance consistent with the requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. The sediment quality monitoring program shall include a benthic infaunal abundance reference sediment sample as required in subsection (3)(a) of this section or a benthic infaunal abundance reference sediment sample in compliance with WAC 173-204-200(21); and

(ii) Be consistent with the sediment source control general considerations of WAC 173-204-400 and the sediment quality goal and sediment impact zone applicability requirements of WAC 173-204-410, apply for a sediment impact zone as determined necessary by the department.

(b) Administrative orders or permits establishing sediment impact zones for marine finfish rearing facilities shall describe establishment, maintenance, and closure requirements as determined necessary by the department.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-412, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96.]




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173-204-415
Sediment impact zones.
The purpose of this section is to set forth the standards for establishment, maintenance, and closure of sediment impact zones to meet the intent of sediment quality dilution zones authorized pursuant to RCW 90.48.520, except for sediment impact zones authorized under WAC 173-204-410(7). The department shall authorize all sediment impact zones via discharge permits or other formal administrative actions.

(1) General requirements. Authorization, modification and renewal of a sediment impact zone by the department shall require compliance with the following general requirements:

(a) Permits authorizing wastewater discharges to surface waters of the state of Washington under authority of chapter 90.48 RCW shall be conditioned so that the discharge receives:

(i) All known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment prior to discharge, as required by chapters 90.48, 90.52, and 90.54 RCW; and

(ii) Best management practices as stipulated by the department.

(b) The maximum area, and maximum chemical contaminant concentration and/or allowable maximum biological effect level within sediments assigned to a sediment impact zone shall be as authorized by the department, in accordance with the standards of this section.

(c) The department shall determine that the person's activity generating effluent discharges which require authorization of a sediment impact zone is in the public interest.

(d) The department shall determine that any person's activity generating effluent discharges which require authorization of a sediment impact zone has adequately addressed alternative waste reduction, recycling, and disposal options through application of all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment to minimize as best practicable the volume and concentration of waste contaminants in the discharge.

(e) The area boundaries of the sediment impact zone established by the department shall include the minimum practicable surface area, not to exceed the surface area allowed under subsection (4) of this section.

(f) Adverse effects to biological resources within an authorized sediment impact zone shall be maintained at the minimum chemical contamination and biological effects levels practicable at all times. The department shall consider the relationship between environmental effects, technical feasibility and cost in determining the minimum practicable chemical contamination and biological effects levels. Adverse effects to biological resources within an authorized sediment impact zone shall not exceed a minor adverse effects level as a result of the discharge, as determined by the procedures of subsection (4) of this section.

(g) The operational terms and conditions for the sediment impact zone shall be maintained at all times.

(h) Final closure of the sediment impact zone shall be conducted in strict accordance with the department's sediment impact zone authorization.

(i) Documents authorizing a sediment impact zone shall require that the permitted discharge not result in a violation of the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340, outside the area limits of the established zone.

(j) All applications to the department for sediment impact zone authorizations shall be subject to public notice, comment and hearing procedures defined but not limited to the applicable discharge permit or other formal administrative action requirements of chapter 43.21C RCW, the State Environmental Policy Act, chapter 197-11 WAC, SEPA rules, chapter 90.48 RCW, chapter 163-216 WAC, the State waste discharge permit program, and chapter 173-220 WAC, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Program prior to issuance of the authorization. In determining the need for, location, and/or design of any sediment impact zone authorization, the department shall give consideration to all comments received during public review of the proposed sediment impact zone application.

(2) Application requirements.

(a) Whenever, in the opinion of the department, as a result of an ongoing or proposed effluent discharge, a person violates, shall violate, or creates a substantial potential to violate the sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 as applicable within a period of ten years from the later date of either the department's evaluation of the ongoing discharge or the starting date of the proposed discharge, the department may require application for a sediment impact zone authorization under authority of chapter 90.48 RCW.

(b) Any person with a proposed or permitted effluent discharge shall apply to the department for authorization of a sediment impact zone when:

(i) The department requires the sediment impact zone application by written notification; or

(ii) The person independently identifies that the ongoing or proposed effluent discharge violates, shall violate, or creates a substantial potential to violate the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340 within a period of ten years from the later date of the person's evaluation of the ongoing discharge or the starting date of the proposed discharge, using the procedures of this section.

(c) As necessary, the department may require any person to submit a sediment impact zone application in multiple steps concurrent with its ongoing review and determination concerning the adequacy of the application. The application shall provide the sediment impact zone design information required in subsection (4) of this section and other such information the department determines necessary. The application shall also provide the legal location and landowner(s) of property proposed for use as, or potentially affected by, a sediment impact zone, and shall be accompanied by such other relevant information as the department may require. The department shall issue a written approval of the complete sediment impact zone application prior to or concurrent with authorizing a sediment impact zone.

(d) Submittal of an application to the department for authorization of a sediment impact zone under the terms and conditions of this section shall establish the applicant's interim compliance with requirements of chapter 90.48 RCW and this chapter, as determined by the department. The department may authorize an interim compliance period within a valid discharge permit or administrative order to ensure ultimate compliance with chapter 90.48 RCW and this chapter. The interim compliance period shall not continue beyond the date of issuance of a sediment impact zone authorization within a valid discharge permit issued by the department.

(e) Prior to authorization, the department shall make a reasonable effort to identify and notify all landowners, adjacent landowners, and lessees affected by the proposed sediment impact zone. The department shall issue a sediment impact zone notification letter to any person it believes to be a potentially affected landowner and other parties determined appropriate by the department. The notification letter shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by personal service. The notification letter shall provide:

(i) The name of the person the department believes to be the affected landowner;

(ii) The names and addresses of other affected landowners to whom the department has sent a proposed sediment impact zone notification letter;

(iii) The name and address of the sediment impact zone applicant;

(iv) A general description of the location, size, and contamination level proposed for the sediment impact zone;

(v) The intention of the department to release all specific sediment impact zone application information to the public upon written request to the department;

(vi) The determination of the department concerning whether the proposed sediment impact zone application meets the standards of this section;

(vii) The intention of the department whether to authorize the proposed sediment impact zone; and

(viii) Notification that the affected landowners, adjacent landowners, and lessees may comment on the proposed sediment impact zone. Any comments on the proposed sediment impact zone authorization shall be submitted in writing to the department within thirty days from the date of receipt of the notification letter, unless the department provides an extension.

(f) Prior to authorization, the department shall issue a sediment impact zone notification letter to affected port districts, the Washington state department of natural resources marine lands division, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other parties determined appropriate by the department. The notification letter shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by personal service. The notification letter shall provide the information required under (e) of this subsection.

(3) Locational considerations. The department shall require any person applying for a sediment impact zone to submit information concerning potential location considerations of the zone. The location of an authorized sediment impact zone shall avoid whenever possible and minimize adverse impacts to areas of special importance. Prior to authorization of a sediment impact zone, the department shall consider all pertinent information from the applicant, all affected parties, local, state and federal agencies, federally recognized Indian tribes, and the public concerning locational considerations, including but not limited to:

(a) Spawning areas;

(b) Nursery areas;

(c) Waterfowl feeding areas;

(d) Shellfish harvest areas;

(e) Areas used by species of economic importance;

(f) Tribal areas of significance;

(g) Areas determined to be ecologically unique;

(h) Water supply intake areas;

(i) Areas used for primary contact public recreation;

(j) High quality waters that constitute an outstanding national resource; and

(k) Areas where sediment quality is substantially better than levels necessary for protection of biological resources and human health.

(4) Design requirements. The location, areal limitations, and degree of effects allowed within an authorized sediment impact zone shall be determined by application of the department's sediment impact zone computer models "CORMIX," "PLUMES," and/or "WASP," or an alternate sediment impact zone model(s) approved by the department under WAC 173-204-130(4), as limited by the standards of this section and the department's best professional judgment. The models shall be used by the department or by the discharger as required by the department, to estimate the impact of any person's wastewater or storm water discharge on the receiving water and sediment quality for a period of ten years from the later date of either the department's formal approval of the application for a sediment impact zone authorization or the starting date of the discharge.

(a) Data requirements. The discharger shall submit the following information to determine requirements for establishment and authorization of a sediment impact zone, as required by the department:

(i) Data reports and analyses results for all samples of wastewater or storm water, receiving water, and sediments collected by the discharger or other parties relating to evaluation of the potential effects of the permitted discharge, as required by WAC 173-204-400.

(ii) Data reports and analyses results determined necessary to:

(A) Apply discharge modeling to the permitted discharge; and

(B) To identify and evaluate potential alternative chemical and biological effects of the discharge on the receiving water and sediments; and

(C) To identify and evaluate potential alternatives to define the areal size and location of a sediment impact zone needed by the discharge.

(iii) Data reports and analyses results from the discharger's application of the "CORMIX," "PLUMES," and/or "WASP" or an alternate sediment impact zone model(s) approved by the department under WAC 173-204-130(4), to the permitted discharge to identify and evaluate:

(A) Potential alternative chemical and biological effects of the discharge on the receiving water and sediments; and

(B) Potential alternatives for the areal distribution and location of a potential sediment impact zone required by the discharge.

(iv) Preferred alternative for closure of the potential sediment impact zone by active removal and/or natural recovery, and identified costs of the preferred closure method.

(b) Overlapping sediment impact zones. Overlapping sediment impact zones, as predicted by the "CORMIX," "PLUMES," and/or "WASP" models or an alternate sediment impact zone model(s) approved by the department under WAC 173-204-130(4), and the department's best professional judgment, shall be authorized only as follows:

(i) The applicable sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 shall not be exceeded as a result of the multiple discharge sediment impact zones overlap; and

(ii) If the department determines that the applicable chemical contaminant concentration and biological effects restrictions of WAC 173-204-420 would be exceeded as a result of the overlap of multiple discharge sediment impact zones, the department may authorize the sediment impact zones after:

(A) Application of a waste load allocation process to the individual permitted discharges to identify individual permit effluent limitations necessary to meet:

(I) The applicable chemical contaminant concentration and biological effects restrictions for sediment impact zones required by this section; and/or

(II) Storm water best management practices required by the department; and

(B) Establishment of individual permit compliance schedules for the multiple permitted discharges to ensure compliance with:

(I) The permit effluent limitations established by the department using the waste load allocation process and best professional judgment; and

(II) The standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420.

(5) Maintenance requirements.

(a) The department shall review sediment impact zone monitoring conducted by the discharger to evaluate compliance with the department's sediment impact zone authorization and the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420. The department may require additional sediment impact zone monitoring when the department determines that any sediment sampling station within an authorized sediment impact zone exceeds the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 or violates the sediment impact zone authorization as a result of the discharge.

(b) Whenever the department can clearly demonstrate that, as a result of an effluent discharge, a discharger violates, shall violate, or creates a substantial potential to violate the department's sediment impact zone authorization, or the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420, the department shall:

(i) Provide written notification and supporting documentation of the department's clear demonstration determination to the affected discharger;

(ii) Establish a reasonable time frame for the affected discharger to either submit a written statement and supporting documentation rebutting the department's clear demonstration determination, or accept the department's determination. The discharger may use the clear demonstration methods identified in (c) of this subsection for rebuttal of the department's clear demonstration; and

(iii) Provide written notification of the department's determination concerning approval or denial of the submitted clear demonstration rebuttal to the discharger.

(c) For the purpose of this section, a clear demonstration shall consist of:

(i) Use of the sediment impact zone model(s) "CORMIX," "PLUMES," and/or "WASP" or other model(s) to demonstrate a discharge(s) is the source of the violation or potential violation; and

(ii) Use of one or more of the following methods to demonstrate a violation of the sediment impact zone authorization or the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420:

(A) Direct sediment sampling. A violation of the sediment impact zone authorization and/or the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 is demonstrated when:

(I) The average chemical concentration for three stations within the sediment impact zone exceeds the sediment impact zone maximum criteria of WAC 173-204-420 due to the discharge source. This concentration average shall not include stations for which complete biological testing information shows that the biological effects requirements of WAC 173-204-420, or the authorized sediment impact zone if applicable, are met; or

(II) The biological effects at each of any three stations within the sediment impact zone exceed the sediment impact zone maximum biological effects criteria of WAC 173-204-420 or the authorized sediment impact zone as applicable, due to the discharge source; or

(B) Monitoring data which demonstrates a chemical contaminant concentration gradient toward the discharge source exists in sediments which violates the sediment impact zone authorization or the standards of WAC 173-204-420; or

(C) A trend analysis of the effluent chemical discharge quality and inplace sediment monitoring data which statistically demonstrates an ongoing violation or substantial potential to violate the sediment impact zone authorization or the standards of WAC 173-204-420; or

(D) Field depositional (e.g., sediment traps) and/or effluent particulate (e.g., centrifuge analysis) data which demonstrate an ongoing violation or substantial potential to violate the sediment impact zone authorization or the standards of WAC 173-204-420; or

(E) Mathematical or computer modeling which demonstrates an ongoing violation or substantial potential to violate the sediment impact zone authorization or the standards of WAC 173-204-420.

(d) The department's response to a clear demonstration of a violation or potential violation shall be to require maintenance activities in the following order:

(i) Require reanalysis of whether the discharger's effluent treatment complies with all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment and best management practices based on the data used to establish the clear demonstration;

(ii) Alter the authorized sediment impact zone size and/or degree of effects consistent with the standards of this section and the results of direct sediment sampling;

(iii) Reduce impacts of the existing or potential violation by requiring additional discharge controls or additional sediment impact zone maintenance activities which can include, but are not limited to:

(A) Dredging and removal of sediments, solely for sediment impact zone maintenance needs or coordinated with maintenance dredging of commercially important areas, e.g., navigational lanes or ship berthing areas;

(B) Dredging, treatment, and replacement of sediments within the sediment impact zone; and/or

(C) Capping of sediments within the sediment impact zone;

(iv) Limit the quantity and/or quality of the existing permitted discharge; and/or

(v) Withdraw the department's sediment impact zone authorization and require final closure of the zone.

(e) All sediment impact zone maintenance actions conducted under this chapter shall provide for landowner review of the maintenance action plans prior to implementation of the action. In cases where the discharger is not able to secure access to lands subject to the sediment impact zone maintenance actions of this subsection, the department may facilitate negotiations or other proceedings to secure access to the lands. Requests for department facilitation of land access shall be submitted to the department in writing by the responsible discharger.

(6) Closure planning and requirements.

(a) The discharger shall select and identify a preferred method for closure of a sediment impact zone in the application required by WAC 173-204-415(2). Closure methods can include either active cleanup and/or natural recovery and monitoring. The department shall incorporate the discharger's identified closure method in the sediment impact zone authorization.

(b) The department may require closure of authorized sediment impact zones when the department determines that:

(i) The discharger has violated the sediment impact zone maintenance standards of subsection (5) of this section; or

(ii) The department determines that:

(A) The wastewater or storm water discharge quality will not violate the applicable sediment quality standards of WAC 173-204-320 through 173-204-340; or

(B) A sediment impact zone is no longer needed or eligible under the standards of WAC 173-204-410 through 173-204-415.

(7) Modification of sediment impact zones. The department may modify sediment impact zone authorization requirements where the nature of a person's activity which generates, transports, disposes, prevents, controls, or treats effluent discharges has substantially changed and been demonstrated to the department's satisfaction. The modification may occur after consideration of the following:

(a) Reduction of effects. Assessment of the discharge activities and treatment methods shall be conducted by the discharger to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the department that:

(i) Elimination of the sediment impact zone is not practicable; and

(ii) Further reduction in any existing or proposed sediment impact zone area size and/or level of contamination or effects is not practicable in consideration of discharge requirements for all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment, best management practices, and applicable waste reduction and recycling provisions.

(b) Alterations. There are substantial alterations or additions to the person's activity generating effluent discharges which require authorization of a sediment impact zone which occur after permit issuance and justify application of permit conditions different from, or absent in, the existing permit.

(c) New information. Sediment impact zones may be modified when new information is received by the department that was not available at the time of permit issuance that would have justified the application of different sediment impact zone authorization conditions.

(d) New regulations. The standards or regulations on which the permit was based have changed by amended standards, criteria, or by judicial decision after the permit was issued.

(e) Changes in technology. Advances in waste control technology that qualify as "all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment" and "best management practices" shall be adopted as permit requirements, as appropriate, in all permits reissued by the department.

(8) Renewal of previously authorized sediment impact zones. Renewal of sediment impact zones previously authorized under the standards of WAC 173-204-410 and this section shall be allowed under the following conditions:

(a) The department determines the discharge activities and treatment methods meet all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment and best management practices as stipulated by the department; and

(b) The discharger demonstrates to the department's satisfaction that the discharge activities comply with the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 and with the existing sediment impact zone authorization; and

(c) Reduction of effects. The discharger conducts an assessment of the permitted discharge activities and treatment methods and demonstrates to the department's satisfaction that:

(i) Elimination of the sediment impact zone is not practicable; and

(ii) A further reduction in any existing or proposed sediment impact zone area size and/or level of contamination is not practicable in consideration of discharge requirements for all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment, best management practices, and applicable waste reduction and recycling provisions.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.220. 96-02-058, 173-204-415, filed 12/29/95, effective 1/29/96. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21C, 70.105D, 90.48, 90.52, 90.54 and 90.70 RCW. 91-08-019 (Order 90-41), 173-204-415, filed 3/27/91, effective 4/27/91.]




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173-204-420
Sediment impact zone maximum criteria.
This section establishes minor adverse effects as the maximum chemical contaminant concentration, maximum health risk to humans, maximum biological effects level, maximum other toxic, radioactive, biological, or deleterious substance level, and maximum nonanthropogenically affected sediment quality level allowed within authorized sediment impact zones due to an existing or proposed discharge. If the department determines that the standards of this section are or will be exceeded as a result of an existing or proposed discharge(s), the department shall authorize a sediment impact zone or modify a sediment impact zone authorization consistent with the standards of WAC 173-204-400 through 173-204-420 such that individual permit effluent limitations, requirements, and compliance time periods are sufficient to meet the standards of this section as applicable.

(1) Applicability.

(a) The marine sediment impact zone maximum chemical criteria, and the marine sediment biological effects criteria, and the marine sediment human health criteria, and the marine sediment other toxic, radioactive, biological or deleterious substance criteria and the marine sediment nonanthropogenically affected sediment criteria of this section shall apply to marine sediments within Puget Sound.

(b) Non-Puget Sound marine sediment impact zone maximum criteria. Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(c) Low salinity sediment impact zone maximum criteria. Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(d) Freshwater sediment impact zone maximum criteria. Reserved: The department shall determine on a case-by-case basis the criteria, methods, and procedures necessary to meet the intent of this chapter.

(2) Puget Sound marine sediment impact zone maximum chemical criteria. The maximum chemical concentration levels that may be allowed within an authorized sediment impact zone due to a permitted or otherwise authorized discharge shall be at or below the chemical levels stipulated in Table II, Sediment Impact Zone Maximum Chemical Criteria, except as provided for by the marine sediment biological effects restrictions of subsection (3) of this section, and any compliance time periods established under WAC 173-204-410 (6)(d) and 173-204-415.

(a) Where laboratory analysis indicates a chemical is not detected in a sediment sample, the detection limit shall be reported and shall be at or below the Marine Sediment Quality Standards chemical criteria value set in WAC 173-204-320(2).

(b) Where chemical criteria in this table represent the sum of individual compounds or isomers, the following methods shall be applied:

(i) Where chemical analyses identify an undetected value for every individual compound/isomer then the single highest detection limit shall represent the sum of the respective compounds/isomers; and

(ii) Where chemical analyses detect one or more individual compound/isomers, only the detected concentrations will be added to represent the group sum.

(c) The listed chemical parameter criteria represent concentrations in parts per million, "normalized," or expressed, on a total organic carbon basis. To normalize to total organic carbon, the dry weight concentration for each parameter is divided by the decimal fraction representing the percent total organic carbon content of the sediment.

(d) The LPAH criterion represents the sum of the following "low molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon" compounds: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, and Anthracene. The LPAH criterion is not the sum of the criteria values for the individual LPAH compounds as listed.

(e) The HPAH criterion represents the sum of the following "high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon" compounds: Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benz(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Total Benzofluoranthenes, Benzo(a)pyrene, Indeno(1,2,3,-c,d)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and Benzo(g,h,i)perylene. The HPAH criterion is not the sum of the criteria values for the individual HPAH compounds as listed.

(f) The TOTAL BENZOFLUORANTHENES criterion represents the sum of the concentrations of the "B," "J," and "K" isomers.




Table II


Puget Sound Marine Sediment Impact Zones

Maximum Chemical Criteria



CHEMICAL

PARAMETER MG/KG DRY WEIGHT

(PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) DRY)
ARSENIC 93
CADMIUM 6.7
CHROMIUM 270
COPPER 390
LEAD 530
MERCURY 0.59
SILVER 6.1
ZINC 960


CHEMICAL

PARAMETER MG/KG ORGANIC CARBON

(PPM CARBON)
LPAH 780
NAPHTHALENE 170
ACENAPHTHYLENE 66
ACENAPHTHENE 57
FLUORENE 79
PHENANTHRENE 480
ANTHRACENE 1200
2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE 64
HPAH 5300
FLUORANTHENE 1200
PYRENE 1400
BENZ(A)ANTHRACENE 270
CHRYSENE 460
TOTAL BENZOFLUORANTHENES 450
BENZO(A)PYRENE 210
INDENO (1,2,3,-C,D) PYRENE 88
DIBENZO (A,H) ANTHRACENE 33
BENZO(G,H,I)PERYLENE 78
1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE 2.3
1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE 9
1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE 1.8
HEXACHLOROBENZENE 2.3
DIMETHYL PHTHALATE 53
DIETHYL PHTHALATE 110
DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE 1700
BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE 64
BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE 78
DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE 4500
DIBENZOFURAN 58
HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 6.2
N-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE 11
TOTAL PCB'S 65


CHEMICAL

PARAMETER UG/KG DRY WEIGHT

(PARTS PER BILLION (PPB) DRY)
PHENOL 1200
2-METHYLPHENOL 63
4-METHYLPHENOL 670
2,4-DIMETHYL PHENOL 29
PENTACHLOROPHENOL 690
BENZYL ALCOHOL 73
BENZOIC ACID 650

(3) Puget Sound marine sediment impact zone maximum biological effects criteria. The maximum biological effects level that may be allowed within an authorized sediment impact zone shall be at or below a minor adverse biological effects level. The acute and chronic effects biological tests of WAC 173-204-315(1) may be used to determine compliance with the minor adverse biological effects restriction within an authorized sediment impact zone as follows: (continued)