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United States Regulations
33 CFR PART 222—ENGINEERING AND DESIGN
Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters
PART 222—ENGINEERING AND DESIGN
Authority: 23 U.S.C. 116(d); delegation in 49 CFR 1.45(b); 33 U.S.C. 467 et seq.; 33 U.S.C. 701, 701b, and 701c–1 and specific legislative authorization Acts and Public Laws listed in appendix E of §222.7.
§ 222.2 Acquisition of lands downstream from spillways for hydrologic safety purposes.
(a) Purpose. This regulation provides guidance on the acquisition of lands downstream from spillways for the purpose of protecting the public from hazards imposed by spillway discharges. Guidance contained herein is in addition to ER 405–2–150.
(b) Applicability. This regulation is applicable to all OCE elements and all field operating agencies having civil works responsibilities.
(c) Reference. ER 405–2–150.
(d) Discussion. A policy of public safety awareness will be adhered to in all phases of design and operation of dam and lake projects to assure adequate security for the general public in areas downstream from spillways. A real estate interest will be required in those areas downstream of a spillway where spillway discharge could create or significantly increase a hazardous condition. The real estate interest will extend downstream to where the spillway discharge would not significantly increase hazards. A real estate interest is not required in areas where flood conditions would clearly be nonhazardous.
(e) Hydrologic criteria. The construction and operation of a dam and spillway may create or aggravate a potential hazard in the spillway discharge area. Therefore, an appropriate solution should be developed in a systematic manner. All pertinent facts need to be considered to assure that the risk to non-Federal interests does not exceed conditions that would prevail without the project. General hydrologic engineering considerations are as follows:
(1) Probability of spillway use. Pool elevation versus probability of filling relationships can change materially after initial construction. Spillway use may be more frequent than anticipated. The infrequent use of a spillway is not a basis for the lack of adequate downstream real estate interest.
(2) Changes in project functions. Water resource needs within river basins change and pool levels may be adjusted to provide more conservation storage, particularly when high-level limited-service spillways are provided. Such changes normally increase spillway use and are to be considered.
(3) Volume and velocity of spillway flow. The amount of flow and destructive force of the flow from a spillway during floods up to the spillway design flood can vary from insignificant to extremely hazardous magnitudes. The severity and area of hazard associated with spillway discharge will vary depending on specific project site conditions. Therefore, the hazard is to be analyzed on a project-by-project basis.
(4) Development within floodway. If development within the floodway downstream from a spillway is not present at the time of project construction, the existence of the reservoir may encourage development. Adverse terrain conditions do not preclude development. Sparse present development is not a basis for lack of real estate acquisition.
(5) Debris movement within floodway. The availability of erodible material in a spillway flow area intensifies the hazards of spillway flow. In fact, debris may be transported to downstream areas that otherwise would not be adversely affected. Extreme erosion may result from high velocities and turbulence. Both debris and erosion must be evaluated and considered.
(6) Flood warning and response potential. Small projects generally have short time periods available to warn downstream inhabitants and may be unattended prior to spillway use. The ability to convince individuals to leave most of their worldly possessions to the ravages of spillway flow may be severely limited. In some cases flood warning systems may be necessary; however, this subject is beyond the scope of this regulation. Warning systems are not an adequate substitute for a real estate interest in lands downstream of spillways.
(7) Location of spillway. Spillways should be located to minimize the hazards associated with their discharge and the total project cost (cost of spillway structure and downstream lands). Spillways, outlet works, stilling basins, and outlet channels should be designed to minimize hazards to downstream interest insofar as is engineeringly and economically reasonable.
(f) Real estate. The real estate interest required downstream of spillways will be adequate to assure carrying out project purposes and to protect non-Federal interest from hazards created by spillway flows. The interest may be either fee or permanent easement. A permanent easement must exclude all overnight and/or permanent habitation, structures subject to damage by spillway flows and activities that would increase the potential hazards. No real estate interest is required for:
(1) Areas where the imposed or aggravated flood condition is non-hazardous. Affected interest should be informed of the nature of the imposed non-hazardous flood condition.
(2) Areas where the construction and operation of a dam and spillway do not increase or create a hazardous condition.
(g) Alternative land uses. In some cases land downstream from spillways can be effectively used for purposes other than hydrologic safety. Therefore, the entire cost of these lands may not be an additional project cost. For example, the lands downstream of a spillway may be used for wildlife management essential to project purposes in lieu of other lands suitable for similar purposes at another location.
(h) Procedural guidance. Procedures regarding the application of the principles outlined in the above paragraphs are as follows:
(1) For various flood magnitudes up to the probable maximum flood determine the “with” and “without project” flood conditions downstream of a dam spillway for the following:
(i) Flooded area.
(ii) Flood depth.
(iii) Flood duration.
(v) Debris and erosion.
(2) Determine the combinations of flood magnitudes and the above flood conditions that could be the most hazardous and/or result in the greatest increase in hazard from “without” to “with project” flood conditions. Designate these combinations of flood magnitude and flood conditions as the critical conditions.
(3) For the critical conditions selected above outline the areas where the project could increase and/or create (impose) one or more of the critical conditions. Areas where spillway flows do not create or increase flood conditions are excluded from further analysis.
(4) Determine where the imposed critical conditions as outlined above would be hazardous and non-hazardous. Non-hazardous areas are defined as those areas where:
(i) Flood depths are maximum of 2 feet in urban and rural areas.
(ii) Flood depths are essentially non-damaging to urban property.
(iii) Flood durations are a maximum of 3 hours in urban areas and 24 hours in agricultural areas.
(iv) Velocities do not exceed 4 feet per second.
(v) Debris and erosion potentials are minimal.
(vi) Imposed flood conditions would be infrequent. That is, the exceedence frequency should be less than 1 percent. Hazardous areas are those where any of the above criteria are exceeded.
(5) Based upon the information developed above and the principles outlined in paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section, decide on the extent of area and estate required for hydrologic safety purposes.
(i) Reporting. Lands to be acquired downstream from spillways and intended purposes will be identified and the cost included in feasibility reports and real estate design memoranda. Additional specific information in support of land acquisition should be provided in Phase I or Phase II general design memoranda (GDM) and dam modernization reports. This information should include topographic maps, area flooded maps, velocities, erosion and debris areas “with” and “without” the project. Real estate boundaries and discussions of items in paragraph (h)(4) are also essential in the GDM's and dam modernization reports.
[43 FR 35481, Aug. 10, 1978. Redesignated at 60 FR 19851, Apr. 21, 1995]
§ 222.3 Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.
(a) Purpose. This regulation prescribes the minimum vertical clearances to be provided when relocating existing or constructing new power and communication lines over waters of reservoir projects.
(b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil Works responsibilities.
(c) References. (1) ER 1180–1–1 (Section 73).
(2) National Electrical Safety Code (ANSI C2), available from IEEE Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, N.J. 08854.
(d) Definitions—(1) Design high water level. The design high water level above which clearances are to be provided shall be either: (i) The elevation of the envelope profile of the 50 year flood, or flood series, routed through the reservoir with a full conservation pool after 50 years of sedimentation, or (ii) the elevation of the top of the flood control pool, whichever is higher.
(2) Low point of line. The low point of the line shall be the elevation of the lowest point of the line taking into consideration all factors including temperature, loading and length of spans as outlined in the National Electrical Safety Code.
(3) Minimum vertical clearance. The minimum vertical clearance shall be the distance from the design high water lever (paragraph (d)(1) of this section) to the low point of the line (paragraph (d)(2) of this section).
(e) Required clearances. Minimum vertical clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs shall not be less than required by section 23, rule 232 of the latest revision of the National Electrical Safety Code (ANSI C2).
(1) In general, minimum vertical clearances shall not be less than shown in Table 232–1, Item 7, of ANSI C2, even for reservoirs or areas not suitable for sailboating or where sailboating is prohibited.
(2) If clearances not in accordance with Table 232–1 of ANSI C2 are proposed, justification for the clearances should be provided.
(f) Navigable waters. For parts of reservoirs that are designated as navigable waters of the United States, greater clearances will be provided if so required. The clearances required over navigable waters are covered by 33 CFR 322.5(i)(2) and are not affected by this regulation.
[43 FR 14013, Apr. 4, 1978. Redesignated at 60 FR 19851, Apr. 21, 1995]
§ 222.4 Reporting earthquake effects.
(a) Purpose. This regulation states policy, defines objectives, assigns functions, and establishes procedures for assuring the structural integrity and operational adequacy of major Civil Works structures following the occurrence of significant earthquakes. It primarily concerns damage surveys following the occurrences of earthquakes.
(b) Applicability. This regulation is applicable to all field operating agencies having Civil Works responsibilities.
(c) References. (1) ER 1110–2–100 (§222.2).
(2) ER 1110–2–1806.
(3) ER 1110–2–8150.
(4) ER 1130–2–419.
(5) State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States—WES Miscellaneous Papers S–73–1—Reports 1 thru 14. Available from U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180.
(d) Policy. Civil Works structures which could be caused to fail or partially fail by an earthquake and whose failure or partial failure would endanger the lives of the public and/or cause substantial property damage, will be evaluated following potentially damaging earthquakes to insure their continued structural stability, safety and operational adequacy. These structures include dams, navigation locks, powerhouses, and appurtenant structures, (intakes, outlet works, buildings, tunnels, paved spillways) which are operated by the Corps of Engineers and for which the Corps is fully responsible. Also included are major levees, floodwalls, and similar facilities designed and constructed by the Corps of Engineers and for whose structural safety and stability the Corps has a public obligation to be aware of although not responsible for their maintenance and operation. The evaluation of these structures will be based upon post-earthquake inspections which will be conducted to detect conditions of significant structural distress and to provide a basis for timely initiation of restorative and remedial measures.
(e) Post-earthquake inspections and evaluation surveys—(1) Limitations of present knowledge. The design of structures for earthquake loading is limited by the infrequent opportunity to compare actual performance with the design. Damage which would affect the function of the project is unlikely if peak accelerations are below 0.1g.; but it cannot be assumed that a structure will not be damaged from earthquake loadings below that for which it was designed. Furthermore, earthquakes have occurred in several parts of the country where significant seismic activity had not been predicted by some seismic zoning maps. This indicates the possibility that earthquake induced loads may not have been adequately considered in the design of older structures.
(2) Types of reportable damage. Many types of structural damage can be induced by ground motion from earthquakes or from large nuclear blasts (which also tend to induce ground vibrations in the more damaging lower frequency ranges). Any post-earthquake change in appearance or functional capability of a major Civil Works structure should be evaluated and reported. Examples are symptoms of induced stresses in buildings made evident by cracked plaster, windows or tile, or in binding of doors or windows; cracked or shifted bridge pier footings or other concrete structures; turbidity or changed static level of water wells; cracks in concrete dams or earth embankments; and misalignment of hydraulic control structures or gates. Induced dynamic loading on earth dams may result in loss of freeboard by settlement, or cause localized quick conditions within the embankment sections or earth foundations. Also, new seepage paths may be opened up within the foundation or through the embankment section. Ground motion induced landslides may occur in susceptible areas of the reservoir rim, causing embankment overtopping by waves and serious damage. All such unusual conditions should be evaluated and reported.
(f) Inspection and evaluation programs. (1) If the project is located in an area where the earthquake causes significant damage (Modified Mercalli Intensity VII or greater) to structures in the vicinity, the Chief, Engineering Division, should be immediately notified and an engineering evaluation and inspection team should be sent to the project.
(2) If the project is located in an area where the earthquake is felt but causes no or insignificant damage (Modified Mercalli Intensity VI or less) to structures in the vicinity of the project, project operations personnel should make an immediate inspection. This inspection should determine: (i) Whether there is evidence of earthquake damage or disturbance, and (ii) whether seismic instrumentation, where present, has been triggered. The Chief, Engineering Division should be notified by phone of the results of the inspection. If damage is observed, which is considered to threaten the immediate safety or operational capability of the project, immediate action should be taken as covered in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. For other situations, the Chief of Engineering Division will determine the need for and urgency for an engineering inspection.
(3) When an engineering inspection of structures is deemed necessary following a significant earthquake, HQDA (DAEN-CWE) WASH DC 20314 will be notified of the inspection program as soon as it is established.
(4) As a general rule, the structures which would be of concern following an earthquake are also the structures which are involved in the inspection program under ER 1110–2–100. Whenever feasible, instrumentation and prototype testing programs undertaken under ER 1110–2–100 to monitor structural performance and under ER 1110–2–8150 to develop design criteria will be utilized in the post-earthquake safety evaluation programs. Additional special types of instrumentation will be incorporated in selected structures in which it may be desirable to measure forces, pressures, loads, stresses, strains, displacements, deflections, or other conditions relating to damage and structural safety and stability in case of an earthquake.
(5) Where determined necessary, a detailed, systematic engineering inspection will be made of the post-earthquake condition of each structure, taking into account its distinctive features. For structures which have incurred earthquake damage a formal technical report will be prepared in a format similar to inspection reports required under ER 1110–2–100. (Exempt from requirements control under paragraph 7–2b, AR 335–15.) The report will include summaries of the instrumentation and other observation data for each inspection, for permanent record and reference purposes. This report will be used to form a basis for major remedial work when required. Where accelerometers or other types of strong motion instruments have been installed, readings and interpretations from these instruments should also be included in the report. The report will contain recommendations for remedial work when appropriate, and will be transmitted through the Division Engineer for review and to HQDA (DAEN-CWE) WASH DC 20314 for review and approval. For structures incurring no damage a simple statement to this effect will be all that is required in the report, unless seismic instrumentation at the project is activated. (See paragraph (h)(4) of this section.)
(g) Training. The dam safety training program covered by paragraph 6 of ER 1130–2–419 should include post-earthquake inspections and the types of damage operations personnel should look for.
(h) Responsibilities. (1) The Engineering Divisions of the District offices will formulate the inspection program, conduct the post-earthquake inspections, process and analyze the data of instrumental and other observations, evaluate the resulting condition of the structures, and prepare the inspection reports. The Engineering division is also responsible for planning special instrumentation felt necessary in selected structures under this program. Engineering Division is responsible for providing the training discussed in paragraph (g) of this section.
(2) The Construction Divisions of the District offices will be responsible for the installation of the earthquake instrumentation devices and for data collection if an earthquake occurs during the construction period.
(3) The Operations Division of the District offices will be responsible for the immediate assessment of earthquake damage and notifying the Chief, Engineering Division as discussed in paragraphs (f)(1) and (2). The Operations Division will also be responsible for earthquake data collection after the construction period in accordance with the instrumental observation programs, and will assist and participate in the post-earthquake inspections.
(4) The U.S. Geological Survey has the responsibility for servicing and collecting all data from strong motion instrumentation at Corps of Engineers dam projects following an earthquake occurrence. However, the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is assigned the responsibility for analyzing and interpreting these earthquake data. Whenever a recordable earthquake record is obtained from seismic instrumentation at a Corps project, the Division will send a report of all pertinent instrumentation data to the Waterways Experiment Station, ATTN: WESGH, P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180. The report on each project should include a complete description of the locations and types of instruments and a copy of the instrumental records from each of the strong motion machines activated. (Exempt from requirements control under paragraph 7–2v, AR 335–15).
(5) The Engineering Divisions of the Division offices will select structures for special instrumentation for earthquake effects, and will review and monitor the data collection, processing, evaluating, and inspecting activities. They will also be specifically responsible for promptly informing HQDA (DAEN-CWE) WASH DC 20314, when evaluation of the condition of the structure or analyses of the instrumentation data indicate the stability of a structure is questionable. (Exempt for requirements control under paragraph 7–2o, AR 335–15.)
(6) Division Engineers are responsible for issuing any supplementary regulations necessary to adapt the policies and instructions herein to the specific conditions within their Division.
(i) Funding. Funding for the evaluation and inspection program will be under the Appropriation 96X3123, Operations and Maintenance, General. Funds required for the inspections, including Travel and Per Diem costs incurred by personnel of the Division office or the Office, Chief of Engineers, will be from allocations made to the various projects for the fiscal year in which the inspection occurs.
[44 FR 43469, July 25, 1979. Redesignated at 60 FR 19851, Apr. 21, 1995]
§ 222.5 Water control management (ER 1110–2–240).
(a) Purpose. This regulation prescribes policies and procedures to be followed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in carrying out water control management activities, including establishment of water control plans for Corps and non-Corps projects, as required by Federal laws and directives.
(b) Applicability. This regulation is applicable to all field operating activities having civil works responsibilities.
(c) References. Appendix A lists U.S. Army Corps of Engineers publications and sections of Federal statutes and regulations that are referenced herein.
(d) Authorities—(1) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects. Authorities for allocation of storage and regulation of projects owned and operated by the Corps of Engineers are contained in legislative authorization acts and referenced project documents. These public laws and project documents usually contain provisions for development of water control plans, and appropriate revisions thereto, under the discretionary authority of the Chief of Engineers. Some modifications in project operation are permitted under congressional enactments subsequent to original project authorization. Questions that require interpretations of authorizations affecting regulation of specific reservoirs will be referred to CDR USACE (DAEN-CWE-HW), WASH DC 20314, with appropriate background information and analysis, for resolution.
(2) Non-Corps projects. The Corps of Engineers is responsible for prescribing flood control and navigation regulations for certain reservoir projects constructed or operated by other Federal, non-Federal or private agencies. There are several classes of such projects: Those authorized by special acts of Congress; those for which licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (formerly Federal Power Commission) provide that operation shall be in accordance with instructions of the Secretary of the Army; those covered by agreements between the operating agency and the Corps of Engineers; and those that fall under the terms of general legislative and administrative provisions. These authorities, of illustrative examples, are described briefly in Appendix B.
(e) Terminology: Water control plans and reservoir regulation schedules. (1) Water control plans include coordinated regulation schedules for project/system regulation and such additional provisions as may be required to collect, analyze and disseminate basic data, prepare detailed operating instructions, assure project safety and carry out regulation of projects in an appropriate manner.
(2) The term “reservoir regulation schedule” refers to a compilation of operating criteria, guidelines, rule curves and specifications that govern basically the storage and release functions of a reservoir. In general, schedules indicate limiting rates of reservoir releases required during various seasons of the year to meet all functional objectives of the particular project, acting separately or in combination with other projects in a system. Schedules are usually expressed in the form of graphs and tabulations, supplemented by concise specifications.
(f) General policies. (1) Water control plans will be developed for reservoirs, locks and dams, reregulation and major control structures and interrelated systems to comform with objectives and specific provisions of authorizing legislation and applicable Corps of Engineers reports. They will include any applicable authorities established after project construction. The water control plans will be prepared giving appropriate consideration to all applicable Congressional Acts relating to operation of Federal facilities, i.e., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (Pub. L. 85–624), Federal Water Project Recreation Act-Uniform Policies (Pub. L. 89–72), National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91–190), and Clean Water Act of 1977 (Pub. L. 95–217). Thorough analysis and testing studies will be made as necessary to establish the optimum water control plans possible within prevailing constraints.
(2) Necessary actions will be taken to keep approved water control plans up-to-date. For this purpose, plans will be subject to continuing and progressive study by personnel in field offices of the Corps of Engineers. These personnel will be professionally qualified in technical areas involved and familiar with comprehensive project objectives and other factors affecting water control. Organizational requirements for water control management are further discussed in ER 1110–2–1400.
(3) Water control plans developed for specific projects and reservoir systems will be clearly documented in appropriate water control manuals. These manuals will be prepared to meet initial requirements when storage in the reservoir begins. They will be revised as necessary to conform with changing requirements resulting from developments in the project area and downstream, improvements in technology, new legislation and other relevant factors, provided such revisions comply with existing Federal regulations and established Corps of Engineers policy.
(4) Development and execution of water control plans will include appropriate consideration for efficient water management in conformance with the emphasis on water conservation as a national priority. The objectives of efficient water control management are to produce beneficial water savings and improvements in the availability and quality of water resulting from project regulation/operation. Balanced resource use through improved regulation should be developed to conserve as much water as possible and maximize all project functions consistent with project/system management. Continuous examination should be made of regulation schedules, possible need for storage reallocation (within existing authority and constraints) and to identify needed changes in normal regulation. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating conditions that could require deviation from normal release schedules as part of drought contingency plans (ER 1110–2–1941).
(5) Adequate provisions for collection, analysis and dissemination of basic data, the formulation of specific project regulation directives, and the performance of project regulation will be established at field level.
(6) Appropriate provisions will be made for monitoring project operations, formulating advisories to higher authorities, and disseminating information to others concerned. These actions are required to facilitate proper regulation of systems and to keep the public fully informed regarding all pertinent water control matters.
(7) In development and execution of water control plans, appropriate attention will be given to project safety in accordance with ER 1130–2–417 and ER 1130–2–419 so as to insure that all water impounding structures are operated for the safety of users of the facilities and the general public. Care will be exercised in the development of reservoir regulation schedules to assure that controlled releases minimize project impacts and do not jeopardize the safety of persons engaged in activities downstream of the facility. Water control plans will include provisions for issuing adequate warnings or otherwise alerting all affected interests to possible hazards from project regulation activities.
(8) In carrying out water control activities, Corps of Engineers personnel must recognize and observe the legal responsibility of the National Weather Service (NWS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), for issuing weather forecasts and flood warnings, including river discharges and stages. River forecasts prepared by the Corps of Engineers in the execution of its responsibilities should not be released to the general public, unless the NWS is willing to make the release or agrees to such dissemination. However, release to interested parties of factual information on current storms or river conditions and properly quoted NWS forecasts is permissible. District offices are encouraged to provide assistance to communities and individuals regarding the impact of forecasted floods. Typical advice would be to provide approximate water surface elevations at locations upstream and downstream of the NWS forecasting stream gages. Announcement of anticipated changes in reservoir release rates as far in advance as possible to the general public is the responsibility of Corps of Engineers water control managers for projects under their jurisdiction.
(9) Water control plans will be developed in concert with all basin interests which are or could be impacted by or have an influence on project regulation. Close coordination will be maintained with all appropriate international, Federal, State, regional and local agencies in the development and execution of water control plans. Effective public information programs will be developed and maintained so as to inform and educate the public regarding Corps of Engineers water control management activities.
(10) Fiscal year budget requests for water control management activities will be prepared and submitted to the Office of the Chief of Engineers in accordance with requirements established in Engineer Circular on Annual Budget Requests for Civil Works Activities. The total annual costs of all activities and facilities that support the water control functions, (excluding physical operation of projects, but including flood control and navigation regulation of projects subject to 33 CFR 208.11) are to be reported. Information on the Water Control Data Systems and associated Communications Category of the Plant Replacement and Improvement Program will be submitted with the annual budget. Reporting will be in accordance with the annual Engineer Circular on Civil Works Operations and Maintenance, General Program.
(g) Responsibilities: US Army Corps of Engineers projects—(1) Preparation of water control plans and manuals. Normally, district commanders are primarily responsible for background studies and for developing plans and manuals required for reservoirs, locks and dams, reregulation and major control structures and interrelated systems in their respective district areas. Policies and general guidelines are prescribed by OCE engineer regulations while specific requirements to implement OCE guidance are established by the division commanders concerned. Master Water Control Manuals for river basins that include more than one district are usually prepared by or under direct supervision of division representatives. Division commanders are responsible for providing such management and technical assistance as may be required to assure that plans and manuals are prepared on a timely and adequate basis to meet water control requirements in the division area, and for pertinent coordination among districts, divisions, and other appropriate entities.
(2) Public involvement and information—(i) Public meeting and public involvement. The Corps of Engineers will sponsor public involvement activities, as appropriate, to appraise the general public of the water control plan. In developing or modifying water control manuals, the following criteria is applicable.
(A) Conditions that require public involvement and public meetings include: Development of a new water control manual that includes a water control plan; or revision or update of a water control manual that changes the water control plan.
(B) Revisions to water control manuals that are administratively or informational in nature and that do not change the water control plan do not require public meetings.
(C) For those conditions described in paragraph (g)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the Corps will provide information to the public concerning proposed water control management decisions at least 30 days in advance of a public meeting. In so doing, a separate document(s) should be prepared that explains the recommended water control plan or change, and provides technical information explaining the basis for the recommendation. It should include a description of its impacts (both monetary and nonmonetary) for various purposes, and the comparisons with alternative plans or changes and their effects. The plan or manual will be prepared only after the public involvement process associated with its development or change is complete.
(D) For those conditions described in paragraph (g)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the responsible division office will send each proposed water control manual to the Army Corps of Engineers Headquarters, Attn: CECW-EH-W for review and comments prior to approval by the responsible division office.
(ii) Information availability. The water control manual will be made available for examination by the general public upon request at the appropriate office of the Corps of Engineers. Public notice shall be given in the event of occurring or anticipated significant changes in reservoir storage or flow releases. The method of conveying this information shall be commensurate with the urgency of the situation and the lead time available.
(3) Authority for approval of plans and manuals. Division commanders are delegated authority for approval of water control plans and manuals, and associated activities.
(4) OCE role in water control activities. OCE will establish policies and guidelines applicable to all field offices and for such actions as are necessary to assure a reasonable degree of consistency in basic policies and practices in all Division areas. Assistance will be provided to field offices during emergencies and upon special request.
(5) Methods improvement and staff training. Division and district commanders are responsible for conducting appropriate programs for improving technical methods applicable to water control activities in their respective areas. Suitable training programs should be maintained to assure a satisfactory performance capability in water control activities. Appropriate coordination of such programs with similar activities in other areas will be accomplished to avoid duplication of effort, and to foster desirable exchange of ideas and developments. Initiative in re-evaluating methods and guidelines previously established in official documents referred to in paragraph (e) of this section is encouraged where needs are evident. However, proposals for major deviations from basic concepts, policies and general practices reflected in official publications will be submitted to CDR USACE (DAEN-CWE) WASH DC 20314 for concurrence or comment before being adopted for substantial application in actual project regulation at field level.
(h) Directives and technical instruction manuals. (1) Directives issued through OCE Engineer Regulations will be used to foster consistency in policies and basic practices. They will be supplemented as needed by other forms of communication.
(2) Engineering Manuals (EM) and Engineer Technical Letters (ETL) are issued by OCE to serve as general guidelines and technical aids in developing water control plans and manuals for individual projects or systems.
(3) EM 1110–2–3600 discusses principles and concepts involved in developing water control plans. Instructions relating to preparation of “Water Control Manuals for speicfic projects” are included. EM 1110–2–3600 should be used as a general guide to water control activities. The instructions are sufficiently flexible to permit adaptation to specific regions. Supplemental information regarding technical methods is provided in numerous documents distributed to field offices as “hydrologic references.”
(4) Special assistance in technical studies is available from the Hydrologic Engineering Center, Corps of Engineers, 609 Second Street, Davis, California 95616 and DAEN-CWE-HW.
(i) Water control manuals for US Army Corps of Engineers projects. (1) As used herein, the term “water control manual” refers to manuals that relate primarily to the functional regulation of an individual project or system of projects. Although such manuals normally include background information concerning physical features of projects, they do not prescribe rules or methods for physical maintenance or care of facilities, which are covered in other documents. (References 15 and 23, Appendix A.)
(2) Water control manuals prepared in substantially the detail and format specified in instructions referred to in paragraph 8 are required for all reservoirs under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers, regardless of the purpose or size of the project. Water Control manuals are also required for lock and dam, reregulation and major control structure projects that are physically regulated by the Corps of Engineers. Where there are several projects in a drainage basin with interrelated purposes, a “Master Manual” shall be prepared. The effects of non-Corps projects will be considered in appropriate detail, including an indication of provisions for interagency coordination.
(3) “Preliminary water control manuals,” for projects regulated by the Corps of Engineers should contain regulation schedules in sufficient detail to establish the basic plan of initial project regulation.
(4) As a general rule, preliminary manuals should be superseded by more detailed interim or “final” manuals within approximately one year after the project is placed in operation.
(5) Each water control manual will contain a section on special regulations to be conducted during emergency situations, including droughts. Preplanned operations and coordination are essential to effective relief or assistance.
(6) One copy of all water control manuals and subsequent revisions shall be forwarded to DAEN-CWE-HW for file purposes as soon as practicable after completion, preferably within 30 days from date of approval at the division level.
(j) Policies and requirements for preparing regulations for non-Corps projects. (1) Division and district commanders will develop water control plans as required by section 7 of the 1944 Flood Control Act, the Federal Power Act and section 9 of Pub. L. 436–83 for all projects located within their areas, in conformance with ER 1110–2–241, 33 CFR part 208. That regulation prescribes the policy and general procedures for regulating reservoir projects capable of regulation for flood control or navigation, except projects owned and operated by the Corps of Engineers; the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico; those under the jurisdiction of the International Joint Commission, United States and Canada, and the Columbia River Treaty. ER 1110–2–241, 33 CFR part 208 permits the promulgation of specific regulations for a project in compliance with the authorizing acts, when agreement on acceptable regulations cannot be reached between the Corps Engineers and the owners. Appendix B provides a summary of the Corps of Engineers responsibilities for prescribing regulations for non-Corps reservoir projects.
(2) Water control plans will be developed and processed as soon as possible for applicable projects already completed and being operated by other entities, including projects built by the Corps of Engineers and turned over to others for operation.
(3) In so far as practicable, water control plans for non-Corps projects should be developed in cooperation with owning/operating agencies involved during project planning stages. Thus, tentative agreements on contents, including pertinent regulation schedules and diagrams, can be accomplished prior to completion of the project.
(4) The magnitude and nature of storage allocations for flood control or navigation purposes in non-Corps projects are governed basically by conditions of project authorizations or other legislative provisions and may include any or all of the following types of storage assignments:
(i) Year-round allocations: Storage remains the same all year.
(ii) Seasonal allocations: Storage varies on a fixed seasonal basis.
(iii) Variable allocations of flood control from year to year, depending on hydrologic parameters, such as snow cover.
(5) Water control plans should be developed to attain maximum flood control or navigation benefits, consistent with other project requirements, from the storage space provided for these purposes. When reservoir storage capacity of the category referred to in paragraph (j)(4)(iii) is utilized for flood control or navigation, jointly with other objectives, the hydrologic parameters and related rules developed under provisions of ER 1110–2–241, 33 CFR part 208 should conform as equitably as possible with the multiple-purpose objectives established in project authorizations and other pertinent legislation.
(6) Storage allocations made for flood control or navigation purposes in non-Corps projects are not subject to modifications by the Corps of Engineers as a prerequisite for prescribing 33 CFR 208.11 regulations. However, regulations developed for use of such storage should be predicated on a mutual understanding between representatives of the Corps and the operating agency concerning the conditions of the allocations in order to assure reasonable achievement of basic objectives intended. In the event field representatives of the Corps of Engineers, and the operating agency are unable to reach necessary agreements after all reasonable possibilities have been explored, appropriate background explanations and recommendations should be submitted to DAEN-CWE-HW for consideration.
(7) The Chief of Engineers is responsible for prescribing regulations for use of flood control or navigation storage and/or project operation under the provisions of the referenced legislative acts. Accordingly, any regulations established should designate the division/district commander who is responsible to the Chief of Engineers as the representative to issue any special instructions required under the regulation. However, to the extent practicable, project regulations should be written to permit operation of the project by the owner without interpretations of the regulations by the designated representative of the Commander during operating periods.
(8) Responsibility for compliance with 33 CFR 208.11 regulations rests with the operating agency. The division or district commander of the area in which the project is located will be kept informed regarding project operations to verify reasonable conformance with the regulations. The Chief of Engineers or his designated representative may authorize or direct deviation from the established water control plan when conditions warrant such deviation. In the event unapproved deviations from the prescribed regulations seem evident, the division or district commander concerned will bring the matter to the attention of the operating agency by appropriate means.
If corrective actions are not taken promptly, the operating agency should be notified of the apparent deviation in writing as a matter of record. Should an impasse arise, in that the project owner or the designated operating entity persists in noncompliance with regulations prescribed by the Corps of Engineers, the Office of Chief Counsel should be advised through normal channels and requested to take necessary measures to assure compliance.
(9) Regulations should contain information regarding the required exchange of basic data between the representative of the operating agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that are pertinent to regulation and coordination of interrelated projects in the region.
(10) All 33 CFR 208.11 regulations shall contain provisions authorizing the operating agency to temporarily deviate from the regulations in the event that it is necessary for emergency reasons to protect the safety of the dam, to avoid health hazards, and to alleviate other critical situations.
(k) Developing and processing regulations for non-Corps projects. Guidelines concerning technical studies and development of regulations are contained in ER 1110–2–241, 33 CFR part 208 and EM 1110–2–3600. Appendix C of this regulation summarizes steps normally followed in developing and processing regulations for non-Corps projects.
(l) Water control during project construction stage. Water control plans discussed in preceding paragraphs are intended primarily for application after the dam, spillway and outlet structures; major relocations; land acquisitions, administrative arrangements and other project requirements have reached stages that permit relatively normal project regulation. With respect to non-Corps projects, regulations normally become applicable when water control agreements have been signed by the designated signatories, subject to special provisions in specific cases. In some instances, implementation of regulations has been delayed by legal provisions, contract limitations, or other considerations. These delays can result in loss of potential project benefits and possible hazards. Accordingly, it is essential that appropriate water control and contingency plans be established for use from the date any storage may accumulate behind a partially completed dam until the project is formally accepted for normal operations. Division commanders shall make certain that construction-stage regulation plans are established and maintained in a timely and adequate manner for projects under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers. In addition, the problems referred to should be discussed with authorities who are responsible for non-Corps projects, with the objective of assuring that such projects operate as safely and effectively as possible during the critical construction stage and any period that may elapse before regular operating arrangements have been established. These special regulation plans should include consideration for protection of construction operations; safety of downstream interests that might be jeopardized by failure of partially completed embankments; requirements for minimizing adverse effects on partially completed relocations or incomplete land acquisition; and the need for obtaining benefits from project storage that can be safely achieved during the construction and early operation period.
(m) Advisories to OCE regarding water control activities—(1) General. Division commanders will keep the Chief of Engineers currently informed of any unusual problems or activities associated with water control that impact on his responsibilities.
(2) Annual division water control management report (RCS DAEN-CWE–16(R1)). Division commanders will submit an annual report on water control management activities within their division. The annual report will be submitted to (DAEN-CWE-HW) by 1 February each year and cover significant activities of the previous water year and a description of activities to be accomplished for the current year. Funding information for water control activities will be provided in the letter of transmittal for in-house use only. The primary objective of this summary is to keep the Chief of Engineers informed regarding overall water management activities Corps-wide, thus providing a basis to carry out OCE responsibilities set forth in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.
(3) Status of water control manuals. A brief discussion shall be prepared annually by each division commander, as a separate section of the annual report on water control management activities discussed in paragraph (m)(2) of this section listing all projects currently in operation in his area, or expected to begin operation within one-year, with a designation of the status of water control manuals. The report should also list projects for which the Corps of Engineers is responsible for prescribing regulations, as defined in ER 1110–2–241, 33 CFR part 208.
(4) Monthly water control charts (RCS DAEN-CWE–6 (R1)). A monthly record of reservoirs/lakes operated by the Corps of Engineers and other agencies, in accordance with 33 CFR 208.11, will be promptly prepared and maintained by district/division commanders in a form readily available for transmittal to the Chief of Engineers, or others, upon request. Record data may be prepared in either graphical form as shown in EM 1110–2–3600, or tabular form as shown in the sample tabulation in Appendix D.
(5) Annual division water quality reports (RCS DAEN-CWE–15). By Executive Order 12088, the President ordered the head of each Executive Agency to be responsible for ensuring that all necessary actions are taken for prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution with respect to Federal facilities and activities under control of the agency. General guidance is provided in references 24 and 25, Appendix A, for carrying out this agency's responsibility. Annual division water quality reports are required by reference 24, Appendix A. The report is submitted in two parts. The first part addresses the division Water quality management plan while the second part presents specific project information. A major objective of this report is to summarize information pertinent to water quality aspects of overall water management responsibilities. The annual division water quality report may be submitted along with the annual report on water control management activities discussed in paragraph 13b above. (continued)