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State
Washington Regulations
Chapter 296-37 WAC Standards for commercial diving operations

Last Update: 8/31/04



DISPOSITIONS OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS CHAPTER
296-37-010 Scope and application. [Section I, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-020 Purpose. [Section II, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-030 Definitions. [Section III, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-040 Appointment and duties of committees. [Section IV, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-050 Classification of apparatus permitted and air purity. [Section V, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-060 Approval of equipment. [Section VI, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-070 Diver registration -- Diver training or experience -- Physical exam and medical history record. [Section VII, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-071 Form # 1. [Form # 1, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-072 Form # 2. [Form # 2, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-080 General requirements, procedures and techniques. [Section VIII, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-081 Form # 3. [Form # 3, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-082 Illustrations of flags and shapes. [Illustrations, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-090 Recompression chamber -- Tables -- Attendant. [Section IX, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-100 Identification. [Section X, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-110 Waiver or variance. [Section XI, effective 2/1/64.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-300 Use of compressors in diving operations. [Rule 101, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-310 Equipment requirements -- Divers air line, check valves, etc. [Rules 102 and 103, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-320 Equipment requirements -- Barge operations. [Rule 104, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-330 Equipment requirements -- Air tools used in underwater operations. [Rule 105, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-340 Equipment requirements -- Inspection. [Rule 106, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-350 Safety rules -- Generally. [Rule 107, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-360 Safety rules -- Suggestions made by diver considered rule to govern. [Rule 108, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-370 Conditions on barge deck. [Rule 109, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-380 Use of two-way telephones. [Rule 110, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-390 Decompression chamber -- When used. [Rule 111, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-395 Special stipulation regarding inexperienced divers and workmen. [Rule 112, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-400 Special stipulation regarding inexperienced divers and workmen -- Diver may choose tender. [Rule 113, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-410 Judgment of diver to take precedent. [Rule 114, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-420 Requirement on all ship surveys. [Rule 115, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-430 Use of flood lights. [Rule 116, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-440 Rules for compressed air operations applicable to diving operations. [Rule 117, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-450 Availability of life preservers. [Rule 118, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.
296-37-460 Care and replacement of equipment. [Rules 119 and 120, filed 3/23/60.] Repealed by 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), filed 10/2/78. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.



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296-37-510
Scope and application.
(1) The requirements included in this vertical chapter shall apply throughout the state wherever diving takes place within the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries. These requirements shall also be applicable to those diving related and supportive work activities not at the diving site but which have a direct effect on the safety of the diving operations. Examples may include but are not limited to: The supply of breathing air or gas; the supply of materials, equipment or supplies required by this chapter; the maintenance of diving equipment.

(2) This standard applies to diving and related support operations conducted in connection with all types of work and employments, including general industry, construction, ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking and longshoring. However, this standard does not apply to any diving operation:

(a) Performed solely for instructional purposes, using open-circuit, compressed-air SCUBA and conducted within the no-decompression limits;

(b) Performed solely for search, rescue, or related public safety purposes by or under the control of a governmental agency; or

(c) Governed by 45 CFR Part 46 (Protection of Human Subjects, United States Department of Health and Human Services) or equivalent rules or regulations established by another federal agency, which regulate research, development, or related purposes involving human subjects.

(d) Defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction and control of a diving program containing at least the following elements:

(i) Diving safety manual which includes at a minimum: Procedures covering all diving operations specific to the program; procedures for emergency care, including recompression and evacuation; and criteria for diver training and certification.

(ii) Diving control (safety) board, with the majority of its members being active divers, which shall at a minimum have the authority to: Approve and monitor diving projects; review and revise the diving safety manual; assure compliance with the manual; certify the depths to which a diver has been trained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and, assure adherence to the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by and is in continuous contact with another diver in the water) for SCUBA diving.

(3) This chapter shall augment the requirements of the general safety and health standard, chapter 296-24 WAC, the general occupational health standard, chapter 296-62 WAC, and safety and health core rules, chapter 296-800 WAC. In instances where this chapter is in direct conflict with the requirements of any general horizontal standard, the requirements of this chapter shall apply.

(4) Hoisting gear used in diving operations shall be inspected and certified as required by chapter 296-56 WAC, safety standards for longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations.

(5) Application in emergencies. An employer may deviate from the requirements of this standard to the extent necessary to prevent or minimize a situation which is likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or major environmental damage, provided that the employer:

(a) Notifies the assistant director of the department of labor and industries in Olympia or the regional administrator for the region within 48 hours of the onset of the emergency situation indicating the nature of the emergency and extent of the deviation from the prescribed regulations; and

(b) Upon request from the authority notified, submits such information in writing.

(6) Employer obligation. The employer shall be responsible for compliance with:

(a) All provisions of this standard of general applicability; and

(b) All requirements pertaining to specific diving modes to the extent diving operations in such modes are conducted.

(7) Alternative requirements for recreational diving instructors and diving guides. Employers of recreational diving instructors and diving guides are not required to comply with the decompression-chamber requirements specified by WAC 296-37-545 (2)(b) and (3)(c)(iii), and WAC 296-37-560 (2)(a) when they meet all of the following conditions:

(a) The instructor or guide is engaging solely in recreational diving instruction or dive-guiding operations;

(b) The instructor or guide is diving within the no-decompression limits in these operations;

(c) The instructor or guide is using a nitrox breathing-gas mixture consisting of a high percentage of oxygen (more than 22% by volume) mixed with nitrogen;

(d) The instructor or guide is using an open-circuit, semiclosed-circuit, or closed-circuit self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA); and

(e) The employer of the instructor or guide is complying with all requirements of Appendix C of this subpart.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 04-18-078, 296-37-510, filed 8/31/04, effective 11/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-37-510, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-37-510, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-510, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 87-02-002 (Order 86-44), 296-37-510, filed 12/26/86; 81-07-048 (Order 81-4), 296-37-510, filed 3/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-510, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-512
Variance and procedure.
Realizing that conditions may exist in operations under which certain state standards will not have practical application, the director of the department of labor and industries or his/her authorized representative may, pursuant to this section, RCW 49.17.080 and/or 49.17.090 and appropriate administrative rules of this state and the department of labor and industries and upon receipt of application and after adequate investigation by the department, permit a variation from these requirements when other means of providing an equivalent measure of protection are afforded. Such variation granted shall be limited to the particular case or cases covered in the application for variance and may be revoked for cause. The permit for variance shall be conspicuously posted on the premises and shall remain posted during the time it is in effect. All requests for variances from safety and health standards included in this or any other chapter of Title 296 WAC, shall be made in writing to the director of the department of labor and industries at Olympia, Washington, or his/her duly authorized representative, or the assistant director, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44600, Olympia, Washington 98504-4600. Variance application forms may be obtained from the department upon request.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-37-512, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-512, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-515
Definitions.
As used in this standard, the listed terms are defined as follows:

(1) "Acfm": Actual cubic feet per minute.

(2) "ASME Code or equivalent": ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, or an equivalent code which the employer can demonstrate to be equally effective.

(3) "ATA": Atmosphere absolute.

(4) "Bell": An enclosed compartment, pressurized (closed bell) or unpressurized (open bell), which allows the diver to be transported to and from the underwater work area and which may be used as a temporary refuge during diving operations.

(5) "Bottom time": The total elapsed time measured in minutes from the time when the diver leaves the surface in descent to the time that the diver begins ascent.

(6) "Bursting pressure": The pressure at which a pressure containment device would fail structurally.

(7) "Cylinder": A pressure vessel for the storage of gases.

(8) "Recompression/decompression chamber": A pressure vessel for human occupancy such as a surface decompression chamber, closed bell, or deep diving system used to decompress divers and to treat decompression sickness.

(9) "Decompression sickness": A condition with a variety of symptoms which may result from gas or bubbles in the tissues of divers after pressure reduction.

(10) "Recompression/decompression table": A profile or set of profiles of depth-time relationships for ascent rates and breathing mixtures to be followed after a specific depth-time exposure or exposures.

(11) "Dive-guiding operations": The leading of groups of trained sports divers, who use open-circuit, semiclosed-circuit, or closed-circuit SCUBA, to local undersea diving locations for recreational purposes.

(12) "Dive location": A surface or vessel from which a diving operation is conducted.

(13) "Dive-location reserve breathing gas": A supply system of air or mixed-gas (as appropriate) at the dive location which is independent of the primary supply system and sufficient to support divers during the planned decompression.

(14) "Dive team": Divers and support employees involved in a diving operation, including the designated person-in-charge.

(15) "Diver": An employee working in water using underwater apparatus which supplies compressed breathing gas at the ambient pressure.

(16) "Diver-carried reserve breathing gas": A diver-carried supply of air or mixed gas (as appropriate) sufficient under standard operating conditions to allow the diver to reach the surface, or another source of breathing gas, or to be reached by a standby diver.

(17) "Diving mode": A type of diving requiring specific equipment, procedures and techniques (SCUBA, surface-supplied air, or mixed gas).

(18) "Fsw": Feet of seawater (or equivalent static pressure head).

(19) "Heavy gear": Diver-worn deep-sea dress including helmet, breastplate, dry suit, weighted shoes.

(20) "Hyperbaric conditions": Pressure conditions in excess of surface pressure.

(21) "Inwater stage": A suspended underwater platform which supports a diver in the water.

(22) "Liveboating": The practice of supporting a surfaced-supplied air or mixed gas diver from a vessel which is underway.

(23) "Mixed-gas diving": A diving mode in which the diver is supplied in the water with a breathing gas other than air.

(24) "No-decompression limits": The depth-time limits of the "no-decompression limits and repetitive dive group designation table for no-decompression air dives," U.S. Navy Diving Manual or equivalent limits which the employer can demonstrate to be equally effective.

(25) "Psi(g)": Pounds per square inch (gauge).

(26) "Recreational diving instruction": The training of diving students in the use of recreational diving procedures and the safe operation of diving equipment, including open-circuit, semiclosed-circuit, or closed-circuit SCUBA during dives.

(27) "Scientific diving" means diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks. Scientific diving does not include performing any tasks usually associated with commercial diving such as: Placing or removing heavy objects underwater; inspection of pipelines and similar objects; construction; demolition; cutting or welding; or the use of explosives.

(28) "SCUBA diving": A diving mode independent of surface supply in which the diver uses open circuit self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

(29) "Standby diver": A diver at the dive location properly equipped and available to assist a diver in the water.

(30) "Surface-supplied air diving": A diving mode in which the diver in the water is supplied from the dive location with compressed air for breathing.

(31) "Treatment table": A depth-time and breathing gas profile designed to treat decompression sickness.

(32) "Umbilical": The composite hose bundle between a dive location and a diver or bell, or between a diver and a bell, which supplies the diver or bell with breathing gas, communications, power, or heat as appropriate to the diving mode or conditions, and includes a safety line between the diver and the dive location.

(33) "Volume tank": A pressure vessel connected to the outlet of a compressor and used as an air reservoir.

(34) "Working pressure": The maximum pressure to which a pressure containment device may be exposed under standard operating conditions.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 04-18-078, 296-37-515, filed 8/31/04, effective 11/1/04. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-515, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 87-02-002 (Order 86-44), 296-37-515, filed 12/26/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-515, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-520
Qualifications of dive team.
(1) General.

(a) Each dive team member shall have the experience or training necessary to perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner.

(b) Each dive team member shall have experience or training in the following:

(i) The use of tools, equipment and systems relevant to assigned tasks;

(ii) Techniques of the assigned diving mode; and

(iii) Diving operations and emergency procedures.

(c) All dive team members shall be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid (American Red Cross standard course or equivalent).

(d) Dive team members who are exposed to or control the exposure of others to hyperbaric conditions shall be trained in diving-related physics and physiology.

(2) Assignments.

(a) Each dive team member shall be assigned tasks in accordance with the employee's experience or training, except that limited additional tasks may be assigned to an employee undergoing training provided that these tasks are performed under the direct supervision of an experienced dive team member.

(b) The employer shall not require a dive team member to be exposed to hyperbaric conditions against the employee's will, except when necessary to complete decompression or treatment procedures.

(c) The employer shall not permit a dive team member to dive or be otherwise exposed to hyperbaric conditions for the duration of any temporary physical impairment or condition which is known to the employer and is likely to affect adversely the safety or health of a dive team member.

(3) Designated person-in-charge.

(a) The employer or an employee designated by the employer shall be at the dive location in charge of all aspects of the diving operation affecting the safety and health of dive team members.

(b) The designated person-in-charge shall have experience and training in the conduct of the assigned diving operation.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-520, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-525
Medical requirements.
(1) General.

(a) The employer shall determine that dive team members who are, or are likely to be, exposed to hyperbaric conditions are medically fit to perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner.

(b) The employer shall provide each dive team member who is, or is likely to be, exposed to hyperbaric conditions with all medical examinations required by this standard.

(c) All medical examinations required by this standard shall be performed by, or under the direction of, a physician at no cost to the employee.

(2) Frequency of medical examinations. Medical examinations shall be provided:

(a) Prior to initial hyperbaric exposure with the employer, unless an equivalent medical examination has been given within the preceding 12 months and the employer has obtained the results of the examination and an opinion from the examining physician of the employee's medical fitness to dive or to be otherwise exposed to hyperbaric conditions;

(b) At one year intervals from the date of initial examination or last equivalent examination; and

(c) After an injury or illness requiring hospitalization of more than twenty-four hours.

(3) Information provided to examining physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(a) A copy of the medical requirements of this standard; and

(b) A summary of the nature and extent of hyperbaric conditions to which the dive team member will be exposed, including diving modes and types of work to be assigned.

(4) Content of medical examinations.

(a) Medical examinations conducted initially and annually shall consist of the following:

(i) Medical history;

(ii) Diving-related work history;

(iii) Basic physical examination;

(iv) The tests required by Table I; and

(v) Any additional tests the physician considers necessary.

(b) Medical examinations conducted after an injury or illness requiring hospitalization of more than 24 hours shall be appropriate to the nature and extent of the injury or illness as determined by the examining physician.



TABLE I


TESTS FOR DIVING MEDICAL EXAMINATION



Test Initial

Examination Annual

Reexamination
Chest X ray . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Visual acuity . . . . . . . . . . . . x x
Color blindness . . . . . . . . . . . . x
EKG: Standard 12L1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hearing test . . . . . . . . . . . . x x
Hematocrit or . . . . . . . . . . . . x x
hemoglobin.
Sickle cell index . . . . . . . . . . . . x
White blood count . . . . . . . . . . . . x x
Urinalysis . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
x


1To be given to the employee once, at age 35 or over.

(5) Physician's written report.

(a) After any medical examination required by this standard, the employer shall obtain a written report prepared by the examining physician containing:

(i) The results of the medical examination; and

(ii) The examining physician's opinion of the employee's fitness to be exposed to hyperbaric conditions, including any recommended restrictions or limitations to such exposure (see WAC 296-37-585).

(b) The employer shall provide the employee with a copy of the physician's written report.

(6) Determination of employee fitness.

(a) The employer shall determine the extent and nature of the dive team member's fitness to engage in diving or be otherwise exposed to hyperbaric conditions consistent with the recommendations in the examining physician's report.

(b) If the examining physician has recommended a restriction or limitation on the dive team member's exposure to hyperbaric conditions, and the affected employee does not concur, a second physician selected by the employee shall render a medical opinion on the nature and extent of the restriction or limitation, if any.

(c) If the recommendation of the second opinion differs from that of the examining (first) physician, and if the employer and employee are unable to agree on the nature and extent of the restriction or limitation, an opinion from a third physician selected by the first two physicians shall be obtained. The employer's determination of the dive team member's fitness shall be consistent with the medical opinion of the third physician, unless the employer and employee reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendation or opinion of at least two of the physicians involved.

(d) Nothing in this procedure shall be construed to prohibit either a dive team member from accepting, or an employer from offering, an assignment which is otherwise consistent with at least one medical opinion while a final determination on the employee's fitness is pending.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-525, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-530
Safe practices manual.
(1) General. The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practices manual which shall be made available at the dive location to each dive team member.

(2) Contents.

(a) The safe practices manual shall contain a copy of this standard and the employer's policies for implementing the requirements of this standard.

(b) For each diving mode engaged in, the safe practices manual shall include:

(i) Safety procedures and checklists for diving operations;

(ii) Assignments and responsibilities of the dive team members;

(iii) Equipment procedures and checklists; and

(iv) Emergency procedures for fire, equipment failure, adverse environmental conditions, and medical illness and injury.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-530, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-535
Predive procedures.
(1) General. The employer shall comply with the following requirements prior to each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Emergency aid. A list shall be kept at the dive location of the telephone or call numbers of the following:

(a) An operational decompression chamber (if not at the dive location);

(b) Accessible hospitals;

(c) Available physicians;

(d) Available means of transportation; and

(e) The nearest U.S. Coast Guard Rescue Coordination Center.

(3) First-aid supplies.

(a) A first-aid kit appropriate for the diving operation and approved by a physician shall be available at the dive location.

(b) When used in a decompression chamber or bell, the first-aid kit shall be suitable for use under hyperbaric conditions.

(c) In addition to any other first-aid supplies, an American Red Cross standard first-aid handbook or equivalent, and a bag-type manual resuscitator with transparent mask and tubing shall be available at the dive location.

(4) Planning and assessment. Planning of a diving operation shall include an assessment of the safety and health aspects of the following:

(a) Diving mode;

(b) Surface and underwater conditions and hazards;

(c) Breathing gas supply (including reserves);

(d) Thermal protection;

(e) Diving equipment and systems;

(f) Dive team assignments and physical fitness of dive team members (including any impairment known to the employer);

(g) Repetitive dive designation or residual inert gas status of dive team members;

(h) Decompression and treatment procedures (including altitude corrections); and

(i) Emergency procedures.

(5) Hazardous activities. To minimize hazards to the dive team, diving operations shall be coordinated with other activities in the vicinity which are likely to interfere with the diving operation.

(6) Employee briefing.

(a) Dive team members shall be briefed on:

(i) The tasks to be undertaken;

(ii) Safety procedures for the diving mode;

(iii) Any unusual hazards or environmental conditions likely to affect the safety of the diving operation; and

(iv) Any modifications to operating procedures necessitated by the specific diving operation.

(b) Prior to making individual dive team member assignments, the employer shall inquire into the dive team member's current state of physical fitness, and indicate to the dive team member the procedure for reporting physical problems or adverse physiological effects during and after the dive.

(7) Equipment inspection. The breathing gas supply system including reserve breathing gas supplies, masks, helmets, thermal protection, and bell handling mechanism (when appropriate) shall be inspected prior to each dive.

(8) Warning signal. When diving from surfaces other than vessels in areas capable of supporting marine traffic, a rigid replica of the international code flag "A" at least one meter in height shall be displayed at the dive location in a manner which allows all-round visibility, and shall be illuminated during night diving operations.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-535, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-540
Procedures during dive.
(1) General. The employer shall comply with the following requirements which are applicable to each diving operation unless otherwise specified.

(2) Water entry and exit.

(a) A means capable of supporting the diver shall be provided for entering and exiting the water.

(b) The means provided for exiting the water shall extend below the water surface.

(c) A means shall be provided to assist an injured diver from the water or into a bell.

(3) Communications.

(a) An operational two-way voice communication system shall be used between:

(i) Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member at the dive location or bell (when provided or required); and

(ii) The bell and the dive location.

(b) An operational, two-way communication system shall be available at the dive location to obtain emergency assistance.

(4) Decompression tables. Decompression, repetitive, and no-decompression tables (as appropriate) shall be at the dive location.

(5) Dive profiles. A depth-time profile, including when appropriate any breathing gas changes, shall be maintained for each diver during the dive including decompression.

(6) Hand-held power tools and equipment.

(a) Hand-held electrical tools and equipment shall be deenergized before being placed into or retrieved from the water.

(b) Hand-held power tools shall not be supplied with power from the dive location until requested by the diver.

(7) Welding and burning.

(a) A current supply switch to interrupt the current flow to the welding or burning electrode shall be:

(i) Tended by a dive team member in voice communication with the diver performing the welding or burning; and

(ii) Kept in the open position except when the diver is welding or burning.

(b) The welding machine frame shall be grounded.

(c) Welding and burning cables, electrode holders, and connections shall be capable of carrying the maximum current required by the work, and shall be properly insulated.

(d) Insulated gloves shall be provided to divers performing welding and burning operations.

(e) Prior to welding or burning on closed compartments, structures or pipes, which contain a flammable vapor or in which a flammable vapor may be generated by the work, they shall be vented, flooded, or purged with a mixture of gases which will not support combustion.

(8) Explosives.

(a) Employers shall transport, store, and use explosives in accordance with this section and applicable provisions of chapter 296-52 WAC.

(b) Electrical continuity of explosive circuits shall not be tested until the diver is out of the water.

(c) Explosives shall not be detonated while the diver is in the water.

(9) Termination of dive. The working interval of a dive shall be terminated when:

(a) A diver requests termination;

(b) A diver fails to respond correctly to communications or signals from a dive team member;

(c) Communications are lost and can not be quickly reestablished between the diver and a dive team member at the dive location, and between the designated person-in-charge and the person controlling the vessel in liveboating operations; or

(d) A diver begins to use diver-carried reserve breathing gas or the dive-location reserve breathing gas.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-540, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-545
Postdive procedures.
(1) General. The employer shall comply with the following requirements which are applicable after each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Precautions.

(a) After the completion of any dive, the employer shall:

(i) Check the physical condition of the diver;

(ii) Instruct the diver to report any physical problems or adverse physiological effects including symptoms of decompression sickness;

(iii) Advise the diver of the location of a decompression chamber which is ready for use; and

(iv) Alert the diver to the potential hazards of flying after diving.

(b) For any dive outside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100 fsw or using mixed gas as a breathing mixture, the employer shall instruct the diver to remain awake and in the vicinity of the decompression chamber which is at the dive location for at least one hour after the dive (including decompression or treatment as appropriate).

(3) Recompression capability.

(a) A decompression chamber capable of recompressing the diver at the surface to a minimum of 165 fsw (6 ATA) shall be available at the dive location for:

(i) Surface-supplied air diving to depths deeper than 100 fsw and shallower than 220 fsw;

(ii) Mixed gas diving shallower than 300 fsw; or

(iii) Diving outside the no-decompression limits shallower than 300 fsw.

(b) A decompression chamber capable of recompressing the diver at the surface to the maximum depth of the dive shall be available at the dive location for dives deeper than 300 fsw.

(c) The decompression chamber shall be:

(i) Dual-lock;

(ii) Multiplace; and

(iii) Located within five minutes of the dive location.

(d) The decompression chamber shall be equipped with:

(i) A pressure gauge for each pressurized compartment designed for human occupancy;

(ii) A built-in-breathing-system with a minimum of one mask per occupant;

(iii) A two-way voice communication system between occupants and a dive team member at the dive location;

(iv) A viewport; and

(v) Illumination capability to light the interior.

(e) Treatment tables, treatment gas appropriate to the diving mode, and sufficient gas to conduct treatment shall be available at the dive location.

(f) A dive team member shall be available at the dive location during and for at least one hour after the dive to operate the decompression chamber (when required or provided).

(4) Record of dive.

(a) The following information shall be recorded and maintained for each diving operation:

(i) Names of dive team members including designated person-in-charge;

(ii) Date, time, and location;

(iii) Diving modes used;

(iv) General nature of work performed;

(v) Approximate underwater and surface conditions (visibility, water temperature and current); and

(vi) Maximum depth and bottom time for each diver.

(b) For each dive outside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100 fsw or using mixed gas, the following additional information shall be recorded and maintained:

(i) Depth-time and breathing gas profiles;

(ii) Decompression table designation (including modification); and

(iii) Elapsed time since last pressure exposure if less than 24 hours or repetitive dive designation for each diver.

(c) For each dive in which decompression sickness is suspected or symptoms are evident, the following additional information shall be recorded and maintained:

(i) Description of decompression sickness symptoms (including depth and time of onset); and

(ii) Description and results of treatment.

(5) Decompression procedure assessment. The employer shall:

(a) Investigate and evaluate each incident of decompression sickness based on the recorded information, consideration of the past performance of decompression table used, and individual susceptibility;

(b) Take appropriate corrective action to reduce the probability of recurrence of decompression sickness; and

(c) Prepare a written evaluation of the decompression procedure assessment, including any corrective action taken, within 45 days of the incident of decompression sickness.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-545, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-550
Scuba diving.
(1) General. Employers engaged in scuba diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Limits. SCUBA diving shall not be conducted:

(a) At depths deeper than 130 fsw;

(b) At depths deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits unless a decompression chamber is ready for use;

(c) Against currents exceeding one knot unless line-tended; or

(d) In enclosed or physically confining spaces unless line-tended.

(3) Procedures.

(a) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water.

(b) A diver shall be line-tended from the surface, or accompanied by another diver in the water in continuous visual contact during the diving operations.

(c) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when diving is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces and shall have positive means of communication with the diver or divers within the space.

(d) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for each diver consisting of:

(i) A manual reserve (J valve); or

(ii) An independent reserve cylinder with a separate regulator or connected to the underwater breathing apparatus.

(e) The valve of the reserve breathing gas supply shall be in the closed position prior to the dive.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040,[49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-550, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 81-07-048 (Order 81-4), 296-37-550, filed 3/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-550, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-555
Surface-supplied air diving.
(1) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied air diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Limits.

(a) Surface-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be conducted to depths of 220 fsw.

(b) A decompression chamber shall be ready for use at the dive location for any dive outside the no-decompression limits or deeper than 100 fsw.

(c) A bell shall be used for dives with an inwater decompression time greater than 120 minutes, except when heavy gear is worn or diving is conducted in physically confining spaces.

(3) Procedures.

(a) Each diver shall be continuously tended while in the water.

(b) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when diving is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.

(c) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supply sufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive including decompression.

(d) For dives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits:

(i) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver in the water;

(ii) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water;

(iii) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for each diver except when heavy gear is worn; and

(iv) A dive-location reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided.

(e) For heavy-gear diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits:

(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to the diver in the water shall be available to the standby diver.

(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided to divers in the water.

(f) Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit, a diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided whenever the diver is prevented by the configuration of the dive area from ascending directly to the surface.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-555, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-560
Mixed-gas diving.
(1) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when:

(a) A decompression chamber is ready for use at the dive location; and

(b) A bell is used at depths greater than 220 fsw or when the dive involves inwater decompression time of greater than 120 minutes, except when heavy gear is worn or when diving in physically confining spaces; or

(c) A closed bell is used at depths greater than 300 fsw, except when diving is conducted in physically confining spaces.

(3) Procedures.

(a) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver in the water.

(b) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water.

(c) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when diving is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.

(d) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supply sufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive including decompression.

(e) Each diving operation shall have a dive-location reserve breathing gas supply.

(f) When heavy gear is worn:

(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to the diver in the water shall be available to the standby diver; and

(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided to divers in the water.

(g) An inwater stage shall be provided for divers without access to a bell for dives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits.

(h) When a closed bell is used, one dive team member in the bell shall be available and tend the diver in the water.

(i) Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit, a diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for each diver:

(i) Diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits; or

(ii) Prevented by the configuration of the dive area from directly ascending to the surface.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-560, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-560, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-565
Liveboating.
(1) General. Employers engaged in diving operations involving liveboating shall comply with the following requirements.

(2) Limits. Diving operations involving liveboating shall not be conducted:

(a) With an inwater decompression time of greater than 120 minutes;

(b) Using surface-supplied air at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be conducted to depths of 220 fsw;

(c) Using mixed gas at depths greater than 220 fsw;

(d) In rough seas which significantly impede diver mobility or work function; or

(e) In other than daylight hours.

(3) Procedures.

(a) The propeller of the vessel shall be stopped before the diver enters or exits the water.

(b) A device shall be used which minimizes the possibility of entanglement of the diver's hose in the propeller of the vessel.

(c) Two-way voice communication between the designated person-in-charge and the person controlling the vessel shall be available while the diver is in the water.

(d) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water.

(e) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be carried by each diver engaged in liveboating operations.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-565, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 87-02-002 (Order 86-44), 296-37-565, filed 12/26/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-565, filed 10/2/78.]




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296-37-570
Equipment.
(1) General.

(a) All employers shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(b)Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration or maintenance service shall be recorded by means of a tagging or logging system, and include the date and nature of work performed, and the name or initials of the person performing the work. (continued)