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State
Washington
Chapter 88.46 RCW Vessel oil spill prevention and response

Chapter 88.46 RCW
Vessel oil spill prevention and response



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88.46.010
Definitions.
Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) "Best achievable protection" means the highest level of protection that can be achieved through the use of the best achievable technology and those staffing levels, training procedures, and operational methods that provide the greatest degree of protection achievable. The director's determination of best achievable protection shall be guided by the critical need to protect the state's natural resources and waters, while considering (a) the additional protection provided by the measures; (b) the technological achievability of the measures; and (c) the cost of the measures.

(2) "Best achievable technology" means the technology that provides the greatest degree of protection taking into consideration (a) processes that are being developed, or could feasibly be developed, given overall reasonable expenditures on research and development, and (b) processes that are currently in use. In determining what is best achievable technology, the director shall consider the effectiveness, engineering feasibility, and commercial availability of the technology.

(3) "Cargo vessel" means a self-propelled ship in commerce, other than a tank vessel or a passenger vessel, of three hundred or more gross tons, including but not limited to, commercial fish processing vessels and freighters.

(4) "Bulk" means material that is stored or transported in a loose, unpackaged liquid, powder, or granular form capable of being conveyed by a pipe, bucket, chute, or belt system.

(5) "Covered vessel" means a tank vessel, cargo vessel, or passenger vessel.

(6) "Department" means the department of ecology.

(7) "Director" means the director of the department of ecology.

(8) "Discharge" means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping.

(9)(a) "Facility" means any structure, group of structures, equipment, pipeline, or device, other than a vessel, located on or near the navigable waters of the state that transfers oil in bulk to or from a tank vessel or pipeline, that is used for producing, storing, handling, transferring, processing, or transporting oil in bulk.

(b) A facility does not include any: (i) Railroad car, motor vehicle, or other rolling stock while transporting oil over the highways or rail lines of this state; (ii) retail motor vehicle motor fuel outlet; (iii) facility that is operated as part of an exempt agricultural activity as provided in RCW 82.04.330; (iv) underground storage tank regulated by the department or a local government under chapter 90.76 RCW; or (v) marine fuel outlet that does not dispense more than three thousand gallons of fuel to a ship that is not a covered vessel, in a single transaction.

(10) "Marine facility" means any facility used for tank vessel wharfage or anchorage, including any equipment used for the purpose of handling or transferring oil in bulk to or from a tank vessel.

(11) "Navigable waters of the state" means those waters of the state, and their adjoining shorelines, that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently used, have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce.

(12) "Oil" or "oils" means any naturally occurring liquid hydrocarbons at atmospheric temperature and pressure coming from the earth, including condensate and natural gasoline, and any fractionation thereof, including, but not limited to, crude oil, petroleum, gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, oil sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. Oil does not include any substance listed in Table 302.4 of 40 C.F.R. Part 302 adopted August 14, 1989, under section 101(14) of the federal comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act of 1980, as amended by P.L. 99-499.

(13) "Offshore facility" means any facility located in, on, or under any of the navigable waters of the state, but does not include a facility any part of which is located in, on, or under any land of the state, other than submerged land. "Offshore facility" does not include a marine facility.

(14) "Onshore facility" means any facility any part of which is located in, on, or under any land of the state, other than submerged land, that because of its location, could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment by discharging oil into or on the navigable waters of the state or the adjoining shorelines.

(15)(a) "Owner or operator" means (i) in the case of a vessel, any person owning, operating, or chartering by demise, the vessel; (ii) in the case of an onshore or offshore facility, any person owning or operating the facility; and (iii) in the case of an abandoned vessel or onshore or offshore facility, the person who owned or operated the vessel or facility immediately before its abandonment.

(b) "Operator" does not include any person who owns the land underlying a facility if the person is not involved in the operations of the facility.

(16) "Passenger vessel" means a ship of three hundred or more gross tons with a fuel capacity of at least six thousand gallons carrying passengers for compensation.

(17) "Person" means any political subdivision, government agency, municipality, industry, public or private corporation, copartnership, association, firm, individual, or any other entity whatsoever.

(18) "Ship" means any boat, ship, vessel, barge, or other floating craft of any kind.

(19) "Spill" means an unauthorized discharge of oil into the waters of the state.

(20) "Tank vessel" means a ship that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, and that:

(a) Operates on the waters of the state; or

(b) Transfers oil in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of this state.

(21) "Waters of the state" includes lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, inland waters, underground water, salt waters, estuaries, tidal flats, beaches and lands adjoining the seacoast of the state, sewers, and all other surface waters and watercourses within the jurisdiction of the state of Washington.

(22) "Worst case spill" means: (a) In the case of a vessel, a spill of the entire cargo and fuel of the vessel complicated by adverse weather conditions; and (b) in the case of an onshore or offshore facility, the largest foreseeable spill in adverse weather conditions.


[2000 c 69 1; 1992 c 73 18; 1991 c 200 414.]

Notes: Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.






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88.46.020
Coordination with federal law.
In carrying out the purposes of this chapter, including the adoption of rules for contingency plans, the director shall to the greatest extent practicable implement this chapter in a manner consistent with federal law.


[2000 c 69 2; 1991 c 200 415.]




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88.46.030
Tank vessel inspection programs.
(1) All tank vessels entering the navigable waters of the state shall be subject to inspection to assure that they comply with all applicable federal and state standards.

(2) The department shall review the tank vessel inspection programs conducted by the United States coast guard and other federal agencies to determine if the programs as actually operated by those agencies provide the best achievable protection to the waters of the state. If the department determines that the tank vessel inspection programs conducted by these agencies are not adequate to protect the state's waters, it shall adopt rules for a state tank vessel inspection program. The department shall adopt rules providing for a random review of individual tank vessel inspections conducted by federal agencies. The department may accept a tank vessel inspection report issued by another state if that state's tank vessel inspection program is determined by the department to be at least as protective of the public health and the environment as the program adopted by the department.

(3) The state tank vessel inspection program shall ensure that all tank vessels entering state waters are inspected at least annually. To the maximum extent feasible, the state program shall consist of the monitoring of existing tank vessel inspection programs conducted by the federal government. The department shall consult with the coast guard regarding the tank vessel inspection program. Any tank vessel inspection conducted pursuant to this section shall be performed during the vessel's scheduled stay in port.

(4) Any violation of coast guard or other federal regulations uncovered during a state tank vessel inspection shall be immediately reported to the appropriate agency.


[2000 c 69 3; 1991 c 200 416.]




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88.46.040
Prevention plans.
(1) The owner or operator for each tank vessel shall prepare and submit to the department an oil spill prevention plan in conformance with the requirements of this chapter. The plans shall be submitted to the department in the time and manner directed by the department. The spill prevention plan may be consolidated with a spill contingency plan submitted pursuant to RCW 88.46.060. The department may accept plans prepared to comply with other state or federal law as spill prevention plans to the extent those plans comply with the requirements of this chapter. The department, by rule, shall establish standards for spill prevention plans.

(2) The spill prevention plan for a tank vessel or a fleet of tank vessels operated by the same operator shall:

(a) Establish compliance with the federal oil pollution act of 1990 and state and federal financial responsibility requirements, if applicable;

(b) State all discharges of oil of more than twenty-five barrels from the vessel within the prior five years and what measures have been taken to prevent a reoccurrence;

(c) Describe all accidents, collisions, groundings, and near miss incidents in which the vessel has been involved in the prior five years, analyze the causes, and state the measures that have been taken to prevent a reoccurrence;

(d) Describe the vessel operations with respect to staffing standards;

(e) Describe the vessel inspection program carried out by the owner or operator of the vessel;

(f) Describe the training given to vessel crews with respect to spill prevention;

(g) Establish compliance with federal drug and alcohol programs;

(h) Describe all spill prevention technology that has been incorporated into the vessel;

(i) Describe the procedures used by the vessel owner or operator to ensure English language proficiency of at least one bridge officer while on duty in waters of the state;

(j) Describe relevant prevention measures incorporated in any applicable regional marine spill safety plan that have not been adopted and the reasons for that decision; and

(k) Include any other information reasonably necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter required by rules adopted by the department.

(3) The department shall only approve a prevention plan if it provides the best achievable protection from damages caused by the discharge of oil into the waters of the state and if it determines that the plan meets the requirements of this section and rules adopted by the department.

(4) Upon approval of a prevention plan, the department shall provide to the person submitting the plan a statement indicating that the plan has been approved, the vessels covered by the plan, and other information the department determines should be included.

(5) The approval of a prevention plan shall be valid for five years. An owner or operator of a tank vessel shall notify the department in writing immediately of any significant change of which it is aware affecting its prevention plan, including changes in any factor set forth in this section or in rules adopted by the department. The department may require the owner or operator to update a prevention plan as a result of these changes.

(6) The department by rule shall require prevention plans to be reviewed, updated, if necessary, and resubmitted to the department at least once every five years.

(7) Approval of a prevention plan by the department does not constitute an express assurance regarding the adequacy of the plan nor constitute a defense to liability imposed under this chapter or other state law.

(8) This section does not authorize the department to modify the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.


[2000 c 69 4; 1991 c 200 417.]




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88.46.050
Vessel screening.
(1) In order to ensure the safety of marine transportation within the navigable waters of the state and to protect the state's natural resources, the department shall adopt rules for determining whether cargo vessels and passenger vessels entering the navigable waters of the state pose a substantial risk of harm to the public health and safety and the environment.

(2) The rules may include:

(a) Examining available information sources for evidence that a cargo or passenger vessel may pose a substantial risk to safe marine transportation or the state's natural resources. Information sources may include: Vessel casualty lists, United States coast guard casualty reports, maritime insurance ratings, the index of contingency plans compiled by the department of ecology, other data gathered by the maritime commission, or any other resources;

(b) Requesting the United States coast guard to deny a cargo vessel or passenger vessel entry into the navigable waters of the state, if the vessel poses a substantial environmental risk;

(c) Notifying the state's spill response system that a cargo or passenger vessel entering the state's navigable waters poses a substantial environmental risk;

(d) Inspecting a cargo or passenger vessel that may pose a substantial environmental risk, to determine whether the vessel complies with applicable state or federal laws. Any vessel inspection conducted pursuant to this section shall be performed during the vessel's scheduled stay in port; and

(e) Enforcement actions.


[2000 c 69 5; 1992 c 73 19; 1991 c 200 418.]

Notes: Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.






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88.46.060
Contingency plans.
(1) Each covered vessel shall have a contingency plan for the containment and cleanup of oil spills from the covered vessel into the waters of the state and for the protection of fisheries and wildlife, shellfish beds, natural resources, and public and private property from such spills. The department shall by rule adopt and periodically revise standards for the preparation of contingency plans. The department shall require contingency plans, at a minimum, to meet the following standards:

(a) Include full details of the method of response to spills of various sizes from any vessel which is covered by the plan;

(b) Be designed to be capable in terms of personnel, materials, and equipment, of promptly and properly, to the maximum extent practicable, as defined by the department, removing oil and minimizing any damage to the environment resulting from a worst case spill;

(c) Provide a clear, precise, and detailed description of how the plan relates to and is integrated into relevant contingency plans which have been prepared by cooperatives, ports, regional entities, the state, and the federal government;

(d) Provide procedures for early detection of spills and timely notification of such spills to appropriate federal, state, and local authorities under applicable state and federal law;

(e) State the number, training preparedness, and fitness of all dedicated, prepositioned personnel assigned to direct and implement the plan;

(f) Incorporate periodic training and drill programs to evaluate whether personnel and equipment provided under the plan are in a state of operational readiness at all times;

(g) Describe important features of the surrounding environment, including fish and wildlife habitat, shellfish beds, environmentally and archaeologically sensitive areas, and public facilities. The departments of ecology, fish and wildlife, and natural resources, and the *office of archaeology and historic preservation, upon request, shall provide information that they have available to assist in preparing this description. The description of archaeologically sensitive areas shall not be required to be included in a contingency plan until it is reviewed and updated pursuant to subsection (9) of this section;

(h) State the means of protecting and mitigating effects on the environment, including fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and other wildlife, and ensure that implementation of the plan does not pose unacceptable risks to the public or the environment;

(i) Establish guidelines for the use of equipment by the crew of a vessel to minimize vessel damage, stop or reduce any spilling from the vessel, and, only when appropriate and only when vessel safety is assured, contain and clean up the spilled oil;

(j) Provide arrangements for the prepositioning of spill containment and cleanup equipment and trained personnel at strategic locations from which they can be deployed to the spill site to promptly and properly remove the spilled oil;

(k) Provide arrangements for enlisting the use of qualified and trained cleanup personnel to implement the plan;

(l) Provide for disposal of recovered spilled oil in accordance with local, state, and federal laws;

(m) Until a spill prevention plan has been submitted pursuant to RCW 88.46.040, state the measures that have been taken to reduce the likelihood that a spill will occur, including but not limited to, design and operation of a vessel, training of personnel, number of personnel, and backup systems designed to prevent a spill;

(n) State the amount and type of equipment available to respond to a spill, where the equipment is located, and the extent to which other contingency plans rely on the same equipment; and

(o) If the department has adopted rules permitting the use of dispersants, the circumstances, if any, and the manner for the application of the dispersants in conformance with the department's rules.

(2)(a) The owner or operator of a tank vessel of three thousand gross tons or more shall submit a contingency plan to the department within six months after the department adopts rules establishing standards for contingency plans under subsection (1) of this section.

(b) Contingency plans for all other covered vessels shall be submitted to the department within eighteen months after the department has adopted rules under subsection (1) of this section. The department may adopt a schedule for submission of plans within the eighteen-month period.

(3)(a) The owner or operator of a tank vessel or of the facilities at which the vessel will be unloading its cargo, or a Washington state nonprofit corporation established for the purpose of oil spill response and contingency plan coverage and of which the owner or operator is a member, shall submit the contingency plan for the tank vessel. Subject to conditions imposed by the department, the owner or operator of a facility may submit a single contingency plan for tank vessels of a particular class that will be unloading cargo at the facility.

(b) The contingency plan for a cargo vessel or passenger vessel may be submitted by the owner or operator of the cargo vessel or passenger vessel, by the agent for the vessel resident in this state, or by a Washington state nonprofit corporation established for the purpose of oil spill response and contingency plan coverage and of which the owner or operator is a member. Subject to conditions imposed by the department, the owner, operator, or agent may submit a single contingency plan for cargo vessels or passenger vessels of a particular class.

(c) A person who has contracted with a covered vessel to provide containment and cleanup services and who meets the standards established pursuant to RCW 90.56.240, may submit the plan for any covered vessel for which the person is contractually obligated to provide services. Subject to conditions imposed by the department, the person may submit a single plan for more than one covered vessel.

(4) A contingency plan prepared for an agency of the federal government or another state that satisfies the requirements of this section and rules adopted by the department may be accepted by the department as a contingency plan under this section. The department shall ensure that to the greatest extent possible, requirements for contingency plans under this section are consistent with the requirements for contingency plans under federal law.

(5) In reviewing the contingency plans required by this section, the department shall consider at least the following factors:

(a) The adequacy of containment and cleanup equipment, personnel, communications equipment, notification procedures and call down lists, response time, and logistical arrangements for coordination and implementation of response efforts to remove oil spills promptly and properly and to protect the environment;

(b) The nature and amount of vessel traffic within the area covered by the plan;

(c) The volume and type of oil being transported within the area covered by the plan;

(d) The existence of navigational hazards within the area covered by the plan;

(e) The history and circumstances surrounding prior spills of oil within the area covered by the plan;

(f) The sensitivity of fisheries and wildlife, shellfish beds, and other natural resources within the area covered by the plan;

(g) Relevant information on previous spills contained in on-scene coordinator reports prepared by the director; and

(h) The extent to which reasonable, cost-effective measures to prevent a likelihood that a spill will occur have been incorporated into the plan.

(6) The department shall approve a contingency plan only if it determines that the plan meets the requirements of this section and that, if implemented, the plan is capable, in terms of personnel, materials, and equipment, of removing oil promptly and properly and minimizing any damage to the environment.

(7) The approval of the contingency plan shall be valid for five years. Upon approval of a contingency plan, the department shall provide to the person submitting the plan a statement indicating that the plan has been approved, the vessels covered by the plan, and other information the department determines should be included.

(8) An owner or operator of a covered vessel shall notify the department in writing immediately of any significant change of which it is aware affecting its contingency plan, including changes in any factor set forth in this section or in rules adopted by the department. The department may require the owner or operator to update a contingency plan as a result of these changes.

(9) The department by rule shall require contingency plans to be reviewed, updated, if necessary, and resubmitted to the department at least once every five years.

(10) Approval of a contingency plan by the department does not constitute an express assurance regarding the adequacy of the plan nor constitute a defense to liability imposed under this chapter or other state law.


[2005 c 78 2; 2000 c 69 6; 1995 c 148 3; 1992 c 73 20; 1991 c 200 419.]

Notes: *Reviser's note: Powers, duties, and functions of the office of archaeology and historic preservation were transferred to the department of archaeology and historic preservation pursuant to 2005 c 333 12.

Effective date -- 1995 c 148 1-3: "Sections 1 through 3 of this act are necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect immediately [April 27, 1995]." [1995 c 148 6.]


Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.







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88.46.062
Nonprofit corporation providing contingency plan Findings Termination of maritime commission.
(1) The legislature finds that there is a need to continue to provide oil spill response and contingency plan coverage for vessels that do not have their own contingency plans that transit the waters of this state. A nonprofit corporation shall be established for the sole purpose of providing oil spill response and contingency plan coverage in compliance with RCW 88.46.060.

(2) The maritime commission may conduct activities and make expenditures necessary for the transition of services presently provided by the commission and its contractors to the nonprofit corporation established pursuant to this section.

(3) Once the nonprofit corporation is established and the transfers under RCW 88.46.063 are completed, the maritime commission may cease operation.


[1995 c 148 1.]

Notes: Effective date -- 1995 c 148 1-3: See note following RCW 88.46.060.






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88.46.063
Nonprofit corporation providing contingency plan Transfer of functions and assets from maritime commission.
All reports, documents, surveys, books, records, files, papers, written materials, tangible property, and assets, including contracts and assessment moneys held by the maritime commission shall be transferred to the nonprofit corporation created under RCW 88.46.062. Funds transferred under this section shall be used for the sole purpose of providing oil spill response and contingency plan coverage and related activities in compliance with RCW 88.46.060. No funds may be transferred under this section until all liabilities of the maritime commission have been provided for or satisfied. All liabilities not provided for or satisfied by the maritime commission before cessation of its operations shall be transferred to the nonprofit corporation at the time the maritime commission's assets are transferred to the corporation.


[1995 c 148 2.]

Notes: Effective date -- 1995 c 148 1-3: See note following RCW 88.46.060.






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88.46.065
Nonprofit corporation providing contingency plan Liability limited.
A nonprofit corporation established for the sole purpose of providing contingency plan coverage for any vessel in compliance with RCW 88.46.060 is entitled to liability protection as provided in this section. Obligations incurred by the corporation and any other liabilities or claims against the corporation may be enforced only against the assets of the corporation, and no liability for the debts or actions of the corporation exists against a director, officer, member, employee, incident commander, agent, contractor, or subcontractor of the corporation in his or her individual or representative capacity. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, neither the directors, officers, members, employees, incident commander[s], or agents of the corporation, nor the business entities by whom they are regularly employed may be held individually responsible for discretionary decisions, errors in judgment, mistakes, or other acts, either of commission or omission, that are directly related to the operation or implementation of contingency plans, other than for acts of gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct. The corporation may insure and defend and indemnify the directors, officers, members, employees, incident commanders, and agents to the extent permitted by chapters 23B.08 and 24.03 RCW. This section does not alter or limit the responsibility or liability of any person for the operation of a motor vehicle.


[1994 sp.s. c 9 853.]

Notes: Severability -- Headings and captions not law -- Effective date -- 1994 sp.s. c 9: See RCW 18.79.900 through 18.79.902.






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88.46.070
Enforcement of prevention plans and contingency plans Determination of violation Order or directive Notice.
(1) The provisions of prevention plans and contingency plans approved by the department pursuant to this chapter shall be legally binding on those persons submitting them to the department and on their successors, assigns, agents, and employees. The superior court shall have jurisdiction to restrain a violation of, compel specific performance of, or otherwise to enforce such plans upon application by the department. The department may issue an order pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW requiring compliance with a contingency plan or a prevention plan and may impose administrative penalties for failure to comply with a plan.

(2) If the director believes a person has violated or is violating or creates a substantial potential to violate the provisions of this chapter, the director shall notify the person of the director's determination by registered mail. The determination shall not constitute an order or directive under RCW 43.21B.310. Within thirty days from the receipt of notice of the determination, the person shall file with the director a full report stating what steps have been and are being taken to comply with the determination of the director. The director shall issue an order or directive, as the director deems appropriate under the circumstances, and shall notify the person by registered mail.

(3) If the director believes immediate action is necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter, the director may issue an order or directive, as appropriate under the circumstances, without first issuing a notice or determination pursuant to subsection (2) of this section. An order or directive issued pursuant to this subsection shall be served by registered mail or personally upon any person to whom it is directed.


[2000 c 69 7; 1992 c 73 21; 1991 c 200 420.]

Notes: Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.






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88.46.080
Unlawful operation of a covered vessel Penalties Evidence of approved contingency plan or prevention plan.
(1) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, it shall be unlawful for the owner or operator to knowingly and intentionally operate in this state or on the waters of this state a covered vessel without an approved contingency plan or an approved prevention plan as required by this chapter, or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990.

(2)(a) The first conviction under this section is a gross misdemeanor under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(b) A second or subsequent conviction is a class C felony under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(3) It shall not be unlawful for the owner or operator to operate a covered vessel if:

(a) The covered vessel is not required to have a contingency plan, spill prevention plan, or financial responsibility;

(b) All required plans have been submitted to the department as required by this chapter and rules adopted by the department and the department is reviewing the plan and has not denied approval; or

(c) The covered vessel has entered state waters after the United States coast guard has determined that the vessel is in distress.

(4) A person may rely on a copy of the statement issued by the department pursuant to RCW 88.46.060 as evidence that a vessel has an approved contingency plan and the statement issued pursuant to RCW 88.46.040 that a vessel has an approved prevention plan.

(5) Any person found guilty of willfully violating any of the provisions of this chapter, or any final written orders or directive of the director or a court in pursuance thereof is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, as provided in chapter 9A.20 RCW, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of up to ten thousand dollars and costs of prosecution, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Each day upon which a willful violation of the provisions of this chapter occurs may be deemed a separate and additional violation.


[2003 c 53 417; 2000 c 69 8; 1992 c 73 22; 1991 c 200 421.]

Notes: Intent -- Effective date -- 2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.

Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.







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88.46.090
Unlawful acts Civil penalty.
(1) Except as provided in subsection (4) of this section, it shall be unlawful for a covered vessel to enter the waters of the state without an approved contingency plan required by RCW 88.46.060, a spill prevention plan required by RCW 88.46.040, or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990. The department may deny entry onto the waters of the state to any covered vessel that does not have a required contingency or spill prevention plan or financial responsibility.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (4) of this section, it shall be unlawful for a covered vessel to transfer oil to or from an onshore or offshore facility that does not have an approved contingency plan required under RCW 90.56.210, a spill prevention plan required by RCW 90.56.200, or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990.

(3) The director may assess a civil penalty of up to one hundred thousand dollars against the owner or operator of a vessel who is in violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section. Each day that the owner or operator of a covered vessel is in violation of this section shall be considered a separate violation.

(4) It shall not be unlawful for a covered vessel to operate on the waters of the state if:

(a) A contingency plan, a prevention plan, or financial responsibility is not required for the covered vessel;

(b) A contingency plan and prevention plan has been submitted to the department as required by this chapter and rules adopted by the department and the department is reviewing the plan and has not denied approval; or

(c) The covered vessel has entered state waters after the United States coast guard has determined that the vessel is in distress.

(5) Any person may rely on a copy of the statement issued by the department to RCW 88.46.060 as evidence that the vessel has an approved contingency plan and the statement issued pursuant to RCW 88.46.040 as evidence that the vessel has an approved spill prevention plan.

(6) Except for violations of subsection (1) or (2) of this section, any person who violates the provisions of this chapter or rules or orders adopted or issued pursuant thereto, shall incur, in addition to any other penalty as provided by law, a penalty in an amount of up to ten thousand dollars a day for each violation. Each violation is a separate offense, and in case of a continuing violation, every day's continuance is a separate violation. Every act of commission or omission which procures, aids, or abets in the violation shall be considered a violation under the provisions of this subsection and subject to penalty. The penalty amount shall be set in consideration of the previous history of the violator and the severity of the violation's impact on public health and the environment in addition to other relevant factors. The penalty shall be imposed pursuant to the procedures set forth in RCW 43.21B.300.


[2000 c 69 9; 1992 c 73 23; 1991 c 200 422.]

Notes: Effective dates -- Severability -- 1992 c 73: See RCW 82.23B.902 and 90.56.905.






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88.46.100
Notification of accidents and near miss incidents.
(1) In order to assist the state in identifying areas of the navigable waters of the state needing special attention, the owner or operator of a covered vessel shall notify the coast guard within one hour:

(a) Of the disability of the covered vessel if the disabled vessel is within twelve miles of the shore of the state; and

(b) Of a collision or a near miss incident within twelve miles of the shore of the state.

(2) The state military department and the department shall request the coast guard to notify the state military department as soon as possible after the coast guard receives notice of a disabled covered vessel or of a collision or near miss incident within twelve miles of the shore of the state. The department shall negotiate an agreement with the coast guard governing procedures for coast guard notification to the state regarding disabled covered vessels and collisions and near miss incidents.

(3) The department shall prepare a summary of the information collected under this section and provide the summary to the regional marine safety committees, the coast guard, and others in order to identify problems with the marine transportation system.

(4) For the purposes of this section:

(a) A tank vessel or cargo vessel is considered disabled if any of the following occur:

(i) Any accidental or intentional grounding;

(ii) The total or partial failure of the main propulsion or primary steering or any component or control system that causes a reduction in the maneuvering capabilities of the vessel;

(iii) An occurrence materially and adversely affecting the vessel's seaworthiness or fitness for service, including but not limited to, fire, flooding, or collision with another vessel;

(iv) Any other occurrence that creates the serious possibility of an oil spill or an occurrence that may result in such a spill.

(b) A barge is considered disabled if any of the following occur:

(i) The towing mechanism becomes disabled;

(ii) The towboat towing the barge becomes disabled through occurrences defined in (a) of this subsection.

(c) A near miss incident is an incident that requires the pilot or master of a covered vessel to take evasive actions or make significant course corrections in order to avoid a collision with another ship or to avoid a grounding as required by the international rules of the road.

(5) Failure of any person to make a report under this section shall not be used as the basis for the imposition of any fine or penalty.


[2000 c 69 10; 1995 c 391 9; 1991 c 200 423.]

Notes: Effective date -- 1995 c 391: See note following RCW 38.52.005.






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88.46.120
Tank vessel response equipment standards.
The department may adopt rules including but not limited to standards for spill response equipment to be maintained on tank vessels. The standards adopted under this section shall be consistent with spill response equipment standards adopted by the United States coast guard.


[2000 c 69 11; 1991 c 200 425.]




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88.46.130
Emergency response system.
An emergency response system for the Strait of Juan de Fuca shall be established by July 1, 1992. In establishing the emergency response system, the *administrator shall consider the recommendations of the regional marine safety committees. The *administrator shall also consult with the province of British Columbia regarding its participation in the emergency response system.


[1991 c 200 426.]

Notes: *Reviser's note: The powers, duties, and functions of the administrator were transferred to the director of ecology by 1991 c 200 430, effective July 1, 1997.






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88.46.160
Refueling, bunkering, or lightering operations Availability of containment and recovery equipment Rules.
Any person or facility conducting ship refueling and bunkering operations, or the lightering of petroleum products, and any person or facility transferring oil between an onshore or offshore facility and a tank vessel shall have containment and recovery equipment readily available for deployment in the event of the discharge of oil into the waters of the state and shall deploy the containment and recovery equipment in accordance with standards adopted by the department. All persons conducting refueling, bunkering, or lightering operations, or oil transfer operations shall be trained in the use and deployment of oil spill containment and recovery equipment. The department shall adopt rules as necessary to carry out the provisions of this section by June 30, 2006. The rules shall include standards for the circumstances under which containment equipment should be deployed including standards requiring deployment of containment equipment prior to the transfer of oil when determined to be safe and effective by the department. The department may require a person or facility to employ alternative measures including but not limited to automatic shutoff devices and alarms, extra personnel to monitor the transfer, or containment equipment that is deployed quickly and effectively. The standards adopted by rule must be suitable to the specific environmental and operational conditions and characteristics of the facilities that are subject to the standards, and the department must consult with the United States coast guard with the objective of developing state standards that are compatible with federal requirements applicable to the activities covered by this section. An onshore or offshore facility shall include the procedures used to contain and recover discharges in the facility's contingency plan. It is the responsibility of the person providing bunkering, refueling, or lightering services to provide any containment or recovery equipment required under this section. This section does not apply to a person operating a ship for personal pleasure or for recreational purposes.


[2004 c 226 3; 2000 c 69 12; 1991 c 200 438; 1987 c 479 2. Formerly RCW 90.48.510.]




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88.46.170
Field operations program Coordination with United States coast guard.
(1) The department shall establish a field operations program to enforce the provisions of this chapter. The field operations program shall include, but is not limited to, the following elements:

(a) Education and public outreach;

(b) Review of lightering and bunkering operations to prevent oil spills;

(c) Evaluation and boarding of tank vessels for compliance with prevention plans prepared pursuant to this chapter;

(d) Evaluation and boarding of covered vessels that may pose a substantial risk to the public health, safety, and the environment;

(e) Evaluation and boarding of covered vessels for compliance with rules adopted by the department to implement recommendations of regional marine safety committees; and

(f) Collection of vessel information to assist in identifying vessels which pose a substantial risk to the public health, safety, and the environment.

(2) The department shall coordinate the field operations program with similar activities of the United States coast guard. To the extent feasible, the department shall coordinate its boarding schedules with those of the United States coast guard to reduce the impact of boardings on vessel operators, to more efficiently use state and federal resources, and to avoid duplication of United States coast guard inspection operations.

(3) In developing and implementing the field operations program, the department shall give priority to activities designed to identify those vessels which pose the greatest risk to the waters of the state. The department shall consult with the marine transportation industry, individuals concerned with the marine environment, other state and federal agencies, and the public in developing and implementing the program required by this section.


[2000 c 69 13; 1993 c 162 1.]

Notes: Severability -- 1993 c 162: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1993 c 162 4.]

Effective date -- 1993 c 162: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1993." [1993 c 162 5.]







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88.46.200
Advisory marine safety committees Recommendations.
The director may appoint ad hoc, advisory marine safety committees to solicit recommendations and technical advice concerning vessel traffic safety. The department may implement recommendations made in regional marine safety plans that are approved by the department and over which the department has authority. If federal authority or action is required to implement the recommendations, the department may petition the appropriate agency or the congress.


[2000 c 69 14; 1994 sp.s. c 9 854.]

Notes: Severability -- Headings and captions not law -- Effective date -- 1994 sp.s. c 9: See RCW 18.79.900 through 18.79.902.






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88.46.900
Captions not law.
Section headings as used in this chapter do not constitute any part of the law.


[1991 c 200 427.]




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88.46.901
Effective dates Severability 1991 c 200.
See RCW 90.56.901 and 90.56.904.






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88.46.921
Office of marine safety abolished.
The office of marine safety is hereby abolished and its powers, duties, and functions are hereby transferred to the department of ecology. All references to the administrator or office of marine safety in the Revised Code of Washington shall be construed to mean the director or department of ecology.


[1991 c 200 430.]

Notes: Expiration date -- 1995 2nd sp.s. c 14 511-523 and 528-533: See note following RCW 43.105.017.

Effective dates -- 1995 2nd sp.s. c 14: See note following RCW 43.105.017.


Effective date -- 1991 c 200 430-436: "Sections 430 through 436 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1997." [(1995 2nd sp.s. c 14 521 expired June 30, 1997); 1991 c 200 1120.]







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88.46.926
Apportionments of budgeted funds.
If apportionments of budgeted funds are required because of the transfers directed by *RCW 88.46.922 through 88.46.925, the director of financial management shall certify the apportionments to the agencies affected, the state auditor, and the state treasurer. Each of these shall make the appropriate transfer and adjustments in funds and appropriation accounts and equipment records in accordance with the certification.


[1991 c 200 435.]

Notes: *Reviser's note: (1) RCW 88.46.922 was repealed by 2000 c 69 37.

(2) RCW 88.46.924 and 88.46.925 were decodified by 2000 c 69 36.

Effective date -- 1991 c 200 430-436: See note following RCW 88.46.921.