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State
California
GC Sec 1-26 GOvernment Code Act

GOVERNMENT CODE
SECTION 1-26





1. This act shall be known as the Government Code.



2. The provisions of this code in so far as they are substantially
the same as existing statutory provisions relating to the same
subject matter shall be construed as restatements and continuations,
and not as new enactments.


3. All persons who at the time this code takes effect, hold office
under any of the acts repealed by this code, which offices are
continued by this code, continue to hold them according to their
former tenure.


4. No action or proceeding commenced before this code takes effect,
and no right accrued, is affected by this code, but all procedure
thereafter taken therein shall conform to the provisions of this code
so far as possible.


5. Unless the provision or the context otherwise requires, these
general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions shall
govern the construction of this code.



6. Title, division, part, chapter, article, and section headings do
not in any manner affect the scope, meaning, or intent of the
provisions of this code.


7. Whenever a power is granted to, or a duty is imposed upon, a
public officer, the power may be exercised or the duty may be
performed by a deputy of the officer or by a person authorized,
pursuant to law, by the officer, unless this code expressly provides
otherwise.



7.5. Whenever, by any law, the director of any state department is
made a member of a state board, commission, or committee, or of the
governing body of any state agency or authority, the director may
designate a deputy director of that department holding a position
specified in subdivision (f) or (g) of Section 4 of Article VII of
the California Constitution to act as such member in his or her place
and stead, to all intents and purposes as though the director were
personally present, including the right of the deputy to be counted
in constituting a quorum, to participate in the proceedings of the
board, commission, committee, or other governing body, and to vote
upon any and all matters. Not more than one director shall be
represented by such a deputy at any meeting or session of a board,
commission, committee, or other governing body. The director so
designating such a deputy shall be responsible for the acts of the
deputy acting under such designation in the same manner and to the
same extent that the director is responsible for the acts of the
deputy performing his or her official duties as deputy director of
the department.



7.6. (a) If by law, any officer whose office is created by the
California Constitution is made a member of a state board,
commission, or committee, or of the governing body of any state
agency or authority, the officer may designate a deputy of his or her
office holding a position specified in subdivision (c) of Section 4
of Article VII of the California Constitution to act as the member in
the constitutional officer's place and stead, to all intents and
purposes as though the constitutional officer was personally
present, including the right of the deputy to be counted in
constituting a quorum, to participate in the proceedings of the
board, commission, committee, or other governing body, and to vote
upon any and all matters. The constitutional officer so designating
a deputy shall be responsible for the acts of the deputy acting under
the designation in the same manner and to the same extent that the
constitutional officer is responsible for the acts of the deputy
performing his or her official duties as a deputy of the office of
the constitutional officer.
(b) The Lieutenant Governor may designate any person in his or her
office holding a position specified in subdivision (c) or (f) of
Section 4 of Article VII of the California Constitution to act as a
deputy for the purposes of this section only. However, the
Lieutenant Governor may not appoint a person to act as a deputy for
him or her at meetings of the Senate, or of the Regents of the
University of California, or of the Trustees of the California State
University.
(c) The Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court may
designate a judge or employee of a state court or an employee of the
Administrative Office of the Courts to act as a deputy for the
purposes of this section.
(d) The Attorney General may also designate any person in his or
her office holding a position specified in subdivision (m) of Section
4 of Article VII of the California Constitution to act as a deputy
for the purpose of this section. However, no person designated by
the Attorney General pursuant to this section to act as a member on
any state board, commission, committee, or governing body of which
the Attorney General is presiding officer shall act as presiding
officer in his or her place.
(e) The Superintendent of Public Instruction may designate any
person in his or her office holding a position specified in Section
2.1 of Article IX of the California Constitution to act as a deputy
for the purposes of this section. However, the Superintendent of
Public Instruction may not appoint a person to act as a deputy for
him or her at meetings of the State Board of Education, of the
Regents of the University of California, or of the Trustees of the
California State University.
(f) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) to (e), inclusive, not more
than one officer subject to this section shall be represented by a
deputy subject to this section at any meeting or session of the State
Lands Commission.



7.7. The provisions of Sections 7.5 and 7.6 do not affect or modify
in any manner the provisions of Section 7.



7.8. Notwithstanding anything in this code to the contrary, the
Directors of Finance, General Services, and Education may appoint any
deputy or assistant director in their respective departments to act
in their place and stead on the State Allocation Board, irrespective
of whether said deputy or assistant director holds a position
specified in subdivision (g) of Section 4 of Article VII of the
California Constitution, and irrespective of whether there shall be
more than one such person representing a director at any meeting of
such board. Such person, while sitting on said board, shall have all
the powers the director he represents would have had, including the
right to be counted in a quorum, the right to participate in the
proceedings of the board and to vote on any and all matters. The
director so designating such a deputy or assistant director shall be
responsible for the acts of the person acting under such designation
in the same manner and to the same extent that the director is
responsible for the acts of the deputy or assistant director
performing his official duties as deputy or assistant director of the
department.



7.9. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the
Controller, the Treasurer, the Director of Finance, or the
Superintendent of Public Instruction may designate any deputy of his
or her office to act in his or her place and stead on any state
board, commission, committee, or governing board of a state agency
with respect to the exercise of statutory powers and duties of any of
those bodies. The deputy, while sitting on a board, commission,
committee, or governing board of a state agency may exercise the same
powers that the Controller, the Treasurer, the Director of Finance,
or the Superintendent of Public Instruction may exercise as if he or
she were personally present. The Controller, the Treasurer, the
Director of Finance, or the Superintendent of Public Instruction so
designating a deputy shall be responsible for the acts of the deputy
acting under the designation in the same manner and to the same
extent that the Controller, the Treasurer, the Director of Finance,
or the Superintendent of Public Instruction is responsible for the
acts of the deputy performing his or her official duties as deputy to
the Controller, the Treasurer, the Director of Finance, or the
Superintendent of Public Instruction.
(b) At the request of the Controller or the Treasurer, two
employees of each officer, who hold permanent civil service status
and have been designated deputies under this section, shall be
classified and compensated as career executives at category level IV
or category level V.
(c) The Superintendent of Public Instruction may not appoint a
person pursuant to subdivision (a) to act as a deputy for him or her
at meetings of the State Board of Education, the Regents of the
University of California, or the Trustees of the California State
University.


7.9a. At the request of the Controller, two employees of that
officer, in addition to those provided for in Section 7.9, shall be
classified and compensated as career executives at category level IV
or category level V.


8. Writing includes any form of recorded message capable of
comprehension by ordinary visual means. Whenever any notice, report,
statement, or record is required or authorized by this code, it
shall be made in writing in the English language unless it is
expressly provided otherwise.



9. Whenever reference is made to any portion of this code or of any
other law of this State, the reference applies to all amendments and
additions now or hereafter made.



10. "Section" means a section of this code unless some other
statute is specifically mentioned. "Subdivision" means a subdivision
of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is
expressly mentioned.


11. The present tense includes the past and future tenses; and the
future, the present.



12. The masculine gender includes the feminine and neuter.



12.5. The Legislature hereby declares its intent that the terms
"man" or "men" where appropriate shall be deemed "person" or "persons"
and any references to the terms "man" or "men" in sections of this
code be changed to "person" or "persons" when such code sections are
being amended for any purpose. This act is declaratory and not
amendatory of existing law.



13. The singular number includes the plural, and the plural the
singular.


14. "Shall" is mandatory and "may" is permissive.



15. "Oath" includes affirmation.



16. "Signature" or "subscription" includes mark when the signer or
subscriber can not write, such signer's or subscriber's name being
written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the
signer's or subscriber's name; but a signature or subscription by
mark can be acknowledged or can serve as a signature or subscription
to a sworn statement only when two witnesses so sign their own names
thereto.



16.5. (a) In any written communication with a public entity, as
defined in Section 811.2, in which a signature is required or used,
any party to the communication may affix a signature by use of a
digital signature that complies with the requirements of this
section. The use of a digital signature shall have the same force
and effect as the use of a manual signature if and only if it
embodies all of the following attributes:
(1) It is unique to the person using it.
(2) It is capable of verification.
(3) It is under the sole control of the person using it.
(4) It is linked to data in such a manner that if the data are
changed, the digital signature is invalidated.
(5) It conforms to regulations adopted by the Secretary of State.
Initial regulations shall be adopted no later than January 1, 1997.
In developing these regulations, the secretary shall seek the advice
of public and private entities, including, but not limited to, the
Department of Information Technology, the California Environmental
Protection Agency, and the Department of General Services. Before
the secretary adopts the regulations, he or she shall hold at least
one public hearing to receive comments.
(b) The use or acceptance of a digital signature shall be at the
option of the parties. Nothing in this section shall require a
public entity to use or permit the use of a digital signature.
(c) Digital signatures employed pursuant to Section 71066 of the
Public Resources Code are exempted from this section.
(d) "Digital signature" means an electronic identifier, created by
computer, intended by the party using it to have the same force and
effect as the use of a manual signature.



17. "Person" includes any person, firm, association, organization,
partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation,
or company.


18. "State" means the State of California, unless applied to the
different parts of the United States. In the latter case, it
includes the District of Columbia and the territories.



19. "County" includes city and county.



20. "City" includes "city and county" and "incorporated town," but
does not include "unincorporated town" or "village."



21. "Town" includes "unincorporated town" and "village."



22. "Process" includes a writ or summons issued in the course of
judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature.



23. If any provision of this code, or the application thereof to
any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the
code, or the application of such provision to other persons or
circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.




24. The Legislature hereby declares its intent that the term
"workmen's compensation" shall hereafter also be known as "workers'
compensation." In furtherance of this policy it is the desire of the
Legislature that references to the term "workmen's compensation" in
this code be changed to "workers' compensation" when such code
sections are being amended for any purpose. This act is declaratory
and not amendatory of existing law.



25. (a) For purposes of this code, "assessed value" means 25
percent of full value to, and including, the 1980-81 fiscal year, and
100 percent of full value for the 1981-82 fiscal year and fiscal
years thereafter; and, tax rates shall be expressed in dollars, or
fractions thereof, on each one hundred dollars ($100) of assessed
value to, and including, the 1980-81 fiscal year and as a percentage
of full value for the 1981-82 fiscal year and fiscal years
thereafter.
(b) Whenever this code requires comparison of assessed values, tax
rates, or property tax revenues for different years, the assessment
ratios and tax rates shall be adjusted as necessary so that the
comparisons are made on the same basis, and the same amount of tax
revenues would be produced, or the same relative value of an
exemption or subvention will be realized regardless of the method of
expressing tax rates or the assessment ratio utilized.
(c) For purposes of expressing tax rates on the same basis, a tax
rate based on a 25 percent assessment ratio and expressed in dollars,
or fractions thereof, for each one hundred dollars ($100) of
assessed value may be multiplied by a conversion factor of
twenty-five hundredths of 1 percent to determine a rate comparable to
a rate expressed as a percentage of full value; and, a rate
expressed as a percentage of full value may be multiplied by a factor
of 400 to determine a rate comparable to a rate expressed in
dollars, or fractions thereof, for each one hundred dollars ($100) of
assessed value and based on a 25 percent assessment ratio.



26. For the purposes of this code, "recycled water" or "reclaimed
water" has the same meaning as recycled water as defined in
subdivision (n) of Section 13050 of the Water Code.