Loading (50 kb)...'
United States Regulations
46 CFR PART 560—ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS
Title 46: Shipping
PART 560—ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS
Authority: 5 U.S.C. 553; secs. 13(b)(6), 15 and 17 of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. app. 1712(b)(6), 1714, and 1716, as amended by Pub. L. 105–258; sec. 10002 of the Foreign Shipping Practices Act of 1988 (46 U.S.C. app. 1710a), as amended by Pub. L. 105–258.
Source: 49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 64 FR 8009, Feb. 18, 1999.
Note: In accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3518(c)(1)(B), and except for investigations undertaken with reference to a category of individuals or entities (e.g., an entire industry), any information request or requirement in this part is not subject to the requirements of section 3507(f) of the Paperwork Reduction Act because such collection of information is pursuant to a civil, administrative action or investigation by an agency of the United States against specific individuals or entities.
§ 560.1 Purpose; general provisions.
(a)(1) It is the purpose of this part to enumerate certain conditions resulting from the action of a common carrier, acting alone or in concert with any person, or a foreign government, which unduly impair the access of a vessel documented under the laws of the United States whether liner, bulk, tramp or other vessel, (hereinafter “U.S. flag vessel”) to ocean trade between foreign ports, which includes intermodal movements, and to establish procedures by which the owner or operator of a U.S. flag vessel (hereinafter “U.S. flag carrier”) may petition the Federal Maritime Commission for relief under the authority of section 13(b)(6)of the Shipping Act of 1984 (“the Act”) (46 U.S.C. app. 1712(b)(6)).
(2) It is the further purpose of this part to indicate the general circumstances under which the authority granted to the Commission under section 13(b)(6)may be invoked, and the nature of the subsequent actions contemplated by the Commission.
(3) This part also furthers the goals of the Act with respect to encouraging the development of an economically sound and efficient U.S. flag liner fleet as stated in section 2 of the Act (46 U.S.C. app. 1701).
(b)(1) This part implements the statutory notice and hearing requirement and ensures that due process is afforded to all affected parties. At the same time, it allows for flexibility in structuring proceedings so that the Commission may act expeditiously whenever harm to a U.S. flag carrier resulting from impaired access to cross trades has been demonstrated or is imminent.
(2) The provisions of part 502 of this chapter (Rules of Practice and Procedure) shall not apply to this part except for those provisions governing ex parte contacts (§502.11 of this chapter) and service of documents and copies of documents (§§502.114(b) and 502.118 of this chapter, and except as the Commission may otherwise determine by order.
(c) The condition of unduly impaired access will be found only where a U.S. flag carrier is commercially able to enter a trade in which its access is being unduly impaired, or is reasonably expected to be impaired, or where actual participation in a trade by a U.S. flag carrier is being restricted for reasons other than its commercial ability or competitiveness.
(d) In examining conditions in a trade between foreign ports, and in considering appropriate action, the Commission will give due regard to U.S. maritime policy and U.S. Government shipping arrangements with other nations, as well as the degree of reciprocal access afforded in U.S. foreign trades to the carriers of the countries against whom Commission action is contemplated.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984, as amended at 55 FR 28400, July 11, 1990; 64 FR 8009, Feb. 18, 1999]
§ 560.2 Factors indicating conditions unduly impairing access.
For the purpose of this part, factors which would indicate the existence of conditions created by foreign government action or action of a common carrier acting alone or in concert with any person, which unduly impair access of a U.S. flag vessel engaged in or seeking access to ocean trade between foreign ports, include, but are not limited to:
(a) Imposition upon U.S. flag vessels or upon shippers or consignees using such vessels, of fees, charges, requirements, or restrictions different from those imposed on national-flag or other vessels, or which preclude or tend to preclude U.S. flag vessels from competing in the trade on the same basis as any other vessel.
(b) Reservation of a substantial portion of the total cargo in the trade to national-flag or other vessels which results in failure to provide reasonable competitive access to cargoes by U.S. flag vessels.
(c) Use of predatory practices, possibly including but not limited to the use of a vessel or vessels in a particular trade for the purpose of excluding, preventing, or reducing competition by driving another ocean common carrier out of that trade, and closed conferences employing deferred rebates, which unduly impair access of a U.S. flag vessel to the trade.
(d) Any government or commercial practice that results in, or may result in, unequal and unfair opportunity for U.S. flag vessel access to port or intermodal facilities or services related to the carriage of cargo inland to or from ports in the trade.
(e) Any other practice which unduly impairs access of a U.S. flag vessel to trade between foreign ports.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 64 FR 8009, 8010, Feb. 18, 1999]
§ 560.3 Petitions for relief.
(a) Filing. (1) Any owner or operator of a liner, bulk, tramp or other vessel documented under the laws of the United States who believes that its access to ocean trade between foreign ports has been, or will be, unduly impaired may file a written petition for relief under the provisions of this part.
(2) An original and fifteen copies of such a petition including any supporting documents shall be filed with the Secretary, Federal Maritime Commission, Washington, DC 20573. The petition shall be accompanied by remittance of a $241 filing fee.
(b) Contents. Petitions for relief shall include the following and shall also include an affidavit attesting to the truth and accuracy of the information submitted:
(1) The name and address of the petitioner;
(2) The name and address of each party (foreign government, agency or instrumentality thereof, carrier, or other person) against whom the petition is made and a statement as to whether the party is a foreign government, agency or instrumentality thereof;
(3) A concise description and citation of the foreign law, rule or government or commercial practice complained of;
(4) A certified copy of any law, rule, regulation or other document concerned, when available and, if not in English, a certified English translation thereof;
(5) Any other information relating to any law, rule or regulation, or indicating the existence of any government or commercial practice;
(6) A description of the service offered or proposed, as a result of which petitioner is alleging harm, including information which indicates the ability of the petitioner to otherwise participate in the trade;
(7) A clear description, in detail, of the harm already caused, or which may reasonably be expected to be caused, to the petitioner for a representative period, including:
(i) Statistics documenting present or prospective cargo loss due to discriminatory government or commercial practices if harm is alleged on that basis; such statistics shall include figures for the total cargo carried or projected to be carried by petitioner in the trade for the period, and the sources of the statistics;
(ii) Information documenting how the petitioner is being prevented from entering a trade, if injury is claimed on that basis;
(iii) Statistics or other information documenting the impact of discriminatory government or commercial practices resulting in an increase in costs, service restrictions, or other harm on the basis of which injury is claimed, and the sources of the statistics; and
(iv) A statement as to why the period is representative.
(8) A separate memorandum of law or a discussion of the relevant legal issues.
(9) A recommended action, rule or regulation, the result of which will, in the view of the petitioner, address the alleged conditions unduly impairing the access of petitioner to the affected trade.
(c) Deficient petition. A petition which substantially fails to comply with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section shall be rejected and the person filing the petition shall be notified of the reasons for such rejection. Rejection is without prejudice to filing of an amended petition.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984, as amended at 63 FR 50537, Sept. 22, 1998; 67 FR 39862, June 11, 2002; 70 FR 10331, Mar. 3, 2005]
§ 560.4 Proceeding.
(a) Upon the Commission's own motion or upon the filing of a petition which meets the requirements of §560.3, when there are indications that conditions unduly impairing the access of a U.S. flag vessel to trade between foreign ports may exist, the Commission will institute a proceeding pursuant to this part.
(b)(1) Notice of the institution of any such proceeding will be published in the Federal Register, and that notice and petition, if any, will be served on the parties.
(2) Interested or adversely affected persons will be allowed a period of time to reply to the petition by the submission of written data, views or legal arguments pursuant to §560.5 of this part. Factual submissions shall be in affidavit form.
(3) An original and 15 copies of such submissions will be filed with the Secretary, Federal Maritime Commission, Washington, DC 20573.
(c) Following the close of the initial response period, the Commission may issue a decision or order further hearings if warranted. If further hearings are ordered, they will be conducted pursuant to procedures to be outlined by the Commission in its order.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984. Redesignated at 64 FR 8009, Feb. 18, 1999, and amended at 67 FR 39862, June 11, 2002]
§ 560.5 Receipt of relevant information.
(a) In making its decision on matters arising under section 13(b)(6)of the Act, the Commission may receive and consider relevant information from any owner, operator, or conference in an affected trade, or from any foreign government, either directly or through the Department of State or from any other reliable source. All such submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include, but is not limited to:
(1) Statistics, with sources, or, if unavailable, the best estimates pertaining to:
(i) The total cargo carried in the affected liner or bulk trade by type, source, value, tonnage and direction.
(ii) Cargo carried in the affected trade on vessels owned or operated by any person or conference, by type, source, value, tonnage and direction.
(iii) The percentage such cargo carried is of the total affected liner or bulk trade, on a tonnage and value basis.
(iv) The amount of cargo reserved by a foreign government for national-flag or other vessels in the affected trade, on a tonnage and value basis, and a listing of the types of cargo and specific commodities which are reserved for national-flag or other vessels.
(2) Information on the operations of vessels of any party serving the affected trade, including sailings to and from ports in the trade, taxes or other charges paid to foreign authorities, and subsidies or other payments received from foreign authorities.
(3) Information clarifying the meaning of the foreign law, rule, regulation or practice complained of, and a description of its implementation.
(4) Complete copies of all conference and other agreements, including amendments and related documents, which apply in the trade.
(b) Once introduced or adduced, information of the character described in paragraph (a) of this section, and petitions and responses thereto, shall be made part of the record for decision and may provide the basis for Commission findings of fact and conclusions of law, and for the imposition of sanctions under the Act and this part.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984. Redesignated ad amended at 64 FR 8009, 8010, Feb. 18, 1999]
§ 560.6 Notification to Secretary of State.
When there are indications that conditions unduly impairing the access of a U.S. flag vessel to trade between foreign ports may exist, the Commission shall so notify the Secretary of State and may request that the Secretary of State seek resolution of the matter through diplomatic channels. If request is made, the Commission will give every assistance in such efforts, and the Commission may request the Secretary to report the results of such efforts within a specified time period.
§ 560.7 Decision; sanctions; effective date.
(a) Upon completion of any proceeding conducted under this part, the Commission will issue and serve a decision on all parties.
(b) If the Commission finds that conditions unduly impairing access of a U.S. flag vessel to ocean trade between foreign ports exist, any of the following actions may be taken:
(1) Imposition of equalizing fees or charges applied in the foreign trade of the United States;
(2) Limitations on sailings to and from United States ports or on the amount or type of cargo carried;
(3)(i) Suspension, in whole or in part, of any or all tariffs or service contracts for carriage to or from United States ports for any period the Commission specifies, or until such time as unimpaired access is secured for U.S. flag carriers in the affected trade.
(ii) Acceptance or handling of cargo for carriage under a tariff that has been suspended, or after a common carrier's right to utilize that tariff has been suspended pursuant to this part, will subject a carrier to the imposition of a civil penalty as provided under the Act (46 U.S.C. app. 1712(b)(3)) of not more than $50,000 per shipment; and
(4) Suspension, in whole or in part, of the right of an ocean common carrier to operate under any agreement filed with the Commission, including agreements authorizing preferential treatment at terminals, preferential terminal leases, space chartering, or pooling of cargo or revenues with other ocean common carriers;
(5) Imposition of a charge not to exceed $1,000,000 per inbound or outbound movement between a foreign country and the United States by a vessel engaged in the United States oceanborne trade;
(6) A request to the collector of customs at any port or place of destination in the United States to refuse the clearance required by section 4197 of the Revised Statutes, 46 U.S.C. app. 91, to any vessel of a foreign carrier which is or whose government is identified as contributing to the conditions described in §560.2 of this part;
(7) A request to the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating to deny entry, for purposes of oceanborne trade, of any vessel of a foreign carrier which is or whose government is identified as contributing to the conditions described in §587.2 of this part to any port or place in the United States or the navigable waters of the United States, or to detain any such vessel at the port or place in the United States from which it is about to depart for any other port or place in the United States; and
(8) Any other action the Commission finds necessary and appropriate to address conditions unduly impairing access of a U.S.-flag vessel to trade between foreign ports.
(c) If the Commission finds that conditions impairing access of a U.S. flag vessel to ocean trade between foreign ports has not yet occurred, and punitive sanctions are warranted, such sanctions will be imposed to become effective simultaneously with the implementation of the action that would unduly impair the access of a U.S. flag vessel.
(d)(1) All decisions will be published in the Federal Register.
(2) Decisions imposing sanctions, except where conditions warrant and for good cause, will become effective 30 days after the date of publication.
(e) Any party may file a petition to reconsider any decision under this part. Such a petition shall be served on all other parties to the proceeding and shall not, in and of itself, stay the effective date of the Commission action.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984, as amended at 54 FR 11532, Mar. 21, 1989; 64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999; 67 FR 39862, June 11, 2002]
§ 560.8 Submission of decision to the President.
Concurrently with the submission of any decision imposing sanctions to the Federal Register pursuant to §560.7(d)(1), the Commission shall transmit that decision to the President of the United States who may, within ten days after receiving the decision, disapprove it if the President finds that disapproval is required for reasons of the national defense or the foreign policy of the United States.
[67 FR 39862, June 11, 2002]
§ 560.9 Postponement, discontinuance, or suspension of action.
(a) The Commission may, on its own motion or upon a petition, postpone, discontinue, or suspend any action taken by it under the provisions of this part. Such a petition will be served on all other parties and will not, in and of itself, stay the effective date of Commission action.
(b) The Commission shall postpone, discontinue or suspend any action provided for in its final decision if so directed by the President for reasons of national defense or foreign policy of the United States as provided in §560.8.
[49 FR 45406, Nov. 15, 1984. Redesignated at 64 FR 8009, Feb. 18, 1999, and amended at 67 FR 39862, June 11, 2002]