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(continued) utted. Where one part of a multipage exhibit is based upon another part, appropriate cross-reference should be made. The principal title of each exhibit should state precisely what it contains and may also contain a statement of the purpose for which the exhibit is offered. However, such explanatory statement, if phrased in an argumentative fashion, will not be considered as a part of the evidentiary record. Additional exhibits pertinent to the issues may be submitted in a proceeding with the approval of the presiding officer.

(c) Cooperation on basic data. Parties having like interests are specifically encouraged to cooperate with each other in joint presentations particularly in such items as basic passenger, cargo, and scheduling data compiled from official or semiofficial sources, and any other evidence susceptible to joint presentation. Duplicate presentation of the same evidence should be avoided wherever possible.

(d) Authenticity. The authenticity of all documents submitted as proposed exhibits in advance of the hearing shall be deemed admitted unless written objection thereto is filed prior to the hearing, except that a party will be permitted to challenge such authenticity at a later time upon a clear showing of good cause for failure to have filed such written objection.

(e) Statement of position and trial briefs. A written statement of position should be exchanged by all counsel with copies to all other parties prior to the beginning of the hearing: Provided, however, That Public Counsel or counsel for a public body which has intervened as its interests may appear, may offer his statement of position at the conclusion of the evidentiary hearing, unless such is impracticable. This statement should include a showing of the theory of the case of the party submitting the statement and will not be subject to cross-examination. Trial briefs are acceptable but will not be required.

§ 201.132 Conduct of the hearing.
(a) Order of presentation. Normally the order of presentation at the hearing will be alphabetical in each of the following categories:

(1) MarAd statistical material.

(2) Shipper interests, United States and foreign government departments.

(3) Applicants.

(4) Intervenors.

(5) Public counsel.

Normally, rebuttal should be presented without any adjournment in the proceedings.

(b) Burden of proof. The burden of proof shall be (1) upon an applicant for any form of government aid or grant; and (2) upon a proponent for the issuance of any rule or order within the jurisdiction of the Administration. The burden of going forward with rebuttal evidence in proceedings involving matters under paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section shall fall upon opposing intervenors. Whenever an intervenor is permitted by the presiding officer to raise or advance a new issue in the proceeding, the burden of proof as to such issue shall fall upon such intervenor. If the burden of proof is met as to such new issue, the other parties shall have the burden of going forward with rebuttal evidence in such regard.

(c) Requirement for submission of corrected copies of exhibits. Each party shall present three fully corrected copies of its exhibits to be offered in evidence, one for the docket and two for the presiding officer.

(d) Offer of exhibits in evidence. The exhibits and written testimony sponsored by each witness shall be offered in evidence at the close of his direct examination to the extent practicable. After ruling upon motions to strike they shall be received in evidence subject to cross-examination. The presiding officer, in his discretion, may defer such ruling until after completion of cross-examination.

(e)(1) Cross-examination. Cross-examination shall be limited to the scope of the direct examination and, except for Public Counsel and counsel for public bodies which have intervened as their interests may appear, to witnesses whose testimony is adverse to the party desiring to cross-examine—this being intended specifically to prohibit so-called “friendly cross-examination”. Cross-examination, which is not necessary to test the truth and completeness of the direct testimony and exhibits, will not be permitted.

(2) Re-cross-examination. Second rounds of cross-examination normally will not be permitted unless it is necessary to cover new matters raised by a subsequent examination. Cross-examination of any particular witness shall be limited to one attorney for each party and shall not include subjects which are not germane to the interest represented by the cross-examiner.

(f) Oral motions. Oral presentation on any motion or objection shall be limited to the party or parties making the motion or objection and the party or parties against which the motion or objection is directed and Public Counsel. Such presentation shall also be limited to one attorney for each party.

(g) Official notice; public document items. Whenever there is offered (in whole or in part) a public document, such as an official report, decision, opinion, or published scientific or economic statistical data issued by any of the executive departments (or their subdivisions), legislative agencies or committees, or administrative agencies of the Federal Government (including Government-owned corporations), or a similar document issued by a State or its agencies, and such document (or part thereof) has been shown by the offerer to be reasonably available to the public, such document need not be produced or marked for identification, but may be offered for official notice as a public document item by specifying the document or relevant part thereof.

(h) Oral argument at hearings. A request for oral argument at the close of testimony will be granted or denied by the presiding officer in his discretion.

§ 201.133 Appeal from ruling of presiding officer.
Rulings of presiding officers may not be appealed prior to, or during the course of, the hearing except where the presiding officer has granted a Motion for Summary Disposition under subpart I of this part, or in extraordinary circumstances where prompt decision by the Administration is necessary to prevent unusual delay, expense, or detriment to the public interest, in which instances the matter shall be referred forthwith by the presiding officer to the Administration. Any such appeal shall be filed within fifteen (15) days from the date of the ruling by the presiding officer.

§ 201.134 Separation of functions.
The separation of functions as required by section 5(c) of the Administrative Procedure Act shall be observed in adversary proceedings involving controverted factual issues arising under the regulations in this part.

Subpart N—Evidence (Rule 14)
§ 201.136 Evidence admissible.
In any proceeding under the regulations in this part all evidence which is relevant, material, reliable and probative, and not unduly repetitious or cumulative shall be admissible. Irrelevant and immaterial or unduly repetitious or cumulative evidence shall be excluded.

§ 201.137 Rights of parties as to presentation of evidence.
Every party shall have the right to present his case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct such cross-examination as may be required for a full and true disclosure of the facts.

§ 201.138 Unsponsored written material.
(a) Material that may be deemed evidence. Where a formal hearing is held, a party shall be afforded an opportunity to participate through submission of relevant, material, reliable and probative written evidence including official notice matters covered in §201.132(g): Provided, That such evidence submitted by persons not present at the hearing will not be made a part of the record if opposed to by any party for good cause shown.

(b) Material that may not be deemed evidence. Letters expressing views or urging action and other unsponsored written material in respect of matters embraced in, or related to, a formal hearing will be placed in the correspondence section of the docket of the proceeding. These data are not to be deemed part of the evidence or part of the record in the material unless sponsored at the public hearing by an authenticating and supporting witness.

§ 201.139 Documents containing matter both material and not material.
Where written matter offered in evidence is embraced in a document containing other matter which is not intended to be offered in evidence, the party offering shall present the original document to all parties at the hearing for their inspection, and shall offer a true copy of the matter which is to be introduced unless the presiding officer determines that the matter is short enough to be read into the record. Opposing parties shall be afforded an opportunity to introduce in evidence, or by stipulations other portions of the original document which are material and relevant.

§ 201.140 Records in other proceedings.
When any portion of the record before the Administration in any proceeding other than the one being heard is offered in evidence, a true copy of such portion shall be presented for the record in the form of an exhibit unless the parties represented at the hearing stipulate upon the record that such portion may be incorporated by reference.

§ 201.141 Stipulations.
The parties may, by stipulation in writing filed at the prehearing conference, or by written or oral stipulation presented at the hearing or by written stipulation subsequent to the hearing, agree upon any facts involved in the proceeding and include them in the record with the consent of the presiding officer. Proposed written stipulations shall be subscribed by the sponsors and served upon all parties of record. Only upon acceptance by all parties to the proceeding may a stipulation be noted for the record or received as evidence.

§ 201.142 Further evidence required by presiding officer during hearing.
At any time during the hearing the presiding officer may call for the production of further relevant and material evidence, reports, studies, and analyses upon any issue, and require such evidence, where available, to be presented by the party or parties concerned, either at the hearing or adjournment thereof in accordance with §201.132(b). Such material shall be received subject to appropriate motions, cross-examination and/or rebuttal. If a witness refuses to testify or produce the evidence as requested, the presiding officer shall report such refusal to the Administration forthwith.

§ 201.143 Exceptions to rulings of presiding officer unnecessary.
Formal exceptions to rulings of the presiding officer are unnecessary. It is sufficient that a party, at the time the ruling of the presiding officer is made or sought, makes known the action which he desires the presiding officer to take or his objection to an action taken, and his grounds therefor.

§ 201.144 Offer of proof.
An offer of proof made in connection with an objection taken to any ruling of the presiding officer rejecting or excluding proffered oral testimony shall consist of a statement of the substance of the evidence which counsel contends would be adduced by such testimony; and, if the excluded evidence consists of evidence in documentary or written form or of reference to documents or records, a copy of such evidence shall be marked for identification and shall accompany the record as the offer of proof.

Subpart O—The Record: Contents; Development; Perfection; Confidential Treatment (Rule 15)
§ 201.146 Receipt of documents after hearing.
Documents to be submitted for the record after the close of the hearing will not be received in evidence except upon ruling of the presiding officer. Such documents when submitted shall be accompanied by proof that copies have been served upon all parties, who shall have an opportunity to comment thereon; and shall be received not later than ten (10) days after the close of the hearing except for good cause shown, and not less than ten (10) days prior to the date set for filing briefs. Exhibit numbers should be assigned by counsel or the party. In computing the time within which to file such documents or other writings the five (5) additional days provided in §201.54 shall not apply. Documents which are submitted but do not comply with the provisions of this rule will be filed in the correspondence section of the docket.

§ 201.147 Official transcript.
The Administration will designate the official reporter for all hearings. The official transcript of testimony taken, together with any exhibits and any briefs or memoranda of law filed therewith shall be filed with the Administration. Transcripts of testimony will be available in any proceeding under the regulations in this section, and will be supplied by the official reporter to the parties and to the public except when required for good cause to be held confidential, at rates not to exceed the maximum rates fixed by the contract between the Administration and the reporter.

§ 201.148 Corrections of transcript.
Motions made at the hearing to correct the record will be acted upon by the presiding officer. Motions made after the hearing to correct the record as to matters of substance rather than form, shall be filed with the presiding officer within ten (10) days after receipt of the transcript, unless otherwise directed by the presiding officer, and shall be served on all parties. Such motions may be in the form of a letter and shall certify the date when the transcript was received. If no objections are received within ten (10) days after date of service, the transcript will, upon approval of the presiding officer, be changed to reflect such corrections. If objections are received, the motion will be acted upon with due consideration of the stenographic record of the hearing.

§ 201.149 Copies of data or evidence.
Every person compelled to submit data or evidence shall be entitled to retain or procure a copy of transcript thereof on payment of proper costs.

§ 201.150 Record for decision.
The transcript of testimony and exhibits, together with all papers and requests (except the correspondence section of the docket), including rulings and any recommended or initial decisions filed in the proceeding shall constitute the exclusive record for decision. Final decisions will be predicated on the same record, including the initial decision of the presiding officer.

§ 201.151 Objections to public disclosure of information.
Upon objection to public disclosure of any information sought to be elicited during a hearing, and a showing of cause satisfactory to the presiding officer, the witness shall disclose such information only in the presence of the presiding officer, official reporter and such attorneys or representatives of each party with demonstrated interests, as the presiding officer shall determine and after all present have been sworn to secrecy. The transcript of testimony shall be held confidential. Within five (5) days after such testimony is given, or document received, the objecting party shall file with the presiding officer a verified written motion to withhold such information from public disclosure, setting forth sufficient identification of same and the basis upon which public disclosure should not be made. Copies of said transcript and motion need not be served upon any other parties than those sworn to secrecy unless so ordered by the presiding officer.

Subpart P—Briefs, Requests for Findings, Decisions, Exceptions (Rule 16)
§ 201.155 Briefs; request for findings.
The time for filing briefs to the presiding officer, and extensions thereof, shall be fixed by him. The period of time allowed shall be the same for all parties unless the presiding officer, for good cause shown, directs otherwise. Normally there shall be an opening brief by the moving parties, an answering brief by the proponents of a contrary conclusion and a short reply by the moving parties. Briefs and statements of position as authorized, shall be served upon all parties pursuant to subpart D of this part. Briefs shall include a summary of evidence, together with references to exhibit numbers and pages of the transcript, and memoranda of law with appropriate citations of the authorities relied upon. They shall contain proposed findings of fact and conclusions in serially numbered paragraphs.

§ 201.156 Requests for extension of time for filing briefs.
Requests for extension of time within which to file briefs shall conform to the requirements of §201.53. Except for good cause shown, such requests shall be filed and served not later than five (5) days before the expiration of the time fixed for the filing of briefs.

§ 201.157 Reopening of a case by presiding officer prior to decision.
At any time prior to the filing of his initial or recommended decision, the presiding officer, either upon petition or upon his own initiative may, for good cause shown and upon reasonable notice, reopen the case for the receipt of further evidence.

§ 201.158 Decisions, authority to make and kinds.
To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render initial or recommended decisions in all proceedings before him, including motions, petitions and other pleadings. Tentative or final decisions will be rendered by the Administration. The same officers who preside at the reception of evidence pursuant to section 7 of the Administrative Procedure Act shall render the initial or recommended decisions except where such officers become unavailable to the Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the record to the Administration. Where the Administration requires the entire record in the case to be certified to it for initial decision, the Presiding Officer shall first recommend a decision, except that in rule making:

(a) In lieu thereof the Administration may issue a tentative decision or any of its responsible officers may recommend a decision or (b) any such procedure may be omitted in any case in which the Administration finds upon the record that due and timely execution of its functions in the public interest imperatively and unavoidably so requires.

§ 201.159 Decisions; contents and service.
All initial, recommended, tentative, and final decisions, whether rendered orally or in writing shall include a statement of findings and conclusions, as well as the reasons or bases therefor, upon the material issues presented, as well as a statement of the appropriate rule, order, sanction, relief to be imposed, or the denial thereof. A copy of each decision when issued or when transcribed if orally rendered (and all orally presented decisions shall be stenographically recorded) shall be served on the parties to the proceeding, and furnished to interested persons upon request.

§ 201.160 Decision based on official notice.
Official notice may be taken of such matters as might be judicially noticed by the courts, or of technical or scientific facts within the general or specialized knowledge of the Administration as an expert body or of a document required to be filed with or published by a duly constituted governmental body: Provided, That where a decision or part thereof rests on the official notice of a material fact not appearing in the evidence of the record, the fact of official notice shall be so stated in the decision, and any party, on timely request, shall be afforded an opportunity to show the contrary.

§ 201.161 Exceptions to, and review by the Administration of initial or recommended decisions.
Within twenty (20) days after the service date of the initial or recommended decision, whether oral or in writing, unless a shorter period is fixed under §201.54, any party may file exceptions to any conclusions, findings, or statements contained in such decision, and a brief in support of such exceptions. Such exceptions and brief shall constitute one document, shall indicate with particularity alleged errors, shall indicate pages of transcript and exhibit numbers when referring to the record, and shall be served on all parties pursuant to subpart D of this part. Whenever the presiding officer renders an initial decision, in the absence of the filing of exceptions thereto, or notice of review thereof by the Administration, such decision, shall upon the issuance of an appropriate order by the Administration, become the decision of the Administration. Upon the filing of exceptions to, or notice of review of, an initial or recommended decision, such decision shall become inoperative until the Administration determines the matter. Where exceptions are filed to, or the Administration reviews, an initial or recommended decision, the Administration, except as it may limit the issues upon notice or by rule, will have all the powers which it would have in making the initial decision. Whenever the Administration shall determine to review an initial or recommended decision on its own initiative, notice of such intention shall be served upon the parties within thirty (30) days after the date when the initial or recommended decision is orally rendered and, if in writing, served.

§ 201.162 Replies to exceptions.
Any party may file and serve a reply to exceptions within twenty (20) days after date of service thereof, unless a shorter period is fixed pursuant to §201.54. Such reply shall indicate pages of the transcript and exhibit numbers when referring to the record.

§ 201.163 Request for extension of time for filing exceptions and replies thereto.
Requests for extension of time within which to file exceptions, and briefs in support thereof, or replies to exceptions shall conform to the applicable provisions of subpart E of this part. Except for good cause shown, such requests shall be filed and served not later than five (5) days before the expiration of the time fixed for the filing of such documents.

§ 201.164 Certification of record by presiding officer.
The presiding officer shall certify and transmit the entire record to the Administration when: (a) Exceptions are filed or the time therefor has expired, (b) notice is given by the Administration that the initial or recommended decision will be reviewed on its own initiative, or (c) the Administration requires the case to be certified to it for initial decision.

Subpart Q—Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17)
§ 201.166 Oral argument.
If oral argument before the Administration is desired on exceptions or replies to exceptions to an initial, recommended, or tentative decision, or on a motion, petition, or application, a request therefor shall be made in writing properly addressed to the Administration. Any party may make such request irrespective of his filing exceptions or replies. If a brief on exceptions or replies thereto are filed, the request for oral argument shall be incorporated therein. Requests for oral argument on any motion, petition, or application shall be made in the motion, petition, or application or in the reply thereto. Requests for oral argument will be granted or denied in the discretion of the Administration, and, if granted, the notice of oral argument will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of time to be allotted. Those who appear before the Administration for oral argument should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall limit their argument to points upon which exceptions have been filed. Where the facts of a case are adequately and accurately dealt with in the initial, recommended, or tentative decision, parties should, as far as possible, address themselves in argument to the conclusions. Effort should be made by parties taking the same position to agree in advance of the argument upon those who are to present their side of the case. The names of persons who will argue and the amount of time requested by each should be received by the Administration not later than ten (10) days before the date set for the argument. Ordinarily, consolidation of appearances at oral argument will permit the parties' interests to be presented more effectively in the time allotted.

§ 201.167 Submission to Administration for final decision.
A proceeding will be deemed submitted to the Administration for its determination as follows: (a) If oral argument is had, on the date of completion thereof, or if memoranda on points of law are permitted to be filed after argument, the last date of such filing; (b) if oral argument is not had, the last date when exceptions or replies thereto are filed, or if exceptions are not filed, the expiration date for such exceptions or the date when all parties have stated that no exceptions will be filed; (c) in the case of an initial decision, the date of notice of the Administration to review the decision, if such notice is given.

Subpart R—Stay of Administration's Decision, Reopening of Proceedings (Rule 18)
§ 201.171 Stay of Administration's decision.
The Administration's decision or order shall be stayed pending resolution by the Administration of a petition for reopening, duly filed, and for so long as such Administration's action has not been finally disposed of in accordance with the provisions of section 7 of Department of Commerce Order 117 (Revised).

§ 201.172 Time for filing petition to reopen.
Except for good cause shown, and upon leave granted, petition to reopen under §201.174, shall be filed with the Administration within twenty (20) days after the date of service of the Administration's decision or order in the proceeding, unless a different period is fixed under §201.54.

§ 201.173 Reopening by Administration and modification or setting aside of decision.
Upon petition and a showing of compelling cause, filed in accordance with §201.174, or on its own motion, the Administration may at any time reopen any proceeding under the regulation in this part for rehearing, reargument, or reconsideration in whole or in part. After reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing or such other procedure as the Administration may direct, the Administration may alter, modify or set aside in whole or in part its decision therein if it finds such action is required by changed conditions in fact or law or by the public interest.

§ 201.174 Petition for reopening.
A petition for reopening for the purpose of rehearing, reargument, or reconsideration, shall be made in writing, shall state the grounds relied upon, and conform to the requirements of subpart D of this part. If the petition is for the purpose of rehearing, said petition shall state the nature and purpose of the new evidence to be adduced and that such evidence was not available at the time of the prior hearing. If the petition be for reargument or reconsideration, the matter claimed to have been erroneously decided shall be specified and the alleged errors briefly stated. In case of exceptional circumstances, satisfactorily shown by the petitioner, a request for modification of rules or orders may be made by telegram or otherwise, upon notice to all parties or attorneys of record, but such request shall be followed by a petition filed and served in accordance with subpart D of this part.

§ 201.175 Answers to petition to reopen.
Answers to petitions to reopen shall conform to the requirements of subpart D of this part.

Subpart S—Judicial Standards of Practice (Rule 19)
§ 201.181 General matters.
(a) In general, the functions of the Administration involve hearing procedures comparable to those of a court and accordingly parties to proceedings before the Administration and persons representing these parties are expected to conduct themselves with honor and dignity. For the same reasons, the members of the Administration and those of its employees who participate with the Administration in the determination of formal proceedings are expected to conduct themselves with the same fidelity to standards of propriety that characterizes a court and its staff. The standing and the effectiveness of the Administration are in direct relation to the observance by it, its staff and the parties and attorneys appearing before it of the highest of judicial and professional ethics.

(b) It is essential in cases to be determined after notice and hearing and upon a record, or in any other cases which the Administration by order may designate, that the judicial character of the Administration be recognized and protected. As a consequence, from the time of the filing of an application or a petition which can be granted by the Administration only after notice and opportunity for hearing, or in the case of other matters from the time of notice by the Administration that such matters shall be determined after notice and opportunity for hearing, no ex parte communications, as hereinafter defined, are to constitute or be considered part of the record on which the final decision is to be predicated.

§ 201.182 Improper pressures.
It is determined to be improper that there be any effort by any person interested in a case before the Administration to attempt to sway the judgment of the Administration by undertaking to bring pressure or influence to bear upon the Administration, its staff, or the presiding officer assigned to the proceeding. It is further determined to be improper that such interested persons or any member of the Administration's staff or the presiding officer directly or indirectly give statements to the press or radio, by paid advertisements or otherwise, designed to influence the Administration's judgment in the matter. In addition, it is further determined to be improper that any person solicit communications to the Administration or any of its members, its staff or the presiding officer in the case other than by counsel of record who shall serve copies thereof on all other parties to the proceeding.

§ 201.183 Ex parte communications.
(a) Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending with the Administration are deemed communications on the merits and as such are improper except when forwarded from parties to a proceeding and served upon all other parties thereto. Such communications from parties to a proceeding should be in the form of a motion and are to be dealt with as such by the Administration, the presiding officer, and the parties to the proceeding. Any such request which is not made as a motion shall be placed in the public correspondence file and will not be considered by the Administration or any of its staff members or the presiding officer in connection with the disposition of the case.

(b) Written or oral communications involving any substantive or procedural issue in a matter subject to public hearing directed to a Member of the Administration, its staff, or the presiding officer in the case, from any individual in private or public life shall be deemed a private communication in respect of the merits of the case. These communications, unless otherwise provided for by law or a published rule of the Administration are deemed ex parte communications and are not to be considered part of any record or the basis for any official action by the Administration, members of its staff or the presiding officer: Provided, however, That this prohibition shall not be determined to apply to informal petitions or applications filed with the Administration; the usual informal communications between counsel including discussions directed toward the development of a stipulation or settlement between parties; communications of a nature deemed proper in proceedings in U.S. Federal courts; and communications which merely inquire as to the status of a proceeding without discussing issues or expressing points of view. Any prohibited communications in writing received by a Member of the Administration, its staff or the presiding officer shall be made public by placing it in the correspondence file of the docket which is available for public inspection and will not be considered by the Administration or the presiding officer as part of the record for decision. If the ex parte communication is received orally, a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation shall be made and filed in the correspondence section of the appropriate public docket.

Subpart T—Effective Date (Rule 20)
§ 201.185 Effective date and applicability of rules.
The regulations in this part shall become effective October 23, 1964, and shall apply only to cases which are designated for hearing on or after October 23, 1964: Provided, however, That the regulations in this part shall be applicable to cases designated for hearing prior to October 23, 1964, if consolidated with a case designated for hearing on or after that date. All other cases designated for hearing prior to October 23, 1964, shall be governed by the rules in effect immediately prior to such date.