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United States Regulations
46 CFR PART 59—REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES
Title 46: Shipping
PART 59—REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES
Authority: 46 U.S.C. 3306, 3703; E.O. 12234, 45 FR 58801, 3 CFR, 1980 Comp., p. 227; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1.
Source: CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18887, Dec. 18, 1968, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart 59.01—General Requirements
§ 59.01-1 Scope.
The regulations in this part apply to the repairs of all boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard.
§ 59.01-2 Incorporation by reference.
(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a). To enforce any edition other than that specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the Coast Guard must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and make the material available to the public. All approved material is on file at the U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Design and Engineering Standards (G-MSE), 2100 Second Street SW., Washington, DC 20593–0001 and is available from the sources indicated in paragraph (b) of this section or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(b) The material approved for incorporation by reference in this part and the sections affected are:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016—5990
Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code Section I, Power Boilers, July 1989 with 1989 addenda 59.10–5 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VII, Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers, July 1989 with 1989 addenda 59.01–5 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1, Pressure Vessels July 1989 with 1989 addenda 59.10–5; 59.10–10 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications, July 1989 with 1989 addenda 59.10–5
[CGD 88–032, 56 FR 35824, July 29, 1991, as amended by CGD 95–072, 60 FR 50462, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96–041, 61 FR 50728, Sept. 27, 1996; USCG–1999–6216, 64 FR 53225, Oct. 1, 1999]
§ 59.01-3 Adoption of the ASME Code.
(a) General. The portions of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code listed in this part for various subjects are adopted and shall be the governing requirements except as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this subchapter.
(Sec. 552, 80 Stat. 383, as amended; 5 U.S.C. 552)
§ 59.01-5 Repairs, replacements, or alterations.
(a) No repairs, replacements, or alterations, except emergency repairs, shall be made to boilers, pressure vessels, their mountings or internal fittings, safety valves, piping systems, or pressure appliances without prior approval by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.
(b) Emergency repairs, replacements, or alterations shall be reported as soon as practicable to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, at or nearest the first port where the vessel may call after such repairs are made.
(c) Plan approval shall be obtained from the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, for all alterations to systems in service as listed in §56.01–10(c) of this subchapter and those items listed in paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Repairs, replacements, or alterations to machinery or items not covered by other sections of this part shall be made in a manner consistent with the part of this subchapter containing the construction standards for the item in question.
(e) Where applicable, manufacturers' instruction books, manuals, etc., and the Mechanical Injury Section, paragraphs C4.401 through C4.427 of section VII of the ASME Code, shall be used for guidance.
Subpart 59.10—Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in Service
§ 59.10-1 Scope.
(a) Repairs to boilers or pressure vessels in service may be performed by welding provided the welding meets the applicable requirements of part 57 of this subchapter.
(b) No repairs by welding shall be made except temporary emergency repairs without prior approval of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. Emergency repairs shall be replaced with permanent repairs meeting the requirements of this subchapter when the vessel returns to a port in which an Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, is located except in the case of minor repairs which in the opinion of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, do not materially affect the safety of the boiler or pressure vessel.
(c) Repair welding of power boilers, not meeting the requirements of subpart 52.05 of this subchapter, is prohibited unless the stress is carried by such other type(s) of construction complying with the requirements of this subchapter, and where the adequacy of the boiler design is not solely dependent upon the strength of the welds.
(d) Only welded repairs as specified in this subchapter are permitted on boilers and pressure vessels. The welding repairs allowed by this subpart apply only to boilers and pressure vessels fabricated of carbon steel. Welding repairs to boilers and pressure vessels fabricated of alloy steel will be given special consideration by the Commandant. Such other method of repairs by means of welding not covered in this subchapter shall be referred to the Commandant and may be authorized by him, if in his opinion, it meets the intent of this subchapter.
§ 59.10-5 Cracks.
(a) Cracks extending from the calking edge of plates to the rivet holes of circumferential joints may be welded provided the cracks are veed out so that complete penetration of the weld metal is secured.
(b) Circumferential cracks from rivet hole to rivet hole in girth joints may be welded provided there are not more than three consecutive cracked ligaments nor more than a total of six cracked ligaments in any one girth joint.
(c) Cracks in staybolted plates may be welded provided they are located entirely within staybolted areas and the total length of any crack or series of consecutive cracks does not exceed two staybolt pitches.
(d) Cracks in plain, circular or Adamson ring or similar type furnaces may be welded provided any one crack does not exceed 12 inches in length and after completion the weld is stress-relieved. Cracks in corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length.
(e) Fire cracks may be welded at riveted door openings extending from the edge of the plate, but not more than 2 inches beyond the centerline of the rivet holes.
(f) Cracks may be welded between tube holes in the shell of water tube boiler drums, provided there are not more than two cracks in any one row in any direction, nor more than a total of four cracks in a drum, and further provided the welding meets the requirements of this subchapter for Class I welded pressure vessels and is approved by the Commandant.
(g) Cracks that occur in superheater manifolds, water wallheaders, water drums, sectional headers, and other appurtenances including steam manifolds of water tube boilers may be repaired in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section if the repair is approved.
(h) All cracks permitted to be repaired under this subpart shall be excavated to sound metal by grinding, flame or arc gouging or chipping out the defective metal to form a clean welding groove. The first two methods of excavation are preferable. Either a V groove or U groove wherein complete penetration of the weld metal is secured may be used. After excavation is completed and prior to welding, the excavated area shall be examined by magnetic particle, dye penetrant, or other acceptable test method. When the reverse side of the weld is accessible the root of the weld shall be chipped or ground out to insure a clean surface of the originally deposited metal and the resultant groove welded to obtain a sound weld having complete penetration. When the weld cannot be back chipped because the reverse side is inaccessible, a backing strip or other approved means of assuring full penetration shall be employed.
(i) During welding of cracks a preheat shall be maintained by controlled temperatures. The degree of preheat shall be determined by the rules listed in accordance with the materials P-number groupings of PW–38, section I, Appendix R, section VIII and Table Q. 11.1, section IX of the ASME Code. For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A welding sequence shall be used so as to equalize welding stresses.
(j) Postweld heat treatment of repaired cracks shall be performed in accordance with the rules specified in PW–39, section I and UW–40, section VIII of the ASME Code for boilers and pressure vessels respectively.
(k) Welded repairs of cracks shall be nondestructively tested in accordance with the rules specified in PW–40, section I, and UW–51, section VIII of the ASME Code for boilers and pressure vessels respectively.
(l) After cracks originating in tube or rivet holes are repaired by welding, the holes shall be properly reamed and the weld reinforcing ground flush with the plate in way of rivet heads.
(m) Flat tube sheets in fire-tube boilers which have corroded or where cracks exist in the ligaments may be repaired by welding.
(n) Welding repairs to drums of power boilers, except as otherwise permitted in this subpart, are prohibited.
§ 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces.
(a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to the original thickness under the following conditions:
(1) The thickness of the original metal to be built up between the rivet holes and the calking edge shall not be less than one-fourth of the diameter of the rivet hole, and the portion of the calking edge to be thus reinforced shall not exceed 30 inches in length in a circumferential direction.
(2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by welding, the rivets shall be removed over the portions to be welded for a distance of at least 6 inches beyond the repaired portion.
(3) After repairs are made the rivet holes shall be reamed before the rivets are redriven.
(b) It is not permissible to build up or reinforce a grooved or corroded area of unstayed internal surfaces by means of welding, except that widely scattered pit holes may be built up by welding.
(c) Where external corrosion has reduced the thickness of flat plates around hand holes to an extent of not more than 40 percent of the original thickness and for a distance not exceeding 2 inches from the edge of the hole, the plate may be built up by welding.
(d) Where stayed sheets have corroded to a depth not exceeding 40 percent of their original thickness, they may be reinforced or built up by welding. Where the staybolts are fitted with riveted heads, the staybolts in the reinforced area shall be renewed in accordance with the provisions of §52.20–15 of this subchapter, but where the staybolts are fitted with nuts, the nuts may be removed and after reinforcing has been applied, collars may be welded around the staybolts in lieu of the nuts. Such reinforced areas shall not exceed 400 square inches nor more than 30 inches in one direction. Two such areas in any one plate may be reinforced: Provided, that the distance between the reinforced surfaces is not less than 30 inches.
(e) When the corroded portion of a staybolted surface exceeds 400 square inches, it is permissible to make repairs by cutting out the defective portion and replacing it with a new plate, the edges of the new plate to be welded in position. In such cases, new staybolts shall be fitted in accordance with the requirements of §52.20–15 of this subchapter and where welding is performed through a line of staybolts, welded collars as required by Figure 52.01–3 of this subchapter shall be used to attach the staybolts.
(f) Eroded seams of welded pressure vessels may be repaired by rewelding the wasted portion. The wasted section of the seam shall be excavated sufficiently by grinding, flame or arc gouging or chipping to ensure proper weld penetration. Rewelded seams shall be nondestructively tested in accordance with section VIII, ASME Code.
§ 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts.
(a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of rivet heads to secure tightness is prohibited.
(b) Where leaks develop around staybolts which are otherwise in good condition, the nuts may be replaced with a beveled collar formed around the end of the stay by means of welding. In such cases, the depth of collar measured on the stay and the width measured on the plate, shall be equal to one-half the diameter of the staybolt.
§ 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets.
(a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of boilers or pressure vessels, the diameter of which does not exceed the maximum diameter of an unreinforced opening in accordance with §52.01–100 of this subchapter may be closed by the use of a patch or plate inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at least 2 inches larger than the diameter of the hole and shall have a thickness equal to the thickness of the plate to which it is attached. It is not permissible to insert such patches in the shell or head flush with the surrounding plate unless the requirements of this subchapter for Class I welded pressure vessels are met.
(b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing the wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of welding and staytubes. Other acceptable means of lowering the stress on the repaired section may be used if in the judgment of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, it is necessary.
§ 59.10-25 Stayed areas.
Welding repairs are permitted in staybolted areas or areas adequately stayed by other means so that should failure of the welds occur the stress will be carried by the stays. The welds shall be located entirely within staybolted areas and shall not pass through the outer row of stays.
§ 59.10-30 Seal welding.
Where leaks occur in riveted joints or connections, they shall be carefully investigated to determine the cause. Such leaks may be made tight by seal welding the edge, if, in the opinion of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, this will make a satisfactory repair.
§ 59.10-35 Wrapper plates and back heads.
Wrapper plates and back heads may be renewed in whole or repaired as follows:
(a) Wrapper plates or backs heads shall be cut between two rows of staybolts or on a line of staybolts where the thickness is approximately the same as the original construction. If welding is employed on a line of staybolts, the staybolts shall be fitted with a welded collar as required by Figure 52.01–3 of this subchapter.
(b) The edges of wrapper plates riveted to tube sheets and back heads shall be removed by cutting out the rivets.
(c) The edges of existing plates and new plates shall be beveled by chipping, flame cutting or grinding so as to form a suitable groove whereby complete penetration of the weld metal will be obtained. The edge preparation and preheat shall comply with the requirements of §59.10–5(h).
(d) The edges of the new plate shall be buttwelded and the plate shall be riveted to the flanges of the tube sheet and back heads and the staybolts renewed.
(e) Sections of wrapper plates of combustion chambers outside of stayed areas may be repaired by welding provided the welded joints are stress-relieved by means of controlled heat and the joints are nondestructively tested.
Subpart 59.15—Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs
§ 59.15-1 Furnace repairs.
(a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 1 1/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of the following methods:
(1) The furnace shall be forced back to a true circular shape, and the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may require strongbacks or other acceptable means of support to hold the furnace from future collapse, if in his opinion such support is necessary; or,
(2) The furnace shall be adequately stayed as found necessary in the judgment of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.
(b) Distortion means the difference between any single measured diameter of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter or may be determined by a means acceptable to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.
(c) Where the distortion does not exceed 1 1/2 inches it will not be necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in the ratio of 1 1/2 percent for each one-tenth of an inch of distortion. However, if the maximum distortion does not exceed 1 inch and the length of the distorted area is not more than three corrugations, or, if the maximum distortion does not exceed three-fourths inch for a length greater than three corrugations of distorted area, the repairs or reduction in pressure will not be required unless considered necessary by the marine inspector.
(d) When it becomes necessary to rivet a patch to a furnace or other part of the heating surface, the riveted patch shall be placed on the waterside of the plate in order not to form a pocket in which sediment may collect.
(e) Furnace crowns which have become distorted, not in excess of the limitations provided in paragraph (c) of this section, may be repaired by pumping back the distorted section to as nearly a true circle as possible and reinforcing the same by means of a ring, arc- or gas-welded to the distorted corrugation as shown in Figure 59.15–1, the welding to be done by welders and welding processors qualified in accordance with part 57 of this subchapter using acceptable welding electrodes in accordance with §57.02–4 of this subchapter.
Figure 59.15–1—Approved method of reinforcing furnaces by means of arc or gas welding
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§ 59.15-5 Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers.
(a) Where the plate forming the walls of stayed furnaces or combustion chambers become bulged between staybolts, repairs may be made by inserting an additional staybolt in the center of such space supported by the four staybolts.
(b) Where it is desired to rivet a patch to the wall of a stayed furnace or combustion chamber, the defective portion of the plate shall be cut away until solid material is reached, the patch shall be riveted on the waterside, and the staybolts renewed, and extended through the new plate.
§ 59.15-10 Bagged or blistered shell plates.
(a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of the fire become bagged or blistered, it shall be the duty of the chief engineer in charge of the vessel to notify the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, for examination before raising steam on the boiler.
(b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may, if in his judgment it is practicable, permit the same to be driven back to its original position.
(c) Where the shell plate has blistered, bagged, or bulged to such an extent that there is an appreciable thinning of the plate, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall require the defective portion to be cut away and the shell repaired by fitting a patch of steel plate conforming to the requirements of §52.01–90 of this subchapter in place of the defective portion. Care shall be taken that the riveting schedule of the patch is so arranged as to give the plate sufficient strength to withstand the stress placed on it in service.
Subpart 59.20—Welding Repairs to Castings
§ 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.
Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs shall be performed in accordance with the material specification to which the casting was originally supplied.