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United States Regulations
46 CFR PART 54—PRESSURE VESSELS
Title 46: Shipping
PART 54—PRESSURE VESSELS
Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1509; 43 U.S.C. 1333; 46 U.S.C. 3306, 3703; E.O. 12234, 45 FR 58801, 3 CFR, 1980 Comp., p. 277; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1.
Source: CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart 54.01—General Requirements
§ 54.01-1 Incorporation by reference.
(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a). To enforce any edition other than that specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the Coast Guard must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and make the material available to the public. All approved material is on file at the U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Design and Engineering Standards (G-MSE), 2100 Second Street SW., Washington, DC 20593–0001 and is available from the sources indicated in paragraph (b) of this section or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(b) The material approved for incorporation by reference in this part and the sections affected are:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016—5990
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, Division 1, Pressure Vessels, July 1989 with 1989 addenda 54.01–2; 54.01–5; 54.01–15; 54.01–18; 54.01–25; 54.01–30; 54.01–35; 54.03–1; 54.03–5; 54.05–1; 54.10–1; 54.10–3; 54.10–5; 54.10–10; 54.10–15; 54.15–1; 54.15–5; 54.15–10; 54.15–13; 54.20–1; 54.20–3; 54.25–1; 54.25–3; 54.25–5; 54.25–8; 54.25–10; 54.25–15; 54.25–20; 54.25–25; 54.30–3; 54.30–5; 54.30–10
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959.
ASTM A 20/A 20M–97a, Standard Specification for General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels 54.05–10; 54.25–10 ASTM A 203/A 203M–97, Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Nickel 54.05–20 ASTM A 370–97a, Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products 54.25–20 ASTM E 23–96, Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials 54.05–5 ASTM E 208–95a, Standard Test Method for Conducting Drop-Weight Test to Determine Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels 54.05–5
Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036
S–1.2, Safety Relief Device Standards—Cargo and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, 1979 54.15–25 S–126.96.36.199, Flow Test of Safety Relief Valves, 1979 54.15–10
Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
127 Park Street, NE. Vienna, VA 22180
SP–25, Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions, 1978 54.01–25
[CGD 88–032, 56 FR 35822, July 29, 1991 as amended by CGD 95–072, 60 FR 50462, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 95–027, 61 FR 26000, May 23, 1996; CGD 96–041, 61 FR 50727, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97–057, 62 FR 51044, Sept. 30, 1997; USCG–1999–6216, 64 FR 53224, Oct. 1, 1999; USCG–1999–5151, 64 FR 67177, Dec. 1, 1999; USCG–2002–13058, 67 FR 61278, Sept. 30, 2002]
§ 54.01-2 Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code.
(a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with division 1 of section VIII of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited, modified, or replaced by specific requirements in this part. The provisions in the appendices to division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code are adopted and shall be followed when the requirements in section VIII make them mandatory. For general information Table 54.01–1(a) lists the various paragraphs in division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code which are limited, modified, or replaced by regulations in this part.
Table 54.01-1(a)_Limitations and Modifications in the Adoption of
Division 1 of Section VIII, ASME Code
Paragraphs in Section VIII, ASME Code \1\
and disposition Unit of this part
U-1 and U-2 modified by................... 54.01-5 through 54.01-16.
U-1(c) replaced by........................ 54.01-5.
U-1(d) replaced by........................ 54.01-5(a) and 54.01-15.
U-1(e) modified by........................ 54.01-10.
U-1(h) replaced by........................ 54.01-15.
UG-11 modified by......................... 54.01-25.
UG-22 modified by......................... 54.01-30.
UG-25 modified by......................... 54.01-35.
UG-28 modified by......................... 54.01-40.
UG-84 replaced by......................... 54.05-1.
UG-90 through UG-103 modified by.......... 54.10-1.
UG-90 and UG-91 replaced by............... 54.10-3.
UG-92 through UG-103 modified by.......... 54.10-3.
UG-98 reproduced by....................... 54.10-5.
UG-99 modified by......................... 54.10-10.
UG-100 modified by........................ 54.10-15.
UG-115 through UG-120 modified by......... 54.10-1.
UG-116, except (k) replaced by............ 54.10-20(a).
UG-116(k) replaced by..................... 54.10-20(b).
UG-117 replaced by........................ 54.10-20(c).
UG-118 replaced by........................ 54.10-20(a).
UG-119 modified by........................ 54.10-20(d).
UG-120 modified by........................ 54.10-25.
UG-125 through UG-134 modified by......... 54.15-1 through 54.15-15.
UG-125 modified by........................ 54.15-5.
UG-125 modified by........................ 54.15-10, 54.15-15.
UG-127 modified by........................ 54.15-13.
UW-1 through UW-65 modified by............ 54.20-1.
UW-2(a) replaced by....................... 54.01-5(b) and 54.20-2.
UW-2(b) replaced by....................... 54.01-5(b).
UW-9, UW-11(a), UW-13, UW-16 modified by.. 54.20-3.
UW-11(a) modified by...................... 54.25-8.
UW-26, UW-27, UW-29, UW-47, UW-48 modified 54.20-5.
UW-52(c)(3) replaced by................... 54.20-10.
UB-1 modified by.......................... 54.23-1
UB-2 modified by.......................... 52.01-95(d) and 56.30-
UCS-6 modified by......................... 54.25-3.
UCS-25 replaced by........................ 54.25-5.
UCS-56 modified by........................ 54.25-7.
UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57 54.25-8.
UCS-65 through UCS-67 replaced by......... 54.25-10.
UHA-23(b) and UHA-51 modified by.......... 54.25-15.
UHT-5(c), UHT-6, UHT-23 modified by....... 54.25-20.
UHT-82 modified by........................ 54.25-20, 54.25-25.
UA-60 modified by......................... 54.15-3.
\1\ The references to specific provisions in the ASME Code are coded.
The first letter ``U'' refers to division 1 of section VIII. The
second letter, such as ``G'', refers to a subsection within section
VIII. The number refers to the paragraph within the subsection.
(b) References to the ASME Code, such as paragraph UG–125, indicate:
U=Division 1 of section VIII, Pressure Vessels, ASME Code.
G=Part containing general requirements.
125=Paragraph within part.
(c) When a paragraph or a section of the regulations in this part relates to material in division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, the relationship with the code will be shown immediately following the heading of the section or at the beginning of the paragraph as follows:
(1) (Modifies U___.) This indicates that the material in U___ is generally applicable but is being altered, amplified or augmented.
(2) (Replaces U___.) This indicates that U___ does not apply.
(3) (Reproduces U___.) This indicates that U___ is being identically reproduced for convenience, not for emphasis.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9976, June 17, 1970; CGFR 72–59R, 37 FR 6188, Mar. 25, 1972; CGD 72–206R, 38 FR 17226, June 29, 1973; CGD 73–254, 40 FR 40163, Sept. 2, 1975; CGD 77–147, 47 FR 21809, May 20, 1982; CGD 85–061, 54 FR 50963, Dec. 11, 1989. Redesignated by CGD 88–032, 56 FR 35822, July 29, 1991]
§ 54.01-5 Scope (modifies U–1 and U–2).
(a) This part contains requirements for pressure vessels. Table 54.01–5(a) gives a breakdown by parts in this subchapter of the regulations governing various types of pressure vessels, boilers, and thermal units.
(b) Pressure vessels are divided into Classes I, I-L (low temperature), II, II-L (low temperature), and III. Table 54.01–5(b) describes these classes and sets out additional requirements for welded pressure vessels.
(c) The requirements for pressure vessels by class are as follows:
(1) Class I-L and II-L pressure vessels must meet the applicable requirements in this part.
(2) Pressure vessels containing hazardous materials as defined in §150.115 of this chapter must meet the requirements of this part or, as applicable, the requirements in 49 CFR parts 171–177 or part 64 of this chapter.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, Classes I, II, and III pressure vessels not containing hazardous materials must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in Section VIII, division 1, of the ASME Code and must be stamped with the ASME “U” symbol. These pressure vessels must also comply with the requirements that are listed or prescribed in paragraphs (d) through (g) of this section. Compliance with other provisions in this part is not required.
(4) Classes II and III pressure vessels that have a net internal volume of less than 0.14 cubic meters (5 cubic feet) and do not contain hazardous materials must be stamped with either the ASME “U” or “UM” symbol. Compliance with other provisions in this part is not required.
(d) Pressure vessels described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section must—
(1) Have detailed plans that include the information required by §54.01–18 (approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control number 2130–0181);
(2) Meet §54.01–35, §54.20–3(c), and §54.25–3 of this part;
(3) Have pressure relief devices required by subpart 54.15;
(4) Meet the applicable requirements in §§54.10–3, 54.10–20, and 54.10–25 for inspection, reports, and stamping;
(5) If welded, meet the post weld heat treatment and minimum joint and radiography requirement in Table 54.01–5(b); and
(6) If a steam generating pressure vessel, meet §54.01–10.
(e) The plans required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section must be certified by a registered professional engineer to meet the design requirements in paragraph (d) of this section and in section VIII, division 1, of the ASME Code. The certification must appear on all drawings and analyses. The plans must be made available to the Coast Guard prior to the inspection required by §54.10–3(c).
(f) If a pressure vessel has more than one independent chamber and the chambers have different classifications, each chamber must, as a minimum, meet the requirements for its classification. If a single classification for the entire pressure vessel is preferred, the classification selected must be one that is required to meet all of the regulations applicable to the classification that is not selected. For example, if one chamber is Class I and one chamber is Class II-L, the only single classification that can be selected is Class I-L.
(g) The design pressure for each interface between two chambers in a multichambered pressure vessel must be—
(1) The maximum allowable working pressure (gauge) in the chamber with the higher pressure; or
(2) If one chamber is a vacuum chamber, the maximum allowable working pressure (absolute) in the other chamber minus the least operating pressure (absolute) in the vacuum chamber.
Table 54.01-5(a)_Regulation Reference for Boilers, Pressure Vessels, and
Part of Part of
Service and pressure temperature boundaries regulating regulating
Main (power) boiler: All...................... 52 62
Pressure vessel: All.......................... 54 NA
Fired auxiliary boiler \1\ (combustion
products or electricity):
More than 103 kPa (15 psig)............... 52 \2\ 62 or
Equal to or less than 103 kPa (15 psig)... 53 63
(b) Hot water heating:
More than 689 kPa (100 psig) or 121 °C 52 63
Equal to or less than 689 kPa (100 psig) 53 63
and 121 °C (250 °F)..............
(c) Hot water supply:
More than 689 kPa (100 psig) or 121 °C 52 63
Equal to or less than 689 kPa (100 psig) 53 63
and 121 °C (250 °F)..............
(a) Fired thermal fluid heaters: All........ 52 63
(b) Unfired steam boiler:
More than 206 kPa (30 psig) or 454 °C 52 NA
(850 °F) \3\.........................
Equal to or less than 206 kPa (30 psig) 54 NA
and 454 °C (850 °F)..............
(c) Evaporators and heat exchangers: More 54 NA
than 103 kPa (15 psig) \4\.................
(d) Unfired hot water supply or heating 54 NA
boiler: More than 103 kPa (15 psig) \4\....
\1\ Including exhaust gas types.
\2\ Boilers with heat input ratings >=12,500,000 Btu/hr. must have
controls that meet part 62. Boilers with heat input ratings
<12,500,000 Btu/hr. must have controls that meet part 63.
\3\ Temperature of working fluid.
\4\ Relief device is required even if designed for less than 103 kPa (15
Table 54.01-5(b)_Pressure Vessel Classification
Class limits on Joint requirements requirements, Post weld heat Shop inspect. Plan approval
Class Service contents pressure and 1, 6, 7 section VIII, ASME treatment required required required
temperature Code 3, 7 5, 7
I................... (a) Vapor or gas... Over 600 p.s.i. or (1) For category Full on all butt For carbon or low Yes \4\...... Yes \4\.
(b) Liquid......... 700 °F A; (1) or (2) For joints regardless alloy steel, in
(c) Hazardous Over 600 p.s.i. or category B. All of thickness. accordance with
materials \2\. 400 °F. categories C and Exceptions listed Table UCS-56,
D must have full in Table UCS-57 regardless of
penetration welds of ASME Code do thickness. For
extending through not apply. other materials,
the entire in accordance
thickness of the with section
vessel wall or VIII, ASME Code.
I-L Low temperature. (a) Vapor or gas... Over 250 p.s.i. and (1) for categories Full on all butt For carbon or low Yes.......... Yes.
................... service A and B. All joints regardless alloy steel, in
(b) Liquid......... temperature below categories C and of thickness. accordance with
(c) Hazardous 0 °F D must have full Exceptions listed Table UCS-56,
materials \2\. Over 250 p.s.i. and penetration welds in Table UCS-57 regardless of
service extending through of ASME Code do thickness. For
temperature below the entire not apply. other materials,
0 °F. thickness of the in accordance
vessel wall or with section
nozzle wall. No VIII, ASME Code.
backing rings or
strips left in
II.................. (a) Vapor or gas... 30 through 600 (1) or (2) for Spot, unless In accordance with Yes \4\...... Yes \4\.
................... p.s.i. or 275° category A. (1), exempted by UW- section, VIII of
(b) Liquid......... through 700 °F (2), or (3) for 11(c) of ASME ASME Code.
(c) Hazardous 200 through 600 category B. Code.
materials 2, 3, 6. p.s.i. or 250° Categories C and
through 400 °F. D in accordance
with UW-16 of
II-L Low temperature (a) Vapor or gas... 0 through 250 (1) for category Spot. The Same as for I-L Yes.......... Yes.
................... p.s.i. and service A; (1) or (2) for exemption of UW- except that
(b) Liquid......... temperature below category B. All II(c) of ASME mechanical stress
(c) Hazardous 0 °F categories C and Code does not relief may be
materials \2\. 0 through 250 D must have full apply. substituted if
p.s.i. and service penetration welds allowed under
temperature below extending through subpart 54.30 of
0 °F. the entire this chapter.
thickness of the
vessel wall or
III................. (a) Vapor or gas... Under 30 p.s.i. and In accordance with Spot, unless In accordance with Yes \4\...... Yes \4\.
(b) Liquid......... 0° through 275 Section VIII of exempted UW-II(c) Section VIII of
(c) Hazardous °F AMSE Code. of ASME Code. ASME Code.
materials 2, 3, 6. Under 200 p.s.i.
and 0° through
\1\ Welded joint categories are defined under UW-3 of the ASME Code. Joint types are described in Table UW-12 of the ASME Code, and numbered ``(1),''
\2\ See § 54.20-2.
\3\ See §§ 54.25-8(c) and 54.25-10(d).
\4\ See §§ 54.01-15 and 54.10-3 for exemptions.
\5\ Specific requirements modifying Table UCS-56 of the ASME Code are found in § 54.25-7.
\6\ See § 54.20-3 (c) and (f)
\7\ Applies only to welded pressure vessels.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control number 2130–0181)
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9976, June 17, 1970; CGD 77–147, 47 FR 21809, May 20, 1982; 55 FR 696, Jan. 8, 1990; CGD 88–057, 55 FR 24236, June 15, 1990; CGD 85–061, 55 FR 41917, Oct. 16, 1990; CGD 95–027, 61 FR 26000, May 23, 1996; USCG–2000–7790, 65 FR 58460, Sept. 29, 2000]
§ 54.01-10 Steam generating pressure vessels (modifies U–1(e)).
(a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except as required otherwise by paragraph (b) of this section. Unfired steam boilers must be fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, a blowdown valve, and an approved safety valve as required by §54.15–15. Unfired steam boilers must be constructed in accordance with this part other than when the pressures are more than 206 kPa (30 psig) or the temperatures of the working fluid are more than 454 °C (850 °F) when such boilers must be constructed in accordance with part 52 of this subchapter.
(b) Vessels known as “Evaporators” or “Heat Exchangers” are not classified as unfired steam boilers. They shall be fitted with an approved safety device as required under §54.15–15 and constructed in accordance with this part.
(c) An evaporator in which steam is generated shall be fitted with an efficient water level indicator, a pressure gage, and a blowdown valve.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGD 81–79, 50 FR 9436, Mar. 8, 1985; CGD 95–012, 60 FR 48044, Sept. 18, 1995]
§ 54.01-15 Exemptions from shop inspection and plan approval (replaces U–1(c) (6) through (9)).
(a) The following classifications are exempt from shop inspection and plan approval requirements of this part:
(1) Vessels containing water at a pressure not greater than 100 pounds per square inch gage, nor a temperature above 200 °F., including those containing air, the compression of which serves only as a cushion. Air charging lines may be permanently attached provided the air pressure does not exceed 15 pounds per square inch gage.
(2) Hot water supply storage tanks heated by steam or any other indirect means when none of the following limitations is exceeded:
(i) A heat input of 200,000 B.t.u. per hour;
(ii) A water temperature of 200 °F.;
(iii) A nominal water-containing capacity of 120 gallons; or
(iv) A pressure of 100 pounds per square inch gage.
The exemption of any tank under this subparagraph requires that it shall be fitted with a safety relief valve of at least 1-inch diameter, set to relieve below the maximum allowable working pressure of the tank.
(3)(i) Vessels having an internal operating pressure not exceeding 15 pounds per square inch gage with no limitation on size. (See UG–28(e) of the ASME Code.)
(ii) Cargo tanks of pressure vessel configuration are not included in the exemption in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section.
(4) Class I, II, and III pressure vessels that meet the requirements of §54.01–5 (c)(3) and (c)(4).
(5) Condensers and heat exchangers, regardless of size, where the design is such that the liquid phase is not greater than 100 pounds per square inch gage and 200 °F. and the vapor phase is not greater than 15 pounds per square inch gage provided system over pressure conditions are considered.
(b) For fluid conditioner fittings see §56.15–1 of this subchapter.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9977, June 17, 1970; CGFR 70–143, 35 FR 19906, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 77–147, 47 FR 21810, May 20, 1982]
§ 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).
Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations) of part 197 of this chapter.
[CGD 76–009, 43 FR 53683, Nov. 16, 1978]
§ 54.01-18 Plan approval.
(a) Manufacturers intending to fabricate pressure vessels, heat exchangers, evaporators, and similar appurtenances, covered by the regulations in this part shall submit detailed plans in accordance with subpart 50.20 of this subchapter.
(b) The following information shall be submitted:
(1) Calculations for all pressure containment components including the maximum allowable working pressure, the hydrostatic or pneumatic test pressure, and the intended safety device setting.
(2) Joint design and methods of attachment of all pressure containment components.
(3) Foundations and supports (design and attachment).
(4) Pertinent calculations for pressure vessel foundations and/or supports.
(5) A bill of material meeting the requirements of section VIII of the ASME Code, as modified by this part.
(6) A diagrammatic arrangement drawing of the assembled unit indicating location of internal and external components.
§ 54.01-25 Miscellaneous pressure components (modifies UG–11).
(a) Pressure components for pressure vessels shall be as required by UG–11 of the ASME Code except as noted otherwise in this section.
(b) All pressure components conforming to an accepted ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Standard referred to in an adopted code, specification or standard or in this subchapter shall also be marked in accordance with MSS (Manufacturers' Standardization Society) Standard SP–25.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9977, June 17, 1970]
§ 54.01-30 Loadings (modifies UG–22).
(a) The loadings for pressure vessels shall be as required by UG–22 of the ASME Code except as noted otherwise in this section.
(b) In evaluating loadings for certain pressure vessel applications, the Commandant may require consideration of the following loads in addition to those listed in UG–22 of the ASME Code:
(1) Loading imposed by vessel's attitude in roll, list, pitch and trim.
(2) Dynamic forces due to ship motions.
§ 54.01-35 Corrosion (modifies UG– 25).
(a) Vessels or portions of vessels subject to corrosion shall be as required by UG–25 of the ASME Code except as noted otherwise in this section.
(b) The pressure portions of pressure vessels shall:
(1) Normally have a corrosion allowance of one-sixth of the calculated thickness, or one-sixteenth inch, whichever is smaller, added to the calculated thickness as determined by the applicable design formula.
(2) Be specifically evaluated in cases where unusually corrosive cargoes will be involved, for the possible increase of this corrosion allowance.
(3) Have no additional thickness required when acceptable corrosion resistant materials are used.
(4) Not normally need additional thickness allowance when the effective stress (either S or SE depending on the design formula used) is 80 percent or less of the allowable stress listed in section VIII of the ASME Code for calculating thickness.
(c) Telltale holes shall not be permitted in pressure vessels containing dangerous fluids, such as acid, poison, corrosives, etc.
(d) Exemption from these corrosion allowance requirements will be granted by the Commandant in those cases where:
(1) The contents of the pressure vessel is judged to be sufficiently noncorrosive; and,
(2) Where the external surface is also protected from corrosion. A suitable vapor barrier is adequate protection, while paint or other thin coatings exposed to weather or mechanical damage are not acceptable.
Note: No applied linings except as provided in Part UCL of the ASME Code shall be acceptable.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 72–59R, 37 FR 6189, Mar. 25, 1972]
§ 54.01-40 External pressure (modifies UG–28).
(a) The exemption from external pressure consideration provided by the note under UG–28(f) does not apply.
(b) Vessels which may at times be subjected to partial vacuum due to nature of the contents, temperature, unloading operations, or other facet of employment shall either have vacuum breaker protection or be designed for not less than one-half atmosphere of external pressure.
[CGFR 70–143, 35 FR 19906, Dec. 30, 1970]
Subpart 54.03—Low Temperature Operation
§ 54.03-1 Scope.
(a) The pressure vessels for low temperature operation shall be as required by section VIII of the ASME Code as modified by this subpart.
§ 54.03-5 General.
(a) Requirements for ferritic steels, high alloy steels, and heat treated ferritic steels are contained in §§54.25–10, 54.25–15, and 54.25–20 respectively of this subchapter.
(b) Requirements for toughness testing of material product forms and weldments (including weld procedure qualification and production toughness tests) are contained in subpart 54.05.
(c) Materials suitable for a given minimum service temperature may be used in warmer service. Steels differing in chemical composition, mechanical properties, or heat treatments from those specified may be specially approved by the Commandant. Similarly, aluminum alloys and other nonferrous materials not intended to be covered by these sections may be specially considered by the Commandant for service at any low temperature.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9977, June 17, 1970]
Subpart 54.05—Toughness Tests
§ 54.05-1 Scope (replaces UG–84).
(a) The toughness tests of materials used in pressure vessels shall be as required by this subpart in lieu of requirements in UG–84 of the ASME Code.
§ 54.05-3 Tests required.
(a) Where material or welding toughness tests are required by §§54.25–10, 54.25–15, 54.25–20, and subpart 57.03 or 57.06 of this subchapter, the following requirements shall apply:
(1) Additional requirements for ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment are in §54.25–20.
(2) Certified reports of toughness tests by the material manufacturer will be acceptable evidence provided the specimens taken are representative of the material delivered and that the material is not subject to treatment during or following fabrication that will reduce its impact properties. If such treatment is subsequently applied to the material, test specimens shall be so taken and treated as to be representative of the material in the finished vessel.
(b) The requirements of this subpart are also applicable to nonpressure vessel type low temperature tanks and associated secondary barriers, as defined in §38.05–4 of subchapter D (Tank Vessels) of this chapter.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9977, June 17, 1970]
§ 54.05-5 Toughness test specimens.
(a) Charpy V-notch impact tests. Where required, Charpy V-notch tests shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM Specification E 23 (incorporated by reference, see §54.01–1), “Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials”, using the Type A specimen shown in Figure 4 of the specification. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the Charpy Keyhole and U-notch specimens are not acceptable substitutes for the Charpy V-notch specimen and shall not be used to qualify materials within the scope of this subpart. Each set of Charpy impact tests shall consist of three specimens. For materials 1/2-inch thick or less, the largest possible Charpy specimens for that thickness shall be cut centered at the material's mid-thickness. For materials thicker than 1/2-inch, full size Charpy specimens shall be cut centered at a location as near as practicable to a point midway between the material's surface and half-thickness. Except where otherwise specified, transversely oriented specimens must be used. When longitudinal specimens are used, the required energy values may not be less than 1.5 times the values required for transversely oriented specimens. In all cases the notch shall be cut normal to the material's surface. Test specimens shall be taken at least one “t” from any heat treated edge (where “t” is the material's nominal thickness).
(b) Drop weight tests. Where required, drop weight tests shall be conducted for no-break performance in accordance with ASTM Specification E 208 (incorporated by reference, see §54.01–1), “Conducting Drop-Weight Test to Determine Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels”. For material thicknesses between 1/2-inch and 5/8-inch, the ASTM E–208 specimen P–3, machined to 1/2-inch thickness, shall be used with a stop distance of 0.090–inch. In preparing weld specimens for dropweight testing, weld reinforcement shall be ground flush, the hard facing bead centered on and transverse to the weld, and the notch centered on and parallel to the weld axis.
(c) Retest procedures. (1) When Charpy V-notch impact specimens are used and the average value of the three initial specimens fails to meet the stated requirements by an amount not exceeding 15 percent, or the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value of when the value for one specimen is below the minimum value permitted for a single specimen by an amount not exceeding 15 percent, three additional specimens from the same material may be tested and the results combined with those previously obtained to form a new average. This new average of six specimens must exceed the specified minimum average. In the event the Charpy retests fail, the material may still be qualified by exhibiting a no-break performance when tested in accordance with the drop weight procedure, if applicable. Two drop weight specimens shall be tested for each Charpy V-notch set of three initial specimens which failed to qualify. Failure of either or both of these drop weight specimens will constitute rejection of the material or weldments represented, except as outlined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(2) When drop weight specimens are used, retests shall be permitted only within the limits prescribed in ASTM Specification E 208 (incorporated by reference, see §54.01–1), except as outlined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(3) If, for heat treated base material, the required toughness results are not obtained in the initial test or in the retest, the material may be reheat treated one time and tested again in accordance with the initial requirements for the material.
(d) Alternate toughness tests. The Charpy V-notch impact values of §§54.05–20(a) and 54.05–25(a) are representative of those which correlate with the nil-ductility transition temperature determined by the drop-weight tests for the steels specified in §54.25–10. For materials for which there are other data showing suitable correlation between Charpy V-notch and drop-weight tests, V-notch acceptance limits different from those tabulated herein may be specially approved by the Commandant, based upon the actual correlation. In the case of steels for which the tabulated Charpy V-notch values can be shown to be inapplicable or in the case of specially considered steels, or as an alternative to complying with the tabulated impact requirements, acceptance may be based upon the material exhibiting a no-break performance when tested in accordance with the drop-weight procedure. Whenever the drop-weight test is used as an alternative to the Charpy V-notch test, two drop-weight specimens shall be tested for each set of three Charpy V-notch specimens otherwise required. If the drop-weight test cannot be performed because of material thickness limitations (less than one-half inch) or product shape, or is otherwise inapplicable (because of heat treatment, chemistry, etc.), other tests and/or test criteria will be specified by the Commandant to assure the adequacy of the material for the intended application.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGD 73–254, 40 FR 40163, Sept. 2, 1975; USCG–2000–7790, 65 FR 58460, Sept. 29, 2000]
§ 54.05-6 Toughness test temperatures.
Each toughness test must be conducted at temperatures not warmer than -20 °F or 10 °F below the minimum service temperature, whichever is lower, except that for service at or below -320 °F, the tests may be conducted at the service temperature in accordance with §54.25–10(a)(2).
[CGD 85–061, 54 FR 50964, Dec. 11, 1989]
§ 54.05-10 Certification of material toughness tests.
(a) Plate material. The manufacturer of plates may certify such material, provided it has been given an appropriate heat-treatment, by reporting the results of tests of one set of Charpy impact specimens or of two drop weight specimens, as applicable, taken from each plate as rolled. Impact specimens shall be taken as outlined in section 12 of ASTM A 20 (incorporated by reference, see §54.01–1). The long axis of the Charpy specimen must be perpendicular to the final direction of rolling. When the direction of maximum stress is unknown, the manufacturer may certify on the basis of specimens taken parallel to the final direction of rolling.
(b) Pipe or tube material. (1) The manufacturer of pipe, tube, or welded fittings formed from pipe or tube may certify such material by reporting the results of tests of one set of Charpy impact specimens, provided the requirement for production in this paragraph (b)(1) or paragraph (b)(2) of this section, as well as the requirement for sampling in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are met. The specimens shall have the major axis parallel to the length of pipe or tube. In the case of welding fittings, the specimens may be taken from the tubing prior to forming provided the fittings are normalized after forming. Such specimens shall be normalized before testing.
(2) One set of specimens may represent each five (5) short tons, or less, of the pipe, tubes, or welding fittings produced from one heat of steel poured from a single melting furnace charge and subsequently processed in the same manner, provided all are given a normalizing heat-treatment in a continuous treating furnace in which the temperature is automatically controlled and checked by recording pyrometer.
(3) One set of specimens may represent each five (5) short tons, or less, of the pipe, tubes, or welding fittings that have been given a normalizing heat-treatment as a single charge in a batch-treating furnace equipped with recording pyrometer provided all have been produced from a single melting furnace heat and are subsequently processed in the same manner. If more than one melting furnace heat is present in the batch heat-treating furnace, means of identification shall be provided and one set of specimens shall be taken from each heat.
(4) One set of impact specimens shall be taken from one pipe or tube picked at random from each heat or furnace batch or portion thereof to be certified.
(c) Forgings and forged or rolled fittings. (1) The manufacturer of forgings for any purpose may certify them by reporting the results of tests of one set of Charpy impact specimens or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, taken from each 5 short tons of product from each melting heat provided the requirements in this paragraph for production and sampling are met.
(2) One or more test blocks shall be cut from billets or blooms selected at random from each heat of material. Each test block shall be forge-reduced in thickness to the thickness of the finished forgings to be certified, within the limitations set below. After forging to the reduced thickness, the test block shall be heat-treated in the same manner as the finished forgings represented, which heat-treatment of test blocks may be carried out in the furnace with the forgings, or separately. If carried out separately, both heat-treatments shall be done in automatically controlled furnaces equipped with calibrated recording pyrometers, the certified records of which shall be made available to the inspector.
(3) One set of Charpy impact specimens or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, shall be cut from each such test block and these specimens shall represent all forgings (up to 5 short tons) that are from the same heat of material and given the same heat-treatment as the test block, and the thickness of which does not differ from that of the test block by more than plus or minus 50 percent of 1 1/2 inches, whichever is less, except that forged flanges and tube sheets thicker than 5 1/2 inches may be qualified from a 4-inch test block.
(4) As many test blocks shall be made as are required under the foregoing rule in paragraph (c)(3) of this section to cover the weight of product and range of thickness found in the forgings represented. The major axis of the test specimens shall be parallel to the length of the test block.
(d) Bars and shapes, rolled or forged. (1) The manufacturer of forged or rolled bars and shapes may certify such by reporting the results of one set of Charpy impact specimens, or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, produced from each 5 short tons from a single melting furnace heat, processed in a similar manner and heat-treated as a single furnace batch, if heat-treated. The impact specimens shall be cut from the heaviest section, clear of fillets, of the shape being tested with the axis of the specimens parallel to the axis of the bar or shape.
(e) Castings. (1) The manufacturer of castings may certify them by reporting the results of one set of Charpy impact specimens or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, taken from each 5 short tons of product from each melting furnace heat. These specimens shall be taken either directly from a production casting or from test coupons cast attached thereto provided the additional requirements in this paragraph are met.
(2) One set of Charpy impact or two drop-weight specimens may represent all castings (up to 5 short tons) that are from the same heat of material and that have a thickness that does not differ from the thickness of the section from which the specimens were taken by more than plus or minus 25 percent, or 1 1/2 inches, whichever is less. A wider range of thicknesses from one heat may be covered by taking additional sets of specimens from thicker or thinner material as may be required.
(3) The test specimens shall be heat-treated in the same manner as the castings represented, which heat-treatment of specimens may be carried out in the furnace with the castings represented, or separately, but if carried out separately both heat-treatments shall be done in automatically controlled furnaces equipped with calibrated recording pyrometers, the certified records of which shall be made available to the marine inspector.
(f) Small parts. The manufacturer of small parts, either cast or forged, may certify a lot of not more than 20 duplicate parts or 5 short tons, whichever is less, by reporting the results of one set of Charpy impact specimens, or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, taken from one such part selected at random, provided the same kind of material and the same process of production were used for all of the lot. When the part is too small to provide the specimens of at least minimum size, no impact test need be made. For such parts too small to impact test, toughness qualifications shall be determined by the Commandant based on material, chemical, and mechanical properties.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18828, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CFR 73–254, 40 FR 40164, Sept. 2, 1975; USCG–1999–5151, 64 FR 67178, Dec. 1, 1999]
§ 54.05-15 Weldment toughness tests—procedure qualifications.
(a) Plate for which Charpy V-notch impact testing is required in the parent material and for which V-notch minima are specified shall similarly have welding procedures qualified for toughness by Charpy V-notch testing. For these tests, the test plates shall be oriented with their final rolling direction parallel to the weld axis (i.e., so that transverse impact specimens result), and with the V-notch normal to the plate surface. The sample weld joint preparation shall be the same as that used in production. The number of test specimens and the location of their notches shall be as shown in Figure 54.05–15(a) and as described in paragraphs (a) (1) through (5) of this section.
(1) Three specimens with the notch centered in the weld metal.
(2) Three specimens with the notch centered on the fusion line between parent plate and weld. (The fusion line may be identified by etching the specimen with a mild reagent.)
(3) Three specimens with the notch centered in the heat affected zone, 1 mm from the fusion line.
(4) Same as paragraph (a)(3) of this section, but 3 mm from the fusion line.
(5) Same as paragraph (a)(3) of this section, but 5 mm from the fusion line.
Figure 54.05–15(a)—Charpy V-notch specimen removal details
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(b) Plate materials for which Charpy V-notch minimums are not specified, or for which a Charpy V-notch correlation with NDT is not known, and which are themselves tested for toughness by the drop-weight procedure, shall have welding procedures similarly qualified by the drop-weight test. For such qualifications, two drop-weight specimens are to be tested, with the notch positioned directly above and parallel to the centerline of the weld.
(c) Piping welding toughness tests shall be qualified, by making Charpy V-notch impact tests as prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Materials which are specially approved based on toughness criteria or tests, other than those discussed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, shall have welding procedures tested and qualified for toughness as deemed appropriate and necessary by the Commandant.
(e) In the case of stainless steels, weld procedure toughness tests may be limited to weld metal only if this is all that is required by §54.25–15.
§ 54.05-16 Production toughness testing.
(a) For vessels of welded construction, production toughness test plates shall be prepared for each 50 feet of longitudinal and circumferential butt weld in each Class I-L vessel, or for each 150 feet in each Class II-L vessel, except for material other than stainless steel that is exempted from impact test requirements by this subchapter. In the case of stainless steels, weld production toughness tests may be limited to weld metal only if this is all that is required be §54.25–15. The test-plate thickness shall be the same as that of the vessel wall at the location of the production weld being sampled. The test plates shall be prepared, wherever possible, as run-off tabs attached at the ends of weld butts or seams. The rolling direction of the run-off tabs should be oriented parallel to the rolling direction of the adjacent production material. The test-plate material shall be taken from one of the heats of material used in the vessel, and both the electrodes and welding procedures shall be the same as used in the fabrication of the vessel. From each test plate, one set of three Charpy impact bars or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable according to the test used in procedure qualification, shall be taken transverse to the weld axis. For Charpy V-notch specimens, the notch shall be normal to the material surface and its location alternated (approximately) on successive tests between the weld metal and heat affected zone. Thus, approximately half of all weld production impact tests will be of weld metal and half of heat affected zone material. For the weld metal tests, the V-notch is to be centered between the fusion lines. For the heat affected zone tests, the notch is to be centered so as to sample, as nearly as practicable, the most critical location for toughness observed in the weld procedure qualification tests. Where the drop weight specimen is used in production weld testing, it shall be prepared in the same manner as specified for procedure qualification testing, §54.05–15(b).
(b) For vessels not exceeding 5 cubic feet in volume, one set of impact specimens, or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable according to the test used in procedure qualification, may represent all vessels from the same heat of material not in excess of 100 vessels, or one heat-treatment furnace batch. In addition, when such vessels are welded, one weld test plate made from one of the heats of material used, and two sets of impact specimens or two drop-weight specimens, as applicable, cut therefrom, may represent the weld metal in the smallest of: One lot of 100 vessels or less; or each heat-treatment furnace batch; or each 50 feet of welding for ClassI-L vessels; or each 150 feet of welding for Class II-L vessels. (continued)