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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 761—POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS
PART 761—POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS
Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2605, 2607, 2611, 2614, and 2616.
§ 761.1 Applicability.
(a) This part establishes prohibitions of, and requirements for, the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, disposal, storage, and marking of PCBs and PCB Items.
(b)(1) This part applies to all persons who manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, use, or dispose of PCBs or PCB Items. Substances that are regulated by this part include, but are not limited to: dielectric fluids; solvents; oils; waste oils; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; paints or coatings; sludges; slurries; sediments; dredge spoils; soils; materials containing PCBs as a result of spills; and other chemical substances or combinations of substances, including impurities and byproducts and any byproduct, intermediate, or impurity manufactured at any point in a process.
(2) Unless otherwise noted, PCB concentrations shall be determined on a weight-per-weight basis (e.g., milligrams per kilogram), or for liquids, on a weight-per-volume basis (e.g., milligrams per liter) if the density of the liquid is also reported. Unless otherwise provided, PCBs are quantified based on the formulation of PCBs present in the material analyzed. For example, measure AroclorTM 1242 PCBs based on a comparison with AroclorTM 1242 standards. Measure individual congener PCBs based on a comparison with individual PCB congener standards.
(3) Most provisions in this part apply only if PCBs are present in concentrations above a specified level. Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of < 50 ppm apply also to contaminated surfaces at PCB concentrations of = 10 µg/100 cm 2 . Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of = 50 to < 500 ppm apply also to contaminated surfaces at PCB concentrations of > 10/100 cm 2 to < 100 µg/100 cm 2 . Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of =500 ppm apply also to contaminated surfaces at PCB concentrations of = 100 µg/100 cm 2 .
(4) PCBs can be found in liquid, non-liquid and multi-phasic (combinations of liquid and non-liquid) forms. A person should use the following criteria to determine PCB concentrations to determine which provisions of this part apply to such PCBs.
(i) Any person determining PCB concentrations for non-liquid PCBs must do so on a dry weight basis.
(ii) Any person determining PCB concentrations for liquid PCBs must do so on a wet weight basis. Liquid PCBs containing more than 0.5 percent by weight non-dissolved material shall be analyzed as multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid mixtures.
(iii) Any person determining the PCB concentration of samples containing PCBs and non-dissolved non-liquid materials =0.5 percent, must separate the non-dissolved materials into non-liquid PCBs and liquid PCBs. For multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid or liquid/liquid mixtures, the phases shall be separated before chemical analysis. Following phase separation, the PCB concentration in each non-liquid phase shall be determined on a dry weight basis and the PCB concentration in each liquid phase shall be determined separately on a wet weight basis.
(iv) Any person disposing of multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid or liquid/liquid mixtures must use the PCB disposal requirements that apply to the individual phase with the highest PCB concentration except where otherwise noted. Alternatively, phases may be separated and disposed of using the PCB disposal requirements that apply to each separated, single-phase material.
(5) No person may avoid any provision specifying a PCB concentration by diluting the PCBs, unless otherwise specifically provided.
(6) Unless otherwise specified, references to weights or volumes of PCBs in this part apply to the total weight or total volume of the material (oil, soil, debris, etc.) that contains regulated concentrations of PCBs, not the calculated weight or volume of only the PCB molecules contained in the material.
(c) Definitions of the terms used in these regulations are in subpart A. The basic requirements applicable to disposal and marking of PCBs and PCB Items are set forth in subpart D—Disposal of PCBs and PCB Items and in subpart C—Marking of PCBs and PCB Items. Prohibitions applicable to PCB activities are set forth in subpart B—Manufacture, Processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use of PCBs and PCB Items. Subpart B also includes authorizations from the prohibitions. Subparts C and D set forth the specific requirements for disposal and marking of PCBs and PCB Items.
(d) Section 15 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) states that failure to comply with these regulations is unlawful. Section 16 imposes liability for civil penalties upon any person who violates these regulations, and the Administrator can establish appropriate remedies for any violations subject to any limitations included in section 16 of TSCA. Section 16 also subjects a person to criminal prosecution for a violation which is knowing or willful. In addition, section 17 authorizes Federal district courts to enjoin activities prohibited by these regulations, compel the taking of actions required by these regulations, and issue orders to seize PCBs and PCB Items manufactured, processed or distributed in violation of these regulations.
(e) These regulations do not preempt other more stringent Federal statutes and regulations.
(f) Unless and until superseded by any new more stringent regulations issued under EPA authorities, or any permits or any pretreatment requirements issued by EPA, a state or local government that affect release of PCBs to any particular medium:
(1) Persons who inadvertently manufacture or import PCBs generated as unintentional impurities in excluded manufacturing processes, as defined in §761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part, provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.
(2) Persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing PCBs generated in excluded manufacturing processes defined in §761.3 are exempt from the requirements of subpart B provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.
(3) Persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing recycled PCBs defined in §761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part, provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.
(4) Except as provided in §761.20 (d) and (e), persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing excluded PCB products as defined in §761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part.
(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94–469, 90 Stat. 2020 (15 U.S.C. 2605)
[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 28189, July 10, 1984; 53 FR 24220, June 27, 1988; 63 FR 35436, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]
§ 761.2 PCB concentration assumptions for use.
(a)(1) Any person may assume that transformers with < 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms (kgs)) of fluid, circuit breakers, reclosers, oil-filled cable, and rectifiers whose PCB concentration is not established contain PCBs at < 50 ppm.
(2) Any person must assume that mineral oil-filled electrical equipment that was manufactured before July 2, 1979, and whose PCB concentration is not established is PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (i.e., contains =50 ppm PCB, but < 500 ppm PCB). All pole-top and pad-mounted distribution transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume that electrical equipment manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., < 50 ppm PCBs). If the date of manufacture of mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated.
(3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, that contains 1.36 kg (3 pounds) or more of fluid other than mineral oil and whose PCB concentration is not established, is a PCB Transformer (i.e., = 500 ppm). If the date of manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer to be a PCB Transformer.
(4) Any person must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains =500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., < 50 ppm PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor contains =500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of manufacture with the statement “No PCBs” in accordance with §761.40(g) is non-PCB.
(b) PCB concentration may be established by:
(1) Testing the equipment; or
(2)(i) A permanent label, mark, or other documentation from the manufacturer of the equipment indicating its PCB concentration at the time of manufacture; and
(ii) Service records or other documentation indicating the PCB concentration of all fluids used in servicing the equipment since it was first manufactured.
[63 FR 35436, June 29, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]
§ 761.3 Definitions.
For the purpose of this part:
Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, or any employee of the Agency to whom the Administrator may either herein or by order delegate his authority to carry out his functions, or any person who shall by operation of law be authorized to carry out such functions.
Agency means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Air compressor system means air compressors, piping, receiver tanks, volume tanks and bottles, dryers, airlines, and related appurtenances.
Annual document log means the detailed information maintained at the facility on the PCB waste handling at the facility.
Annual report means the written document submitted each year by each disposer and commercial storer of PCB waste to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator. The annual report is a brief summary of the information included in the annual document log.
ASTM means American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959.
Byproduct means a chemical substance produced without separate commercial intent during the manufacturing or processing of another chemical substance(s) or mixture(s).
Capacitor means a device for accumulating and holding a charge of electricity and consisting of conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric. Types of capacitors are as follows:
(1) Small capacitor means a capacitor which contains less than 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid. The following assumptions may be used if the actual weight of the dielectric fluid is unknown. A capacitor whose total volume is less than 1,639 cubic centimeters (100 cubic inches) may be considered to contain less than 1.36 kgs (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid and a capacitor whose total volume is more than 3,278 cubic centimeters (200 cubic inches) must be considered to contain more than 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid. A capacitor whose volume is between 1,639 and 3,278 cubic centimeters may be considered to contain less then 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid if the total weight of the capacitor is less than 4.08 kg (9 lbs.).
(2) Large high voltage capacitor means a capacitor which contains 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid and which operates at 2,000 volts (a.c. or d.c.) or above.
(3) Large low voltage capacitor means a capacitor which contains 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid and which operates below 2,000 volts (a.c. or d.c.).
CERCLA means the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 U.S.C. 9601-9657).
Certification means a written statement regarding a specific fact or representation that contains the following language:
Under civil and criminal penalties of law for the making or submission of false or fraudulent statements or representations (18 U.S.C. 1001 and 15 U.S.C. 2615), I certify that the information contained in or accompanying this document is true, accurate, and complete. As to the identified section(s) of this document for which I cannot personally verify truth and accuracy, I certify as the company official having supervisory responsibility for the persons who, acting under my direct instructions, made the verification that this information is true, accurate, and complete.
Chemical substance, (1) except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including: Any combination of such substances occurring in whole or part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and any element or uncombined radical.
(2) Such term does not include: Any mixture; any pesticide (as defined in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a pesticide; tobacco or any tobacco product; any source material, special nuclear material, or byproduct material (as such terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and regulations issued under such Act); any article the sale of which is subject to the tax imposed by section 4181 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (determined without regard to any exemptions from such tax provided by section 4182 or section 4221 or any provisions of such Code); and any food, food additive, drug, cosmetic, or device (as such terms are defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a food, food additive, drug, cosmetic, or device.
Chemical waste landfill means a landfill at which protection against risk of injury to health or the environment from migration of PCBs to land, water, or the atmosphere is provided from PCBs and PCB Items deposited therein by locating, engineering, and operating the landfill as specified in §761.75.
Cleanup site means the areal extent of contamination and all suitable areas in very close proximity to the contamination necessary for implementation of a cleanup of PCB remediation waste, regardless of whether the site was intended for management of waste.
Commerce means trade, traffic, transportation, or other commerce:
(1) Between a place in a State and any place outside of such State, or
(2) Which affects trade, traffic, transportation, or commerce described in paragraph (1) of this definition.
Commercial storer of PCB waste means the owner or operator of each facility that is subject to the PCB storage unit standards of §761.65(b)(1) or (c)(7) or meets the alternate storage criteria of §761.65(b)(2), and who engages in storage activities involving either PCB waste generated by others or that was removed while servicing the equipment owned by others and brokered for disposal. The receipt of a fee or any other form of compensation for storage services is not necessary to qualify as a commercial storer of PCB waste. A generator who only stores its own waste is subject to the storage requirements of §761.65, but is not required to obtain approval as a commercial storer. If a facility's storage of PCB waste generated by others at no time exceeds a total of 500 gallons of liquid and/or non-liquid material containing PCBs at regulated levels, the owner or operator is a commercial storer but is not required to seek EPA approval as a commercial storer of PCB waste. Storage of one company's PCB waste by a related company is not considered commercial storage. A “related company” includes, but is not limited to: a parent company and its subsidiaries; sibling companies owned by the same parent company; companies owned by a common holding company; members of electric cooperatives; entities within the same Executive agency as defined at 5 U.S.C. 105; and a company having a joint ownership interest in a facility from which PCB waste is generated (such as a jointly owned electric power generating station) where the PCB waste is stored by one of the co-owners of the facility. A “related company” does not include another voluntary member of the same trade association. Change in ownership or title of a generator's facility, where the generator is storing PCB waste, does not make the new owner of the facility a commercial storer of PCB waste.
Designated facility means the off-site disposer or commercial storer of PCB waste designated on the manifest as the facility that will receive a manifested shipment of PCB waste.
Disposal means intentionally or accidentally to discard, throw away, or otherwise complete or terminate the useful life of PCBs and PCB Items. Disposal includes spills, leaks, and other uncontrolled discharges of PCBs as well as actions related to containing, transporting, destroying, degrading, decontaminating, or confining PCBs and PCB Items.
Disposer of PCB waste, as the term is used in subparts J and K of this part, means any person who owns or operates a facility approved by EPA for the disposal of PCB waste which is regulated for disposal under the requirements of subpart D of this part.
Distribute in commerce and Distribution in Commerce when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance, mixture, or article containing a substance or mixture means to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce; to introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce, or the introduction or delivery for introduction into commerce of the substance, mixture, or article; or to hold or the holding of, the substance, mixture, or article after its introduction into commerce.
DOT means the United States Department of Transportation.
Dry weight means the weight of the sample, excluding the weight of the water in the sample. Prior to chemical analysis the water may be removed by any reproducible method that is applicable to measuring PCBs in the sample matrix at the concentration of concern, such as air drying at ambient temperature, filtration, decantation, heating at low temperature followed by cooling in the presence of a desiccant, or other processes or combinations of processes which would remove water but not remove PCBs from the sample. Analytical procedures which calculate the dry weight concentration by adjusting for moisture content may also be used.
EPA identification number means the 12-digit number assigned to a facility by EPA upon notification of PCB waste activity under §761.205.
Excluded manufacturing process means a manufacturing process in which quantities of PCBs, as determined in accordance with the definition of inadvertently generated PCBs, calculated as defined, and from which releases to products, air, and water meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (5) of this definition, or the importation of products containing PCBs as unintentional impurities, which products meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition.
(1) The concentration of inadvertently generated PCBs in products leaving any manufacturing site or imported into the United States must have an annual average of less than 25 ppm, with a 50 ppm maximum.
(2) The concentration of inadvertently generated PCBs in the components of detergent bars leaving the manufacturing site or imported into the United States must be less than 5 ppm.
(3) The release of inadvertently generated PCBs at the point at which emissions are vented to ambient air must be less than 10 ppm.
(4) The amount of inadvertently generated PCBs added to water discharged from a manufacturing site must be less than 100 micrograms per resolvable gas chromatographic peak per liter of water discharged.
(5) Disposal of any other process wastes above concentrations of 50 ppm PCB must be in accordance with subpart D of this part.
Excluded PCB products means PCB materials which appear at concentrations less than 50 ppm, including but not limited to:
(1) Non-Aroclor inadvertently generated PCBs as a byproduct or impurity resulting from a chemical manufacturing process.
(2) Products contaminated with Aroclor or other PCB materials from historic PCB uses (investment casting waxes are one example).
(3) Recycled fluids and/or equipment contaminated during use involving the products described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition (heat transfer and hydraulic fluids and equipment and other electrical equipment components and fluids are examples).
(4) Used oils, provided that in the cases of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition:
(i) The products or source of the products containing < 50 ppm concentration PCBs were legally manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, or used before October 1, 1984.
(ii) The products or source of the products containing < 50 ppm concentrations PCBs were legally manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, or used, i.e., pursuant to authority granted by EPA regulation, by exemption petition, by settlement agreement, or pursuant to other Agency-approved programs;
(iii) The resulting PCB concentration (i.e. below 50 ppm) is not a result of dilution, or leaks and spills of PCBs in concentrations over 50 ppm.
Facility means all contiguous land, and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on the land, used for the treatment, storage, or disposal of PCB waste. A facility may consist of one or more treatment, storage, or disposal units.
Fluorescent light ballast means a device that electrically controls fluorescent light fixtures and that includes a capacitor containing 0.1 kg or less of dielectric.
Generator of PCB waste means any person whose act or process produces PCBs that are regulated for disposal under subpart D of this part, or whose act first causes PCBs or PCB Items to become subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part, or who has physical control over the PCBs when a decision is made that the use of the PCBs has been terminated and therefore is subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part. Unless another provision of this part specifically requires a site-specific meaning, “generator of PCB waste” includes all of the sites of PCB waste generation owned or operated by the person who generates PCB waste.
High occupancy area means any area where PCB remediation waste has been disposed of on-site and where occupancy for any individual not wearing dermal and respiratory protection for a calendar year is: 840 hours or more (an average of 16.8 hours or more per week) for non-porous surfaces and 335 hours or more (an average of 6.7 hours or more per week) for bulk PCB remediation waste. Examples could include a residence, school, day care center, sleeping quarters, a single or multiple occupancy 40 hours per week work station, a school class room, a cafeteria in an industrial facility, a control room, and a work station at an assembly line.
Importer means any person defined as an “importer” at §720.3(l) of this chapter who imports PCBs or PCB Items and is under the jurisdiction of the United States.
Impurity means a chemical substance which is unintentionally present with another chemical substance.
In or Near Commercial Buildings means within the interior of, on the roof of, attached to the exterior wall of, in the parking area serving, or within 30 meters of a non-industrial non-substation building. Commercial buildings are typically accessible to both members of the general public and employees, and include: (1) Public assembly properties, (2) educational properties, (3) institutional properties, (4) residential properties, (5) stores, (6) office buildings, and (7) transportation centers (e.g., airport terminal buildings, subway stations, bus stations, or train stations).
Incinerator means an engineered device using controlled flame combustion to thermally degrade PCBs and PCB Items. Examples of devices used for incineration include rotary kilns, liquid injection incinerators, cement kilns, and high temperature boilers.
Industrial building means a building directly used in manufacturing or technically productive enterprises. Industrial buildings are not generally or typically accessible to other than workers. Industrial buildings include buildings used directly in the production of power, the manufacture of products, the mining of raw materials, and the storage of textiles, petroleum products, wood and paper products, chemicals, plastics, and metals.
Laboratory means a facility that analyzes samples for PCBs and is unaffiliated with any entity whose activities involve PCBs.
Leak or leaking means any instance in which a PCB Article, PCB Container, or PCB Equipment has any PCBs on any portion of its external surface.
Liquid PCBs means a homogenous flowable material containing PCBs and no more than 0.5 percent by weight non-dissolved material.
Low occupancy area means any area where PCB remediation waste has been disposed of on-site and where occupancy for any individual not wearing dermal and respiratory protection for a calendar year is: less than 840 hours (an average of 16.8 hours per week) for non-porous surfaces and less than 335 hours (an average of 6.7 hours per week) for bulk PCB remediation waste. Examples could include an electrical substation or a location in an industrial facility where a worker spends small amounts of time per week (such as an unoccupied area outside a building, an electrical equipment vault, or in the non-office space in a warehouse where occupancy is transitory).
Manifest means the shipping document EPA form 8700–22 and any continuation sheet attached to EPA form 8700–22, originated and signed by the generator of PCB waste in accordance with the instructions included with the form and subpart K of this part.
Manned Control Center means an electrical power distribution control room where the operating conditions of a PCB Transformer are continuously monitored during the normal hours of operation (of the facility), and, where the duty engineers, electricians, or other trained personnel have the capability to deenergize a PCB Transformer completely within 1 minute of the receipt of a signal indicating abnormal operating conditions such as an overtemperature condition or overpressure condition in a PCB Transformer.
Manufacture means to produce, manufacture, or import into the customs territory of the United States.
Manufacturing process means all of a series of unit operations operating at a site, resulting in the production of a product.
Mark means the descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCBs and PCB Items, or other objects subject to these regulations.
Marked means the marking of PCB Items and PCB storage areas and transport vehicles by means of applying a legible mark by painting, fixation of an adhesive label, or by any other method that meets the requirements of these regulations.
Market/Marketers means the processing or distributing in commerce, or the person who processes or distributes in commerce, used oil fuels to burners or other marketers, and may include the generator of the fuel if it markets the fuel directly to the burner.
Mineral Oil PCB Transformer means any transformer originally designed to contain mineral oil as the dielectric fluid and which has been tested and found to contain 500 ppm or greater PCBs.
Mixture means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction; except that such term does include any combination which occurs, in whole or in part, as a result of a chemical reaction if none of the chemical substances comprising the combination is a new chemical substance and if the combination could have been manufactured for commercial purposes without a chemical reaction at the time the chemical substances comprising the combination were combined.
Municipal solid wastes means garbage, refuse, sludges, wastes, and other discarded materials resulting from residential and non-industrial operations and activities, such as household activities, office functions, and commercial housekeeping wastes.
Natural gas pipeline system means natural gas gathering facilities, natural gas pipe, natural gas compressors, natural gas storage facilities, and natural gas pipeline appurtenances (including instrumentation and vessels directly in contact with transported natural gas such as valves, regulators, drips, filter separators, etc., but not including air compressors).
Non-liquid PCBs means materials containing PCBs that by visual inspection do not flow at room temperature (25 °C or 77 °F) or from which no liquid passes when a 100 g or 100 ml representative sample is placed in a mesh number 60 ±5 percent paint filter and allowed to drain at room temperature for 5 minutes.
Non-PCB Transformer means any transformer that contains less than 50 ppm PCB; except that any transformer that has been converted from a PCB Transformer or a PCB-Contaminated Transformer cannot be classified as a non-PCB Transformer until reclassification has occurred, in accordance with the requirements of §761.30(a)(2)(v).
Non-porous surface means a smooth, unpainted solid surface that limits penetration of liquid containing PCBs beyond the immediate surface. Examples are: smooth uncorroded metal; natural gas pipe with a thin porous coating originally applied to inhibit corrosion; smooth glass; smooth glazed ceramics; impermeable polished building stone such as marble or granite; and high density plastics, such as polycarbonates and melamines, that do not absorb organic solvents.
NTIS means the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.
On site means within the boundaries of a contiguous property unit.
Open burning means the combustion of any PCB regulated for disposal, in a manner not approved or otherwise allowed under subpart D of this part, and without any of the following:
(1) Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for efficient combustion.
(2) Containment of the combustion reaction in an enclosed device to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete combustion.
(3) Control of emission of the gaseous combustion products.
PCB and PCBs means any chemical substance that is limited to the biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances which contains such substance. Refer to §761.1(b) for applicable concentrations of PCBs. PCB and PCBs as contained in PCB items are defined in §761.3. For any purposes under this part, inadvertently generated non-Aroclor PCBs are defined as the total PCBs calculated following division of the quantity of monochlorinated biphenyls by 50 and dichlorinated biphenyls by 5.
PCB Article means any manufactured article, other than a PCB Container, that contains PCBs and whose surface(s) has been in direct contact with PCBs. “PCB Article” includes capacitors, transformers, electric motors, pumps, pipes and any other manufactured item (1) which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, (2) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use, and (3) which has either no change of chemical composition during its end use or only those changes of composition which have no commercial purpose separate from that of the PCB Article.
PCB Article Container means any package, can, bottle, bag, barrel, drum, tank, or other device used to contain PCB Articles or PCB Equipment, and whose surface(s) has not been in direct contact with PCBs.
PCB bulk product waste means waste derived from manufactured products containing PCBs in a non-liquid state, at any concentration where the concentration at the time of designation for disposal was =50 ppm PCBs. PCB bulk product waste does not include PCBs or PCB Items regulated for disposal under §761.60(a) through (c), §761.61, §761.63, or §761.64. PCB bulk product waste includes, but is not limited to:
(1) Non-liquid bulk wastes or debris from the demolition of buildings and other man-made structures manufactured, coated, or serviced with PCBs. PCB bulk product waste does not include debris from the demolition of buildings or other man-made structures that is contaminated by spills from regulated PCBs which have not been disposed of, decontaminated, or otherwise cleaned up in accordance with subpart D of this part.
(2) PCB-containing wastes from the shredding of automobiles, household appliances, or industrial appliances.
(3) Plastics (such as plastic insulation from wire or cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or molded rubber parts and components; applied dried paints, varnishes, waxes or other similar coatings or sealants; caulking; adhesives; paper; Galbestos; sound deadening or other types of insulation; and felt or fabric products such as gaskets.
(4) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs in the potting material.
PCB Capacitor means any capacitor that contains =500 ppm PCB. Concentration assumptions applicable to capacitors appear under §761.2.
PCB Container means any package, can, bottle, bag, barrel, drum, tank, or other device that contains PCBs or PCB Articles and whose surface(s) has been in direct contact with PCBs.
PCB-Contaminated means a non-liquid material containing PCBs at concentrations =50 ppm but < 500 ppm; a liquid material containing PCBs at concentrations =50 ppm but < 500 ppm or where insufficient liquid material is available for analysis, a non-porous surface having a surface concentration >10 µg/100 cm 2 but < 100 µg/100 cm 2 , measured by a standard wipe test as defined in §761.123.
PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment means any electrical equipment including, but not limited to, transformers (including those used in railway locomotives and self-propelled cars), capacitors, circuit breakers, reclosers, voltage regulators, switches (including sectionalizers and motor starters), electromagnets, and cable, that contains PCBs at concentrations of = 50 ppm and < 500 ppm in the contaminating fluid. In the absence of liquids, electrical equipment is PCB-Contaminated if it has PCBs at > 10 µg/100 cm 2 and < 100 µg/100 cm 2 as measured by a standard wipe test (as defined in §761.123) of a non-porous surface.
PCB Equipment means any manufactured item, other than a PCB Container or a PCB Article Container, which contains a PCB Article or other PCB Equipment, and includes microwave ovens, electronic equipment, and fluorescent light ballasts and fixtures.
PCB field screening test means a portable analytical device or kit which measures PCBs. PCB field screening tests usually report less than or greater than a specific numerical PCB concentration. These tests normally build in a safety factor which increases the probability of a false positive report and decreases the probability of a false negative report. PCB field screening tests do not usually provide: an identity record generated by an instrument; a quantitative comparison record from calibration standards; any identification of PCBs; and/or any indication or identification of interferences with the measurement of the PCBs. PCB field screening test technologies include, but are not limited to, total chlorine colorimetric tests, total chlorine x-ray fluorescence tests, total chlorine microcoulometric tests, and rapid immunoassay tests.
PCB household waste means PCB waste that is generated by residents on the premises of a temporary or permanent residence for individuals (including individually owned or rented units of a multi-unit construction), and that is composed primarily of materials found in wastes generated by consumers in their homes. PCB household waste includes unwanted or discarded non-commercial vehicles (prior to shredding), household items, and appliances or appliance parts and wastes generated on the premises of a residence for individuals as a result of routine household maintenance by or on behalf of the resident. Bulk or commingled liquid PCB wastes at concentrations of =50 ppm, demolition and renovation wastes, and industrial or heavy duty equipment with PCBs are not household wastes.
PCB Item means any PCB Article, PCB Article Container, PCB Container, PCB Equipment, or anything that deliberately or unintentionally contains or has as a part of it any PCB or PCBs.
PCB/radioactive waste means PCBs regulated for disposal under subpart D of this part that also contain source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, or naturally-occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material.
PCB remediation waste means waste containing PCBs as a result of a spill, release, or other unauthorized disposal, at the following concentrations: Materials disposed of prior to April 18, 1978, that are currently at concentrations =50 ppm PCBs, regardless of the concentration of the original spill; materials which are currently at any volume or concentration where the original source was =500 ppm PCBs beginning on April 18, 1978, or =50 ppm PCBs beginning on July 2, 1979; and materials which are currently at any concentration if the PCBs are spilled or released from a source not authorized for use under this part. PCB remediation waste means soil, rags, and other debris generated as a result of any PCB spill cleanup, including, but not limited to:
(1) Environmental media containing PCBs, such as soil and gravel; dredged materials, such as sediments, settled sediment fines, and aqueous decantate from sediment.
(2) Sewage sludge containing < 50 ppm PCBs and not in use according to §761.20(a)(4); PCB sewage sludge; commercial or industrial sludge contaminated as the result of a spill of PCBs including sludges located in or removed from any pollution control device; aqueous decantate from an industrial sludge.
(3) Buildings and other man-made structures (such as concrete floors, wood floors, or walls contaminated from a leaking PCB or PCB-Contaminated Transformer), porous surfaces, and non-porous surfaces.
PCB sewage sludge means sewage sludge as defined in 40 CFR 503.9(w) which contains =50 ppm PCBs, as measured on a dry weight basis.
PCB Transformer means any transformer that contains =500 ppm PCBs. For PCB concentration assumptions applicable to transformers containing 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs.) or more of fluid other than mineral oil, see §761.2. For provisions permitting reclassification of electrical equipment, including PCB Transformers, containing =500 ppm PCBs to PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment, see §761.30(a) and (h).
PCB waste(s) means those PCBs and PCB Items that are subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part.
Performance-based organic decontamination fluid (PODF) means kerosene, diesel fuel, terpene hydrocarbons, and terpene hydrocarbon/alcohol mixtures.
Person means any natural or judicial person including any individual, corporation, partnership, or association; any State or political subdivision thereof; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government.
Porous surface means any surface that allows PCBs to penetrate or pass into itself including, but not limited to, paint or coating on metal; corroded metal; fibrous glass or glass wool; unglazed ceramics; ceramics with a porous glaze; porous building stone such as sandstone, travertine, limestone, or coral rock; low-density plastics such as styrofoam and low-density polyethylene; coated (varnished or painted) or uncoated wood; concrete or cement; plaster; plasterboard; wallboard; rubber; fiberboard; chipboard; asphalt; or tar paper. For purposes of cleaning and disposing of PCB remediation waste, porous surfaces have different requirements than non-porous surfaces.
Posing an exposure risk to food or feed means being in any location where human food or animal feed products could be exposed to PCBs released from a PCB Item. A PCB Item poses an exposure risk to food or feed if PCBs released in any way from the PCB Item have a potential pathway to human food or animal feed. EPA considers human food or animal feed to include items regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the Food and Drug Administration as human food or animal feed; this includes direct additives. Food or feed is excluded from this definition if it is used or stored in private homes.
Process means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce:
(1) In the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or
(2) As part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture.
Qualified incinerator means one of the following:
(1) An incinerator approved under the provisions of §761.70. Any level of PCB concentration can be destroyed in an incinerator approved under §761.70.
(2) A high efficiency boiler which complies with the criteria of §761.71(a)(1), and for which the operator has given written notice to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator in accordance with the notification requirements for the burning of mineral oil dielectric fluid under §761.71(a)(2).
(3) An incinerator approved under section 3005(c) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(c)) (RCRA).
(4) Industrial furnaces and boilers which are identified in 40 CFR 260.10 and 40 CFR 279.61 (a)(1) and (2) when operating at their normal operating temperatures (this prohibits feeding fluids, above the level of detection, during either startup or shutdown operations).
Quantifiable Level/Level of Detection means 2 micrograms per gram from any resolvable gas chromatographic peak, i.e. 2 ppm.
RCRA means the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).
Recycled PCBs means those PCBs which appear in the processing of paper products or asphalt roofing materials from PCB-contaminated raw materials. Processes which recycle PCBs must meet the following requirements:
(1) There are no detectable concentrations of PCBs in asphalt roofing material products leaving the processing site.
(2) The concentration of PCBs in paper products leaving any manufacturing site processing paper products, or in paper products imported into the United States, must have an annual average of less than 25 ppm with a 50 ppm maximum.
(3) The release of PCBs at the point at which emissions are vented to ambient air must be less than 10 ppm.
(4) The amount of Aroclor PCBs added to water discharged from an asphalt roofing processing site must at all times be less than 3 micrograms per liter (µg/L) for total Aroclors (roughly 3 parts per billion (3 ppb)). Water discharges from the processing of paper products must at all times be less than 3 micrograms per liter (µg/L) for total Aroclors (roughly 3 ppb), or comply with the equivalent mass-based limitation.
(5) Disposal of any other process wastes at concentrations of 50 ppm or greater must be in accordance with subpart D of this part.
Research and development (R&D) for PCB disposal means demonstrations for commercial PCB disposal approvals, pre-demonstration tests, tests of major modifications to previously approved PCB disposal technologies, treatability studies for PCB disposal technologies which have not been approved, development of new disposal technologies, and research on chemical transformation processes including, but not limited to, biodegradation.
Retrofill means to remove PCB or PCB-contaminated dielectric fluid and to replace it with either PCB, PCB-contaminated, or non-PCB dielectric fluid.
Rupture of a PCB Transformer means a violent or non-violent break in the integrity of a PCB Transformer caused by an overtemperature and/or overpressure condition that results in the release of PCBs.
Sale for purposes other than resale means sale of PCBs for purposes of disposal and for purposes of use, except where use involves sale for distribution in commerce. PCB Equipment which is first leased for purposes of use any time before July 1, 1979, will be considered sold for purposes other than resale.
Sewage sludge means sewage sludge as defined in §503.9(w) of this chapter that contains < 50 ppm (on a dry weight basis) PCBs.
Small quantities for research and development means any quantity of PCBs (1) that is originally packaged in one or more hermetically sealed containers of a volume of no more than five (5.0) milliliters, and (2) that is used only for purposes of scientific experimentation or analysis, or chemical research on, or analysis of, PCBs, but not for research or analysis for the development of a PCB product.
Soil washing means the extraction of PCBs from soil using a solvent, recovering the solvent from the soil, separating the PCBs from the recovered solvent for disposal, and then disposal or reuse of the solvent.
Standard wipe sample means a sample collected for chemical extraction and analysis using the standard wipe test as defined in §761.123. Except as designated elsewhere in part 761, the minimum surface area to be sampled shall be 100 cm 2 .
Storage for disposal means temporary storage of PCBs that have been designated for disposal.
SW–846 means the document having the title “SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” which is available from either the National Technical Information Service (NTIS, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161, telephone: (703) 487-4650 or the U.S. Government Printing Office (U.S. GPO, 710 North Capitol St., NW., Washington, DC 20401, telephone: (202) 783-3238.
Totally enclosed manner means any manner that will ensure no exposure of human beings or the environment to any concentration of PCBs.
Transfer facility means any transportation-related facility including loading docks, parking areas, and other similar areas where shipments of PCB waste are held during the normal course of transportation. Transport vehicles are not transfer facilities under this definition, unless they are used for the storage of PCB waste, rather than for actual transport activities. Storage areas for PCB waste at transfer facilities are subject to the storage facility standards of §761.65, but such storage areas are exempt from the approval requirements of §761.65(d) and the recordkeeping requirements of §761.180, unless the same PCB waste is stored there for a period of more than 10 consecutive days between destinations.
Transporter of PCB waste means, for the purposes of subpart K of this part, any person engaged in the transportation of regulated PCB waste by air, rail, highway, or water for purposes other than consolidation by a generator.
Transport vehicle means a motor vehicle or rail car used for the transportation of cargo by any mode. Each cargo-carrying body (e.g., trailer, railroad freight car) is a separate transport vehicle.
Treatability Study means a study in which PCB waste is subjected to a treatment process to determine:
(1) Whether the waste is amenable to the treatment process;
(2) What pretreatment (if any) is required;
(3) The optimal process conditions needed to achieve the desired treatment;
(4) The efficiency of a treatment process for the specific type of waste (i.e., soil, sludge, liquid, etc.); or,
(5) The characteristics and volumes of residuals from a particular treatment process. A “treatability study” is not a mechanism to commercially treat or dispose of PCB waste. Treatment is a form of disposal under this part.
TSCA means the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).
TSCA PCB Coordinated Approval means the process used to recognize other Federal or State waste management documents governing the storage, cleanup, treatment, and disposal of PCB wastes. It is the mechanism under TSCA for accomplishing review, coordination, and approval of PCB waste management activities which are conducted outside of the TSCA PCB approval process, but require approval under the TSCA PCB regulations at 40 CFR part 761.
Unit means a particular building, structure, or cell used to manage PCB waste (including, but not limited to, a building used for PCB waste storage, a landfill, an industrial boiler, or an incinerator).
U.S. GPO means the U.S. Government Printing Office, 710 North Capitol St., NW., Washington, DC 20401.
Waste Oil means used products primarily derived from petroleum, which include, but are not limited to, fuel oils, motor oils, gear oils, cutting oils, transmission fluids, hydraulic fluids, and dielectric fluids.
Wet weight means reporting chemical analysis results by including either the weight, or the volume and density, of all liquids.
(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94–469, 90 Stat. 2020 (15 U.S.C. 2605)
[49 FR 25239, June 20, 1984, as amended at 49 FR 28189, July 10, 1984; 49 FR 29066, July 18, 1984; 49 FR 44638, Nov. 8, 1984; 50 FR 29199, July 17, 1985; 50 FR 32176, Aug. 9, 1985; 53 FR 24220, June 27, 1988; 53 FR 27327, July 19, 1988; 54 FR 52745, Dec. 21, 1989; 55 FR 26205, June 27, 1990; 58 FR 32061, June 8, 1993; 61 FR 11106, Mar. 18, 1996; 63 FR 35437, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]
§ 761.19 References.
(b) Incorporation by reference. The following material is incorporated by reference, and is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval and a notice of any change in these materials will be published in the Federal Register. Copies of the incorporated material are available for inspection at the TSCA Nonconfidential Information Center (7407), Rm. B607, Northeast Mall, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC 20460. Copies of the incorporated material may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959. (continued)