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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 610—FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES
PART 610—FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES
Authority: Sec. 511, Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended (sec. 301, Pub. L. 94–163, 89 Stat. 915 (15 U.S.C. 2011)).
Source: 44 FR 17946, Mar. 23, 1979, unless otherwise noted.
Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria
Subpart A—General Provisions
§ 610.10 Program purpose.
(a) The purpose of an evaluation program initiated under these rules is to determine, in accordance with standardized procedures, the performance of various retrofit devices applicable to automobiles for which fuel economy improvement claims are made, and to compile and disseminate the results of the evaluation. It should be stressed that the role of this program will be the generation, analysis and dissemination of technical data, and not the approval or certification of retrofit devices.
(1) Through engineering or statistical analysis of data from vehicle tests, the evaluation program will determine the effects on fuel economy, exhaust emissions, durability and driveability of the applicable vehicles due to the installation or use of the devices. The evaluation program will also include additional procedures, whenever determined by the Administrator as necessary, to evaluate the durability of the devices themselves, their effects on vehicle durability or other effects only evident over the course of extended mileage accumulation.
(b) Data generated in an evaluation program by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are public information and will be published in the Federal Register and elsewhere for use by the Federal Trade Commission and the public. The results of any evaluation conducted by the Administrator may be used in any subsequent investigation or enforcement action in the event that a device is marketed in violation of Federal or state law.
§ 610.11 Definitions.
(a) Except as specifically defined below, all terms used in this part which are defined in 40 CFR part 86 or 40 CFR part 600 shall have the meanings provided therein.
(1) “Retrofit device” or “device” means:
(i) Any component, equipment, or other device (except a flow measuring instrument or other driving aid, or lubricant or lubricant additive) which is designed to be installed in or on an automobile as an addition to, as a replacement for, or through alteration or modification of, any original component, or other devices; or
(ii) Any fuel additive which is to be added to the fuel supply of an automobile by means other than fuel dispenser pumps; and
(iii) Which any manufacturer, dealer, or distributor of such device represents will provide higher fuel economy than would have resulted with the automobile as originally equipped, as determined under rules of the Administrator.
(2) “Automobile” means any four-wheeled vehicle propelled by fuel which is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways (except any vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails), and which is rated at 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight or less.
(3) “Fuel economy” means the average number of miles traveled by an automobile per gallon of gasoline (or equivalent amount of other fuel) consumed, as determined by the Administrator in accordance with procedures established under subpart D or F.
(4) “Manufacturer” means a person or company which is engaged in the business of producing or assembling, and which has primary control over the design specifications, of a retrofit device for which a fuel economy improvement claim is made.
(5) “Retrofit” means the addition of a new item, modification or removal of an existing item of equipment beyond that of regular maintenance, on an automobile after its initial manufacture.
(6) “Federal Test Procedure” or “City Fuel Economy Test” means the test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86, except as those procedures are modified in these protocols.
(7) “Highway Fuel Economy Test” means the test procedure described in §600.111(b).
(8) “Operator” means any person who installs, services or maintains a retrofit device in an automobile or who operates an automobile with a retrofit device installed.
(9) “Device integrity” means the durability of a device and effect of its malfunction on vehicle safety or other parts of the vehicle system.
(10) “Test data” means any information which is a quantitative measure of any aspect of the behavior of a retrofit device.
(11) “Testing agent” means any person who develops test data on a retrofit device.
(12) “Preconditioning” means the operation of an automobile through one (1) EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, described in 40 CFR part 86.
(13) “Configuration” means the mechanical arrangement, calibration and condition of a test automobile, with particular respect to carburetion, ignition timing, and emission control systems.
(14) “Baseline configuration” means the unretrofitted test configuration, tuned in accordance with the automobile manufacturer's specifications.
(15) “Adjusted configuration” means the test configuration after adjustment of engine calibrations to the retrofit specifications, but excluding retrofit hardware installation.
(16) “Retrofitted configuration” means the test configuration after adjustment of engine calibrations to the retrofit specifications and after all retrofit hardware has been installed.
(17) “Data fleet” means a fleet of automobiles tested at “zero device-miles” in “baseline configuration,” the “retrofitted configuration” and in some cases the “adjusted configuration,” in order to determine the changes in fuel economy and exhaust emissions due to the “retrofitted configuration,” and where applicable the changes due to the “adjusted configuration,” as compared to the fuel economy and exhaust emissions of the “baseline configuration.”
(18) “Durability fleet” means a fleet of automobiles operated for mileage accumulation used to assess deterioration effects associated with the retrofit device.
(19) “Zero device-miles” means the period of time between retrofit installation and the accumulation of 100 miles of automobile operation after installation.
(20) “Independent laboratory” means a test facility operated independently of any motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or retrofit device manufacturer capable of performing retrofit device evaluation tests. Additionally, the laboratory shall have no financial interests in the outcome of these tests other than a fee charged for each test performed.
(21) “Evaluation program” or “program” means the sequence of analyses and tests prescribed by the Administrator as described in §610.13 in order to evaluate the performance of a retrofit device.
(22) “Preliminary analysis” means the engineering analysis performed by EPA prior to testing prescribed by the Administrator based on data and information submitted by a manufacturer or available from other sources.
[44 FR 17946, Mar. 23, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 18489, May 1, 1984]
§ 610.12 Program initiative.
A retrofit device evaluation program will be initiated as follows:
(a) At the request of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) when it has reason to believe that fuel economy representation made for a retrofit device being marketed may be inadequate,
(b) At the EPA Administrator's initiative, or
(c) Upon the application of any manufacturer of a retrofit device (or prototype thereof) for which a fuel economy improvement claim is made.
§ 610.13 Program structure.
(a) Each device evaluation program will consist of up to three phases:
(1) A preliminary analysis of available information and test data on the device to be performed by the EPA Administrator;
(2) Designing and conducting of a sequence of tests to determine device effectiveness if considered necessary by virtue of the Administrator's preliminary analysis; and
(3) Publication in the Federal Register, and submission to the Department of Transportation and to the Federal Trade Commission, of a summary of the results of any tests conducted under subparts C through F, or if none were conducted, then a summary of the results of the preliminary analysis conducted under subpart B; together with the Administrator's conclusions as to the effect of the tested retrofit device on fuel economy and exhaust emissions, and as to any other information that the Administrator determines is relevant in evaluating such device.
(b) Each of the above phases may, as appropriate, include the use of statistically valid sample sizes and statistical evaluation of measured results.
§ 610.14 Payment of program costs.
(a) All costs incurred in an evaluation program initiated at the request of the FTC or at the Administrator's initiative, including the cost of purchasing any necessary quantity of the device under evaluation, will be borne by the United States.
(b) For those evaluation programs initiated at the request of a manufacturer of a retrofit device, should the Administrator test the device, or cause the device to be tested, as part of the evaluation, then that manufacturer shall supply, at his own expense, one or more samples of the device to the Administrator and shall be liable for the costs of testing which are incurrred by the Administrator. The manufacturer shall also be liable for the cost of any preliminary testing at an independent testing laboratory performed as part of the evaluation program. Apart from the costs of testing a device, EPA shall be responsible for costs of formulating its engineering evaluation of a device.
[44 FR 17946, Mar. 23, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 18838, May 3, 1984]
§ 610.15 Eligibility for participation.
Participation in an evaluation program initiated under §610.12(c) will be available to any person or company who agrees to follow the procedures set forth in these protocols. Failure to conform to any aspect of these protocols, without the approval of the Adminstrator, may be interpreted as withdrawal from participation in the program.
§ 610.16 Applicant's responsibilities.
Each applicant for evaluation under §610.12(c) will be responsible for the following:
(a) Submission of an application, in the format specified by the Administrator, prior to initiation of the evaluation. A separate application shall be made for each different device. The application shall be made to the Administrator (or his delegate) by the manufacturer and shall be updated and corrected by amendment if deemed necessary by EPA.
(b) The application shall be in writing, signed by an authorized representative of the manufacturer, and shall include the following:
(1) Identification and description of the device covered by the application, including drawings, schematics and information on the theory of operation.
(2) Vehicles or engines to which the device is applicable and a description of the types of vehicles or engines to which it is not applicable, e.g., would not provide a benefit, a benefit less than claimed for the device in general, or would result in a safety hazard or damage to the engine. If the reason for inapplicability is safety or damage related, this must be explained as required by paragraph (b)(7) of this section.
(3) Installation or usage instructions, including degree of knowledge required by persons making the installation and the tools and equipment required.
(4) A statement of recommended maintenance, degree of knowledge required for that maintenance, and the tools and equipment required to perform the maintenance.
(5) All data regarding exhaust emissions regulated by EPA under §202 of the Clean Air Act and fuel economy test data on the device or product available to the applicant.
(6) All information available to the applicant concerning whether the device in its operation, function, or malfunction may cause an automobile using that device to emit into the ambient air any substance other than pollutants regulated by EPA under section 202 of the Clean Air Act (i.e., hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen), or natural gaseous atmospheric constituents (such as carbon dioxide, or water vapor) in a quantity differing from that emitted in the operation of the automobile without the device.
(7) All information available to the applicant concerning whether and under what conditions the device in its operation, function or malfunction may result in damage to an automobile or endanger its occupants or persons or property in close proximity to the automobile.
(c) Shipment to the EPA's Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory, or other test site designated by the Administrator, of the devices being evaluated in the quantity specified by the Administrator.
(d) Complete copies of the application and of any amendments thereto shall be submitted in such multiple copies as the Administrator may require.
§ 610.17 Application format.
(a) Device manufactures who apply for evaluation of a fuel economy retrofit device should use the standard application format, in order to allow the Administrator to compile relevant data on specific devices and to allow timely response to applications. Application formats are available from and submissions shall be made to:
Director, Emission Control Technology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. Attn: Fuel Economy Retrofit Device Evaluation.
(b) Four weeks should be allowed for analysis of the application and preparation of a response. As indicated in other sections of this part, this response will include the evaluation of the device according to the criteria discussed in subpart B of this part. The results of the Administrator's evaluation will be made public.
Subpart B—Evaluation Criteria for the Preliminary Analysis
§ 610.20 General.
The Administrator will employ the following criteria for evaluating the accuracy of fuel economy representations made with respect to retrofit devices:
(a) Device functional category;
(b) Device integrity;
(c) Operator interaction effects;
(d) Validity of test data;
(e) Evaluation of test data;
as these concepts are explained in §§610.21 through 610.25 respectively.
§ 610.21 Device functional category and vehicle system effects.
(a) The devices evaluated in this program are organized into categories for purposes of definition and establishment of evaluation criteria and test procedures, and to indicate which vehicle functional characteristics (other than fuel economy) may be adversely affected by installation or use of the device.
(b) A device's category will be based on:
(1) Engineering principles governing operation of the device;
(2) Interaction between the device and specific vehicle/engine operating characteristics; and
(3) Constraints with respect to vehicle applicability of the device.
(c) The device categories and the vehicle functional characteristics which may be adversely affected are noted for each device category in Table I. The notation for each characteristic is as follows:
Exhaust emissions 1 Driveability 2 Durability 3 Performance 4
Device categories affected
Carburetors and fuel injection systems... All.
Air-fuel ratio modifiers (e.g., air All.
Atomization devices (acoustic and All.
Vapor Injectors.......................... All.
Choke controls........................... 1, 2, and 4.
Air filters.............................. 1, 2, and 4.
Fuel-air distribution systems (intake 1, 2, and 4.
Fuel pressure regulators................. All.
Spark plugs.............................. All.
Spark timing control systems............. All.
Spark duration control systems........... 1, 4.
Spark energy sources..................... 1, 4.
Emission Control Systems
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems.. All.
After-treatment devices.................. 1, 2, and 4.
Overdrive units.......................... All.
Torque converter lockups................. 1, 2, and 4.
Tuned exhaust systems.................... 1.
Cooling fan or cooling fan couplings..... 1.
Cold start aids (e.g., engine heaters)... 1.
Oil filters.............................. 3.
Aerodynamic drag reduction devices....... 1.
Modification to valve timing............. All.
Retrofit prechambers..................... All.
Fuel additives........................... All.
Other miscellaneous...................... Potentially all.
(d) In the absence of sufficient information from the device manufacturer on this topic or if the Administrator's preliminary analysis indicates that testing is necessary to determine the nature or extent of possible adverse effects of device installation and use on vehicle operation and performance, the Administrator will require such tests to be conducted prior to the publication of a complete evaluation of the device.
[44 FR 17946, Mar. 23, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 18489, May 1, 1984]
§ 610.22 Device integrity.
The integrity of a device will be evaluated with respect to:
(a) The extent to which device manufacture is standardized by means of drawings, specifications, and other fabrication and quality assurance controls;
(b) The degree of sensitivity of device effectiveness to deterioration under exposure to normal operating conditions.
(c) The susceptibility of the device to deterioration of effectiveness under abnormal operating conditions;
(d) The effect upon its surroundings of device malfunction which may be reasonably anticipated to occur in actual use; and
(e) The extent to which test data support (b), (c) and (d).
§ 610.23 Operator interaction effects.
The device will also be evaluated with respect to:
(a) The degree of sensitivity of device effectiveness to variances in installation, operation and maintenance;
(b) The adequacy of manufacturer-furnished instructions for minimizing variances in installation, operation and maintenance;
(c) The extent to which device installation or use, or the effects of such installation or use, relate to Federal emission control regulations;
(d) Effects on the performance, safety, or occupant comfort of the retrofitted vehicle, and on that of other vehicles; and
(e) The relationship between total cost of ownership of the device (purchase price plus maintenance costs) and the cost savings realizable from its fuel economy effects.
§ 610.24 Validity of test data.
The Administrator will make a determination as to the validity of manufacturer-furnished test data on the basis of:
(a) The correlation between the test procedures used by the manufacturer or testing agent and the procedures prescribed in subpart D;
(b) The choice of test vehicle(s) as representative of the manufacturer's claim for operation and/or principles of operation;
(c) The degree of control exercised over ambient and operating conditions in the tests, including vehicle calibrations;
(d) Accuracy and precision of the measurement techniques and instrumentation used in the tests;
(e) Disclosure of all test data acquired on the device, whether representing positive, negative, or inconclusive results;
(f) Qualifications and independence of the testing agent; and
(g) The extent to which test data include evaluation of the durability of the device, or its effect on vehicle durability.
§ 610.25 Evaluation of test data.
Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated with respect to:
(a) Vehicle applicability;
(b) Dependence of device effects upon vehicle type;
(c) Device effects on fuel economy, and on emissions, with statistical or other caveats as established by the data base;
(d) Definition of claims which can be made based on the available data; and
(e) Substantiation of specified claims made by the manufacturer.
Subpart C—Test Requirement Criteria
§ 610.30 General.
(a) If the Administrator determines, by the criteria given in subpart B, that the claims made for a device are not supported by existing test data or other information, the Administrator will request the manufacturer to furnish additional information, and may design a test program to investigate those areas where claims appear to be erroneous or unsupported or where adverse effects due to use of the device are suspected.
(b) In cases where the Administrator determines on the basis of the preliminary analysis that a device either can have no significant beneficial effect on fuel economy, or will have an adverse effect on emissions, he may elect not to design a test program or test the device and to publish only his preliminary analysis and conclusions.
(c) If the evaluation was initiated upon application of a manufacturer (as described in §610.12(c)) and the manufacturer elects not to have the device tested, the Administrator's preliminary analysis and conclusions will be published.
(d) For each device that the Agency intends to test, the Administrator will give the manufacturer prior notice by mail of the Agency's intent to test the device and provide the manufacturer the opportunity to attend the test sessions and to comment on the specific test design and results.
[44 FR 17946, Mar. 23, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 18489, May 1, 1984]
§ 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.
(a) The tests described in subpart D, E, or F may be conducted if existing data or other information are insufficient to support claims for a device in any of these areas:
(1) Degree of improvement in fuel economy
(2) Effect on exhaust emissions
(3) Vehicle applicability
(b) The Administrator may determine that, in certain cases, tests using engine dynamometers are adequate for determining the effect of a device. Examples of such cases are given below.
(1) Long-term effects. In some cases, it may be necessary for the engine to operate for several thousand miles before the effectiveness can be adequately measured. In such cases an engine dynamometer will permit a less expensive and better controlled durability and economy test than one in which a vehicle must be driven on a durability route and then tested on a chassis dynamometer or test track.
(2) Durability requirements. Aspects of engine durability can be efficiently determined using specialized engine testing rather than through durability mileage accumulation in a vehicle. A number of standard engine tests are presently used which can be incorporated into this requirement.
(c) When in the judgment of the Administrator a device cannot satisfactorily be evaluated using either dynamometer or track versions of the City Fuel Economy Test and the Highway Fuel Economy Test, the Administrator will select or design other procedures.
§ 610.32 Test fleet selection.
(a) The composition and size of the test fleet will be determined by the Administrator. In a device evaluation program initiated at the request of the FTC, the composition and size of the test fleet will be determined by the Administrator in consultation with the FTC.
(b) The goal of the test fleet selection will be the provision of a data base adequate to give the Administrator reasonable confidence in the conclusions to be reached.
(c) Once the number of vehicles to be tested has been determined, the Administrator will specify the test fleet makeup by make, model, model year, engine displacement and carburetor, transmission type, and such other factors as he may deem relevant to the testing program.
§ 610.33 Durability tests.
The Administrator may determine that a device under evaluation will require durability testing in addition to the basic evaluation testing for device effectiveness. This requirement may be necessary for several reasons:
(a) A retrofit device manufacturer may claim that some mileage accumulation may be needed before the full effectiveness of the device can be obtained. If such claims are made, durability testing as described in subpart E may be performed. To determine whether the effectiveness change during the mileage accumulation is a function of the device or of the mileage accumulation alone, in some durability tests it may be necessary to run the mileage accumulation on vehicles with and without the device. Due to the high cost of durability testing and in particular of such duplicate testing, it will be used only where it is judged by the Administrator to be necessary.
(b) A device may have a limited life expectancy or be such that it requires replacement or adjustment at a prescribed mileage interval. Confirmatory durability tests may be run to assess whether such mileage intervals are proper and effective.
(c) A device may be suspected of having an adverse effect on the durability of the engine to which it is applied. After identification of a potential failure mode, durability tests may be conducted to investigate any changes in engine characteristics associated with that failure mode. Examples are valve problems, deterioration in spark plug life, increase in carburetor or combustion chamber deposits, or increased engine wear. If it is not possible to directly measure the change in the suspect characteristic, then a durability run may be made as described in subpart E, in which fuel economy and exhaust emissions are periodically checked during the accumulation of up to 15,000 miles.
(d) A critical item which can influence fuel economy is vehicle maintenance. Any durability test program used in evaluation of the effectiveness of a fuel economy device will be designed to differentiate maintenance effects from the effect of the device. Any maintenance associated with the device operation will be rigidly controlled. If the maintenance appears to be a significant factor in the effectiveness of a device, then it may be necessary to run a control test on vehicles without the device installed where the same maintenance is performed to quantify any incremental effect of that maintenance.
§ 610.34 Special test conditions.
If the Administrator determines that a device may have potentially detrimental effects on the operation of a vehicle when operated in ambient conditions outside the range specified in 40 CFR part 86, or if the device manufacturer claims a fuel economy improvement in such conditions, additional tests may be performed. These tests will determine whether the device will significantly limit the operational usefulness of the vehicle and will assess the claimed fuel economy benefit.
(a) Extreme temperatures. As required by the Administrator, tests will be conducted at extreme ambient temperature conditions to determine the effect due to devices (e.g. engine heaters) for which fuel economy improvements at extreme temperatures are made. For other devices it may be necessary to determine whether the cold starting and driving capability of device-equipped vehicles is affected sufficiently to make them dangerous, or whether fuel economy characteristics at extreme temperatures are significantly worse than before the device was installed.
(b) High altitude. Devices for which specific claims of improved fuel economy at high altitude are made may be tested using the procedures in subpart D, at altitudes above 4000 feet. For other devices, testing at high altitude may be necessary for determining whether a device will make the vehicle less useful or efficient when operated at various altitudes. The Administrator will determine when such testing is required.
§ 610.35 Driveability and performance tests.
If the Administrator determines that driveability and performance of a vehicle may be adversely affected by the use of a device, a number of automobiles to be determined by the Administrator will be subjected to the driveability and performance tests discussed in §§610.62 and 610.63, respectively.
Subpart D—General Vehicle Test Procedures
§ 610.40 General.
Two chassis dynamometer test procedures, the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test will generally be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the devices supplemented by steady state or engine dynamometer tests where warranted. Under unusual circumstances, other test procedures, durability test procedures or special test procedures such as track versions of the City and Highway fuel economy tests may be used. These procedures are described in subparts E and F.
§ 610.41 Test configurations.
(a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two, and in some cases, three vehicle configurations defined in §610.11 will be tested. Each vehicle will be tested at least twice in each configuration, as determined by the Administrator.
(b) The first test configuration is a baseline configuration. In this configuration the baseline or unretrofitted vehicle emissions will be measured.
(c) A second test configuration, an adjusted configuration, may be required at the discretion of the Administrator if a device requires both hardware and engine parameter modifications to achieve the fuel economy improvement. If, in the Administrator's judgment, based on a review of the available information, the combined effects of retrofit hardware installation and parametric adjustment could be substantially duplicated by parametric adjustment alone, then the Administrator may specify a second test, to evaluate such adjustment exclusive of the retrofit hardware.
(d) The third series of tests, in the retrofitted configuration, will evaluate the full retrofit system installed on the vehicle.
§ 610.42 Fuel economy measurement.
(a) Fuel consumption will be measured by:
(1) The carbon balance method, or
(2) Gravimetric or volumetric methods. In the gravimetric and volumetric methods, fuel consumption is determined by weighing the fuel source before and after a test, or by measuring the volume of fuel consumed during a test. Since the distance traveled during the tests is known, the fuel economy, in miles per gallon, can be calculated. Gravimetric and volumetric methods require the use of special test equipment in addition to the emissions measuring equipment.
(b) The carbon balance procedure for measuring fuel consumption relates the carbon products in the exhaust to the amount of fuel burned during the test. This method will be the one used to measure fuel economy unless track or road tests are employed.
(c) Three values of fuel economy will be reported: for city driving ('75 FTP), for highway driving (HFET), and the combined city/highway value calculated according to this equation:
§ 610.43 Chassis dynamometer procedures.
(a)(1) 1975 Federal Test Procedure. Vehicle exhaust emissions and fuel economy under urban driving conditions will be measured according to the Federal emission test procedure described in 40 CFR part 86, subpart B, which is known as the 1975 Federal Test Procedure ('75 FTP). However, the following modifications will be employed:
(i) No evaporative emission loss, as specified by 40 CFR part 86 need be measured (with the exception of devices modifying or disconnecting existing evaporative control devices in such a manner as would be expected to adversely affect their evaporative emission control performance).
(ii) Vehicle preconditioning shall consist of operation of the vehicle through one (1) EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. This preconditioning must be done at least 12 hours, but no earlier than 36 hours before the emission test.
(iii) While the test fuel must meet the specifications outlined in 40 CFR part 86, fuel conditioning as specified for evaporative emission test procedures is not required.
(b) Highway Fuel Economy Test. The test vehicle is fully warmed up at the start of the highway Fuel Economy Test which is ordinarily run immediately following the Federal Emission Test Procedure. The test procedure to be followed for generation of highway fuel economy data is that specified in §600.111.
(c) Steady state tests. Constant speed, road load tests may be conducted to help give insight into operational differences and exhaust emission and fuel economy changes due to a retrofit device. Speeds between 0 (engine idling) and 60 mpg will be investigated, with a time period at each speed long enough to ensure that engine operation has stabilized.
Subpart E—Durability Test Procedures
§ 610.50 Test configurations.
(a) In addition to the tuneup to manufacturer's specifications per §610.41, all vehicles in the durability fleet will have installed the following new parts: Air, oil, and fuel filters, spark plugs, points, condenser, rotor, distributor cap, PCV valve, and emission control devices such as vacuum control valves and EGR valves.
(b) Vehicles included in the durability fleet will be subjected at zero device-miles to the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D. Subsequently, they will be tested at 3,000 device-mile intervals, up to and including the final mileage point of 15,000 device-miles. Testing at these mileage points will be performed with the vehicle equipped with the full retrofit system.
(c) After the 15,000-mile test the vehicle will be tuned as necessary and the device adjusted to the manufacturer's specifications as required. The fully restored retrofitted configuration will then be tested. The device will then be removed from the vehicle and the vehicle set to vehicle manufacturer's specifications. A tuned baseline test will then be conducted.
§ 610.51 Mileage accumulation procedure.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, the mileage accumulation procedure will be that provided in 40 CFR part 86. This mileage accumulation schedule, or a suitable alternate procedure approved by the Administrator, will be used.
(b) Fuel used in the accumulation of mileage will be commercial fuel available in the retail market and shall conform to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 for mileage accumulation fuel.
(1) The requirements of this paragraph may be modified by the Administrator when it is a fuel or fuel additive that is being tested.
§ 610.52 Maintenance.
(a) Maintenance during the durability evaluation can best be considered in three separate categories:
(1) Normal scheduled vehicle maintenance,
(2) Unscheduled vehicle maintenance, and
(3) Retrofit maintenance.
(b) Normal scheduled vehicle maintenance is the periodic service specified in the original owner's manual supplied to the owner at the time of new vehicle purchase.
(1) Normal periodic engine oil changes, vehicle lubrication, and oil filter changes, as specified in the original owner's manual, will be performed during durability mileage accumulation.
(2) For purposes of this part, the following items of normally scheduled vehicle maintenance will not be performed during the durability mileage accumulation:
(i) Normal tune-up items:
(A) Spark plugs.
(D) Distributor cap.
(ii) Air Cleaner element.
(iii) PCV Inspection.
(iv) Dwell and timing check.
(v) Charging circuit check.
(3) Periodic maintenance items specified in the original owner's manual, other than those listed above, may be performed if found to be necessary by the Administrator.
(c) Unscheduled maintenance. Because the vehicles used for durability evaluation in this program will probably have considerable mileage accumulation and unknown maintenance prior to inclusion in the program, it can be anticipated that certain vehicle and engine failures may occur, which may be unrelated to the retrofit device. Unscheduled maintenance will be performed only in those cases where a significant and obvious driveability problem has been reported by the driver of the vehicle.
(1) Correction of the following problems will be made as soon as the problems occur:
(i) Tire replacement (same size and type).
(ii) Vehicle body repairs (remote from engine and retrofit).
(iii) Windshield wipers.
(iv) Fluid levels unrelated to retrofit.
(vi) Hoses unrelated to retrofit.
(vii) Belts unrelated to retrofit.
(viii) Suspension failures.
(ix) Wheel alignment.
(xi) Wheel bearings.
(xii) Non-engine electrical system.
(xiii) Drivetrain components (U-joints, axles, transmission adjustments, etc.)
(2) Other unscheduled maintenance of the engine or drivetrain may be made as directed by the Administrator. Upon notification of a need for unscheduled maintenance, the Administrator may decide that before and after maintenance fuel economy tests are required.
(d) Retrofit maintenance. Maintenance of the retrofit device will normally not be performed during the accumulation of durability mileage of 15,000 miles. However, certain retrofit devices may require periodic maintenance that is directly related to device function. An example is the periodic addition of fluid to the reservoir of a vapor injector. The Administrator will determine whether periodic maintenance will be allowed, based on his review of available information including the device manufacturer's maintenance instructions to the consumer.
(e) A log of all maintenance shall be kept for every vehicle. These logs will be summarized in the final report by the Administrator.
Subpart F—Special Test Procedures
§ 610.60 Non-standard ambient conditions.
(a) Extreme temperatures. For vehicles required to be tested at extreme temperatures, the test sequence described in §610.41 will be performed using either test track or dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in §610.64 as determined by the Administrator. The driveability tests described in §610.62 may also be performed at non-standard temperatures, as determined to be necessary by the Administrator.
(b) High altitudes. Vehicles required to be tested at high altitudes will undergo the tests described in §610.43 if necessary, on either test track or dynamometer as determined by the Administrator. One test location, at an elevation of no less than 4000 feet, will be selected.
§ 610.61 Engine dynamometer tests.
The Administrator will choose a test procedure or procedures from various engine dynamometer durability test procedures used by research organizations in government, the oil industry, engine manufacturing companies, and independent laboratories.
§ 610.62 Driveability tests.
Driveability assessment (at normal ambient temperatures) of the baseline configuration, of the adjusted configuration (if required by the Administrator), and of the fully retrofitted configuration may be conducted at zero device-miles for all vehicles included in the durability fleet, and at approximately zero device-miles at low ambient temperatures (0 °F–20 °F). Driveability evaluation procedures will be provided by the Administrator when necessary.
§ 610.63 Performance tests.
The effect of a device on a vehicle's performance will be determined by performing wide-open-throttle 0 to 60 mph acceleration tests (at normal ambient temperatures) on the baseline vehicle configuration, on the adjusted configuration (if required), and on the fully retrofitted configuration. Tests will be conducted on a dry, level, smooth-surfaced test track, with appropriate speed-time measuring equipment, on as many vehicles as determined to be necessary.
§ 610.64 Track test procedures.
(a) Cases may arise where it will be necessary to evaluate the fuel economy effects of a retrofit device on a test track, because the effect of the device cannot be adequately tested using the chassis dynamometer procedures. (An obvious example is a device that changes the aerodynamic drag of the test vehicle.) In such cases, testing will be performed on a dry, level, smooth-surfaced test track for such dimensions that the speeds required by the city and highway fuel economy tests may be safely achieved.
(1) Because aerodynamic drag is not a linear function of velocity, it will be necessary to limit testing to times when the wind velocity is less than 5 mph, with gusts less than 10 mph.
(2) Testing will also be limited to ambient temperatures between 60° and 90 °F, and to times when the ambient temperature remains reasonably constant during individual tests. Temperature differences between tests of baseline and retrofit configurations will also be minimized.
(3) Exhaust emissions will not be measured during track testing.
(4) Fuel economy of a vehicle running on a track will be measured using either a volumetric or gravimetric procedure approved by the Administrator.
(5) Vehicle speed and distance will be measured with a “fifth wheel” type of device. Suitable apparatus will be used to generate a permanent record (strip chart recorder, etc.) of the vehicle speed versus time.
(b) City fuel economy test. Although essentially the same procedures will be used for track testing as for dynamometer testing, some modifications will be necessary to insure safe operation of the test vehicle and to adjust to the requirements of track testing.
(1) An assistant to the driver will be necessary to steer the vehicle, so that the driver will not be distracted from following the speed-time schedules used in the Federal test procedure.
(2) The test vehicle will be preconditioned within the same time constraints given in §610.43(a)(1)(ii). Preconditioning may take place either on the track or on a dynamometer. The 12-hour soak after preconditioning will take place in an area where the ambient temperature will remain within the 60° to 90 °F range, indoors, if necessary.
(3) The vehicle will be transported to the test track without being started. If the distance from soak area to track is no greater than one-quarter mile, then the vehicle may be pushed or towed to the track. Otherwise the vehicle must be transported by truck or trailer.
(4) Fuel economy will be determined by either a gravimetric or volumetric method.
(c) Highway fuel economy test. The highway test will follow the city fuel economy test in the same manner as in dynamometer tests (§610.43(b)). Fuel economy will be measured by gravimetric or volumetric methods.
(d) Steady state tests. Steady state tests on the track will be run in the same manner as on the dynamometer except that fuel economy will be measured by gravimetric or volumetric methods.
§ 610.65 Other test procedures.
The Administrator may, pursuant to §610.31(c), choose a test procedure or procedures from those used by research organizations in government, the oil industry, engine manufacturing companies, and independent laboratories. If none of these is deemed suitable, the Administrator may, in consultation with the party requesting the test, design a dynamometer, track or road test to measure the effects of the device.