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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 123—STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 123—STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
Authority: Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.
Source: 48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983, unless otherwise noted.
§ 123.1 Purpose and scope.
(a) This part specifies the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing State programs and the requirements State programs must meet to be approved by the Administrator under sections 318, 402, and 405(a) (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System—NPDES) of the CWA. This part also specifies the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing State programs under section 405(f) (sludge management programs) of the CWA. The requirements that a State sewage sludge management program must meet for approval by the Administrator under section 405(f) are set out at 40 CFR part 501.
(b) These regulations are promulgated under the authority of sections 304(i), 101(e), 405, and 518(e) of the CWA, and implement the requirements of those sections.
(c) The Administrator will approve State programs which conform to the applicable requirements of this part. A State NPDES program will not be approved by the Administrator under section 402 of CWA unless it has authority to control the discharges specified in sections 318 and 405(a) of CWA. Permit programs under sections 318 and 405(a) will not be approved independent of a section 402 program.
(d)(1) Upon approval of a State program, the Administrator shall suspend the issuance of Federal permits for those activities subject to the approved State program. After program approval EPA shall retain jurisdiction over any permits (including general permits) which it has issued unless arrangements have been made with the State in the Memorandum of Agreement for the State to assume responsibility for these permits. Retention of jurisdiction shall include the processing of any permit appeals, modification requests, or variance requests; the conduct of inspections, and the receipt and review of self-monitoring reports. If any permit appeal, modification request or variance request is not finally resolved when the federally issued permit expires, EPA may, with the consent of the State, retain jurisdiction until the matter is resolved.
(2) The procedures outlined in the preceding paragraph (d)(1) of this section for suspension of permitting authority and transfer of existing permits will also apply when EPA approves an Indian Tribe's application to operate a State program and a State was the authorized permitting authority under §123.23(b) for activities within the scope of the newly approved program. The authorized State will retain jurisdiction over its existing permits as described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section absent a different arrangement stated in the Memorandum of Agreement executed between EPA and the Tribe.
(e) Upon submission of a complete program, EPA will conduct a public hearing, if interest is shown, and determine whether to approve or disapprove the program taking into consideration the requirements of this part, the CWA and any comments received.
(f) Any State program approved by the Administrator shall at all times be conducted in accordance with the requirements of this part.
(g)(1) Except as may be authorized pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section or excluded by §122.3, the State program must prohibit all point source discharges of pollutants, all discharges into aquaculture projects, and all disposal of sewage sludge which results in any pollutant from such sludge entering into any waters of the United States within the State's jurisdiction except as authorized by a permit in effect under the State program or under section 402 of CWA. NPDES authority may be shared by two or more State agencies but each agency must have Statewide jurisdiction over a class of activities or discharges. When more than one agency is responsible for issuing permits, each agency must make a submission meeting the requirements of §123.21 before EPA will begin formal review.
(2) A State may seek approval of a partial or phased program in accordance with section 402(n) of the CWA.
(h) In many cases, States (other than Indian Tribes) will lack authority to regulate activities on Indian lands. This lack of authority does not impair that State's ability to obtain full program approval in accordance with this part, i.e., inability of a State to regulate activities on Indian lands does not constitute a partial program. EPA will administer the program on Indian lands if a State (or Indian Tribe) does not seek or have authority to regulate activities on Indian lands.
Note: States are advised to contact the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, concerning authority over Indian lands.
(i) Nothing in this part precludes a State from:
(1) Adopting or enforcing requirements which are more stringent or more extensive than those required under this part;
(2) Operating a program with a greater scope of coverage than that required under this part. If an approved State program has greater scope of coverage than required by Federal law the additional coverage is not part of the Federally approved program.
Note: For example, if a State requires permits for discharges into publicly owned treatment works, these permits are not NPDES permits.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 256, Jan. 4, 1989; 54 FR 18784, May 2, 1989; 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993; 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994; 63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998]
§ 123.2 Definitions.
The definitions in part 122 apply to all subparts of this part.
[63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998]
§ 123.3 Coordination with other programs.
Issuance of State permits under this part may be coordinated with issuance of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and 404 permits whether they are controlled by the State, EPA, or the Corps of Engineers. See §124.4.
Subpart B—State Program Submissions
§ 123.21 Elements of a program submission.
(a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit to the Administrator at least three copies of a program submission. The submission shall contain the following:
(1) A letter from the Governor of the State (or in the case of an Indian Tribe in accordance with §123.33(b), the Tribal authority exercising powers substantially similar to those of a State Governor) requesting program approval;
(2) A complete program description, as required by §123.22, describing how the State intends to carry out its responsibilities under this part;
(3) An Attorney General's statement as required by §123.23;
(4) A Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator as required by §123.24;
(5) Copies of all applicable State statutes and regulations, including those governing State administrative procedures;
(b)(1) Within 30 days of receipt by EPA of a State program submission, EPA will notify the State whether its submission is complete. If EPA finds that a State's submission is complete, the statutory review period (i.e., the period of time allotted for formal EPA review of a proposed State program under CWA) shall be deemed to have begun on the date of receipt of the State's submission. If EPA finds that a State's submission is incomplete, the statutory review period shall not begin until all the necessary information is received by EPA.
(2) In the case of an Indian Tribe eligible under §123.33(b), EPA shall take into consideration the contents of the Tribe's request submitted under §123.32, in determining if the program submission required by §123.21(a) is complete.
(c) If the State's submission is materially changed during the statutory review period, the statutory review period shall begin again upon receipt of the revised submission.
(d) The State and EPA may extend the statutory review period by agreement.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 6941, Feb. 19, 1985, as amended at 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993; 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994]
§ 123.22 Program description.
Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or under an interstate compact. The program description shall include:
(a) A description in narrative form of the scope, structure, coverage and processes of the State program.
(b) A description (including organization charts) of the organization and structure of the State agency or agencies which will have responsibility for administering the program, including the information listed below. If more than one agency is responsible for administration of a program, each agency must have statewide jurisdiction over a class of activities. The responsibilities of each agency must be delineated, their procedures for coordination set forth, and an agency may be designated as a “lead agency” to facilitate communications between EPA and the State agencies having program responsibility. If the State proposes to administer a program of greater scope of coverage than is required by Federal law, the information provided under this paragraph shall indicate the resources dedicated to administering the Federally required portion of the program.
(1) A description of the State agency staff who will carry out the State program, including the number, occupations, and general duties of the employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State program.
(2) An itemization of the estimated costs of establishing and administering the program for the first two years after approval, including cost of the personnel listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, cost of administrative support, and cost of technical support.
(3) An itemization of the sources and amounts of funding, including an estimate of Federal grant money, available to the State Director for the first two years after approval to meet the costs listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, identifying any restrictions or limitations upon this funding.
(c) A description of applicable State procedures, including permitting procedures and any State administrative or judicial review procedures;
(d) Copies of the permit form(s), application form(s), and reporting form(s) the State intends to employ in its program. Forms used by States need not be identical to the forms used by EPA but should require the same basic information, except that State NPDES programs are required to use standard Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMR). The State need not provide copies of uniform national forms it intends to use but should note its intention to use such forms.
Note: States are encouraged to use uniform national forms established by the Administrator. If uniform national forms are used, they may be modified to include the State Agency's name, address, logo, and other similar information, as appropriate, in place of EPA's.
(e) A complete description of the State's compliance tracking and enforcement program.
(f) In the case of Indian Tribes eligible under §123.33(b), if a State has been authorized by EPA to issue permits on the Federal Indian reservation in accordance with §123.23(b), a description of how responsibility for pending permit applications, existing permits, and supporting files will be transferred from the State to the eligible Indian Tribe. To the maximum extent practicable, this should include a Memorandum of Agreement negotiated between the State and the Indian Tribe addressing the arrangements for such transfer.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 6941, Feb. 19, 1985, as amended at 54 FR 18784, May 2, 1989; 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993; 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994; 63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998]
§ 123.23 Attorney General's statement.
(a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit a statement from the State Attorney General (or the attorney for those State or interstate agencies which have independent legal counsel) that the laws of the State, or an interstate compact, provide adequate authority to carry out the program described under §123.22 and to meet the requirements of this part. This statement shall include citations to the specific statutes, administrative regulations, and, where appropriate, judicial decisions which demonstrate adequate authority. State statutes and regulations cited by the State Attorney General or independent legal counsel shall be in the form of lawfully adopted State statutes and regulations at the time the statement is signed and shall be fully effective by the time the program is approved. To qualify as “independent legal counsel” the attorney signing the statement required by this section must have full authority to independently represent the State agency in court on all matters pertaining to the State program.
Note: EPA will supply States with an Attorney General's statement format on request.
(b) If a State (which is not an Indian Tribe) seeks authority over activities on Indian lands, the statement shall contain an appropriate analysis of the State's authority.
(c) The Attorney General's statement shall certify that the State has adequate legal authority to issue and enforce general permits if the State seeks to implement the general permit program under §122.28.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993]
§ 123.24 Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator.
(a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit a Memorandum of Agreement. The Memorandum of Agreement shall be executed by the State Director and the Regional Administrator and shall become effective when approved by the Administrator. In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, the Memorandum of Agreement may include other terms, conditions, or agreements consistent with this part and relevant to the administration and enforcement of the State's regulatory program. The Administrator shall not approve any Memorandum of Agreement which contains provisions which restrict EPA's statutory oversight responsibility.
(b) The Memorandum of Agreement shall include the following:
(1)(i) Provisions for the prompt transfer from EPA to the State of pending permit applications and any other information relevant to program operation not already in the possession of the State Director (e.g., support files for permit issuance, compliance reports, etc.). If existing permits are transferred from EPA to the State for administration, the Memorandum of Agreement shall contain provisions specifying a procedure for transferring the administration of these permits. If a State lacks the authority to directly administer permits issued by the Federal government, a procedure may be established to transfer responsibility for these permits.
Note: For example, EPA and the State and the permittee could agree that the State would issue a permit(s) identical to the outstanding Federal permit which would simultaneously be terminated.
(ii) Where a State has been authorized by EPA to issue permits in accordance with §123.23(b) on the Federal Indian reservation of the Indian Tribe seeking program approval, provisions describing how the transfer of pending permit applications, permits, and any other information relevant to the program operation not already in the possession of the Indian Tribe (support files for permit issuance, compliance reports, etc.) will be accomplished.
(2) Provisions specifying classes and categories of permit applications, draft permits, and proposed permits that the State will send to the Regional Administrator for review, comment and, where applicable, objection.
(3) Provisions specifying the frequency and content of reports, documents and other information which the State is required to submit to EPA. The State shall allow EPA to routinely review State records, reports, and files relevant to the administration and enforcement of the approved program. State reports may be combined with grant reports where appropriate. These procedures shall implement the requirements of §123.43.
(4) Provisions on the State's compliance monitoring and enforcement program, including:
(i) Provisions for coordination of compliance monitoring activities by the State and by EPA. These may specify the basis on which the Regional Administrator will select facilities or activities within the State for EPA inspection. The Regional Administrator will normally notify the State at least 7 days before any such inspection; and
(ii) Procedures to assure coordination of enforcement activities.
(5) When appropriate, provisions for joint processing of permits by the State and EPA for facilities or activities which require permits from both EPA and the State under different programs. (See §124.4.)
Note: To promote efficiency and to avoid duplication and inconsistency, States are encouraged to enter into joint processing agreements with EPA for permit issuance. Likewise, States are encouraged (but not required) to consider steps to coordinate or consolidate their own permit programs and activities.
(6) Provisions for modification of the Memorandum of Agreement in accordance with this part.
(c) The Memorandum of Agreement, the annual program grant and the State/EPA Agreement should be consistent. If the State/EPA Agreement indicates that a change is needed in the Memorandum of Agreement, the Memorandum of Agreement may be amended through the procedures set forth in this part. The State/EPA Agreement may not override the Memorandum of Agreement.
Note: Detailed program priorities and specific arrangements for EPA support of the State program will change and are therefore more appropriately negotiated in the context of annual agreements rather than in the MOA. However, it may still be appropriate to specify in the MOA the basis for such detailed agreements, e.g., a provision in the MOA specifying that EPA will select facilities in the State for inspection annually as part of the State/EPA agreement.
(d) The Memorandum of Agreement shall also specify the extent to which EPA will waive its right to review, object to, or comment upon State-issued permits under section 402(d)(3), (e) or (f) of CWA. While the Regional Administrator and the State may agree to waive EPA review of certain “classes or categories” of permits, no waiver of review may be granted for the following classes or categories:
(1) Discharges into the territorial sea;
(2) Discharges which may affect the waters of a State other than the one in which the discharge originates;
(3) Discharges proposed to be regulated by general permits (see §122.28);
(4) Discharges from publicly owned treatment works with a daily average discharge exceeding 1 million gallons per day;
(5) Discharges of uncontaminated cooling water with a daily average discharge exceeding 500 million gallons per day;
(6) Discharges from any major discharger or from any discharger within any of the 21 industrial categories listed in appendix A to part 122;
(7) Discharges from other sources with a daily average discharge exceeding 0.5 (one-half) million gallons per day, except that EPA review of permits for discharges of non-process wastewater may be waived regardless of flow.
(e) Whenever a waiver is granted under paragraph (d) of this section, the Memorandum of Agreement shall contain:
(1) A statement that the Regional Administrator retains the right to terminate the waiver as to future permit actions, in whole or in part, at any time by sending the State Director written notice of termination; and
(2) A statement that the State shall supply EPA with copies of final permits.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 6941, Feb. 19, 1985, as amended at 54 FR 18784, May 2, 1989; 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993; 63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998]
§ 123.25 Requirements for permitting.
(a) All State Programs under this part must have legal authority to implement each of the following provisions and must be administered in conformance with each, except that States are not precluded from omitting or modifying any provisions to impose more stringent requirements:
(2)§122.5(a) and (b)—(Effect of permit);
(3)§122.7(b) and (c)—(Confidential information);
(4) §122.21 (a)-(b), (c)(2), (e)-(k), (m)-(p), (q), and (r)—(Application for a permit);
(6)§122.23—(Concentrated animal feeding operations);
(7)§122.24—(Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities);
(9)§122.26—(Storm water discharges);
(11)§122.28—(General permits), Provided that States which do not seek to implement the general permit program under §122.28 need not do so.
(12) Section 122.41 (a)(1) and (b) through (n)—(Applicable permit conditions) (Indian Tribes can satisfy enforcement authority requirements under §123.34);
(13)§122.42—(Conditions applicable to specified categories of permits);
(14)§122.43—(Establishing permit conditions);
(15)§122.44—(Establishing NPDES permit conditions);
(16)§122.45—(Calculating permit conditions);
(18)§122.47(a)—(Schedules of compliance);
(20)§122.50—(Disposal into wells);
(24)§124.3(a)—(Application for a permit);
(25)§124.5 (a), (c), (d), and (f)—(Modification of permits);
(26)§124.6 (a), (c), (d), and (e)—(Draft permit);
(28)§124.10 (a)(1)(ii), (a)(1)(iii), (a)(1)(v), (b), (c), (d), and (e)—(Public notice);
(29)§124.11—(Public comments and requests for hearings);
(30)§124.12(a)—(Public hearings); and
(31)§124.17 (a) and (c)—(Response to comments);
(34)§124.59—(Comments from government agencies);
(35)§124.62—(Decision on variances);
(36) Subparts A, B, D, H, I, and J of part 125 of this chapter;
(37) 40 CFR parts 129, 133, and subchapter N;
(38) For a Great Lakes State or Tribe (as defined in 40 CFR 132.2), 40 CFR part 132 (NPDES permitting implementation procedures only);
(39) §122.30 (What are the objectives of the storm water regulations for small MS4s?);
(40) §122.31 (For Indian Tribes only) (As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?);
(41) §122.32 (As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?);
(42) §122.33 (If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit? When do I have to apply?);
(43) §122.34 (As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?);
(44) §122.35 (As an operator of a regulated small MS4, may I share the responsibility to implement the minimum control measures with other entities?);
(45) §122.36 (As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what happens if I don't comply with the application or permit requirements in §§122.33 through 122.35?); and
(46) For states that wish to receive electronic documents, 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting).
Note: States need not implement provisions identical to the above listed provisions. Implemented provisions must, however, establish requirements at least as stringent as the corresponding listed provisions. While States may impose more stringent requirements, they may not make one requirement more lenient as a tradeoff for making another requirement more stringent; for example, by requiring that public hearings be held prior to issuing any permit while reducing the amount of advance notice of such a hearing.
State programs may, if they have adequate legal authority, implement any of the provisions of parts 122 and 124. See, for example, §122.5(d) (continuation of permits) and §124.4 (consolidation of permit processing).
For example, a State may impose more stringent requirements in an NPDES program by omitting the upset provision of §122.41 or by requiring more prompt notice of an upset.
(b) State NPDES programs shall have an approved continuing planning process under 40 CFR 130.5 and shall assure that the approved planning process is at all times consistent with the CWA.
(c) State NPDES programs shall ensure that any board or body which approves all or portions of permits shall not include as a member any person who receives, or has during the previous 2 years received, a significant portion of income directly or indirectly from permit holders or applicants for a permit.
(1) For the purposes of this paragraph:
(i) Board or body includes any individual, including the Director, who has or shares authority to approve all or portions of permits either in the first instance, as modified or reissued, or on appeal.
(ii) Significant portion of income means 10 percent or more of gross personal income for a calendar year, except that it means 50 percent or more of gross personal income for a calendar year if the recipient is over 60 years of age and is receiving that portion under retirement, pension, or similar arrangement.
(iii) Permit holders or applicants for a permit does not include any department or agency of a State government, such as a Department of Parks or a Department of Fish and Wildlife.
(iv) Income includes retirement benefits, consultant fees, and stock dividends.
(2) For the purposes of paragraph (c) of this section, income is not received “directly or indirectly from permit holders or applicants for a permit” when it is derived from mutual fund payments, or from other diversified investments for which the recipient does not know the identity of the primary sources of income.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 6941, Feb. 19, 1985; 50 FR 7912, Feb. 27, 1985, as amended at 54 FR 18784, May 2, 1989; 55 FR 48075, Nov. 16, 1990; 58 FR 9414, Feb. 19, 1993; 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993; 60 FR 15386, Mar. 23, 1995; 63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998; 64 FR 42470, Aug. 4, 1999; 64 FR 68849, Dec. 8, 1999; 65 FR 30909, May 15, 2000; 66 FR 65338, Dec. 18, 2001; 69 FR 41682, July 9, 2004; 70 FR 59888, Oct. 13, 2005]
§ 123.26 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.
(a) State programs shall have procedures for receipt, evaluation, retention and investigation for possible enforcement of all notices and reports required of permittees and other regulated persons (and for investigation for possible enforcement of failure to submit these notices and reports).
(b) State programs shall have inspection and surveillance procedures to determine, independent of information supplied by regulated persons, compliance or noncompliance with applicable program requirements. The State shall maintain:
(1) A program which is capable of making comprehensive surveys of all facilities and activities subject to the State Director's authority to identify persons subject to regulation who have failed to comply with permit application or other program requirements. Any compilation, index or inventory of such facilities and activities shall be made available to the Regional Administrator upon request;
(2) A program for periodic inspections of the facilities and activities subject to regulation. These inspections shall be conducted in a manner designed to:
(i) Determine compliance or noncompliance with issued permit conditions and other program requirements;
(ii) Verify the accuracy of information submitted by permittees and other regulated persons in reporting forms and other forms supplying monitoring data; and
(iii) Verify the adequacy of sampling, monitoring, and other methods used by permittees and other regulated persons to develop that information;
(3) A program for investigating information obtained regarding violations of applicable program and permit requirements; and
(4) Procedures for receiving and ensuring proper consideration of information submitted by the Public about violations. Public effort in reporting violations shall be encouraged, and the State Director shall make available information on reporting procedures.
(c) The State Director and State officers engaged in compliance evaluation shall have authority to enter any site or premises subject to regulation or in which records relevant to program operation are kept in order to copy any records, inspect, monitor or otherwise investigate compliance with the State program including compliance with permit conditions and other program requirements. States whose law requires a search warrant before entry conform with this requirement.
(d) Investigatory inspections shall be conducted, samples shall be taken and other information shall be gathered in a manner (e.g., using proper “chain of custody” procedures) that will produce evidence admissible in an enforcement proceeding or in court.
(e) State NPDES compliance evaluation programs shall have procedures and ability for:
(1) Maintaining a comprehensive inventory of all sources covered by NPDES permits and a schedule of reports required to be submitted by permittees to the State agency;
(2) Initial screening (i.e., pre-enforcement evaluation) of all permit or grant-related compliance information to identify violations and to establish priorities for further substantive technical evaluation;
(3) When warranted, conducting a substantive technical evaluation following the initial screening of all permit or grant-related compliance information to determine the appropriate agency response;
(4) Maintaining a management information system which supports the compliance evaluation activities of this part; and
(5) Inspecting the facilities of all major dischargers at least annually.
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 18785, May 2, 1989; 63 FR 45122, Aug. 24, 1998]
§ 123.27 Requirements for enforcement authority.
(a) Any State agency administering a program shall have available the following remedies for violations of State program requirements:
(1) To restrain immediately and effectively any person by order or by suit in State court from engaging in any unauthorized activity which is endangering or causing damage to public health or the environment;
Note: This paragraph (a)(1) requires that States have a mechanism (e.g., an administrative cease and desist order or the ability to seek a temporary restraining order) to stop any unauthorized activity endangering public health or the environment.
(2) To sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement, including permit conditions, without the necessity of a prior revocation of the permit;
(3) To assess or sue to recover in court civil penalties and to seek criminal remedies, including fines, as follows:
(i) Civil penalties shall be recoverable for the violation of any NPDES permit condition; any NPDES filing requirement; any duty to allow or carry out inspection, entry or monitoring activities; or, any regulation or orders issued by the State Director. These penalties shall be assessable in at least the amount of $5,000 a day for each violation.
(ii) Criminal fines shall be recoverable against any person who willfully or negligently violates any applicable standards or limitations; any NPDES permit condition; or any NPDES filing requirement. These fines shall be assessable in at least the amount of $10,000 a day for each violation.
Note: States which provide the criminal remedies based on “criminal negligence,” “gross negligence” or strict liability satisfy the requirement of paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section.
(iii) Criminal fines shall be recoverable against any person who knowingly makes any false statement, representation or certification in any NPDES form, in any notice or report required by an NPDES permit, or who knowingly renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required to be maintained by the Director. These fines shall be recoverable in at least the amount of $5,000 for each instance of violation.
Note: In many States the State Director will be represented in State courts by the State Attorney General or other appropriate legal officer. Although the State Director need not appear in court actions he or she should have power to request that any of the above actions be brought.
(b)(1) The maximum civil penalty or criminal fine (as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section) shall be assessable for each instance of violation and, if the violation is continuous, shall be assessable up to the maximum amount for each day of violation.
(2) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under State law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, shall be no greater than the burden of proof or degree of knowledge or intent EPA must provide when it brings an action under the appropriate Act;
Note: For example, this requirement is not met if State law includes mental state as an element of proof for civil violations.
(c) A civil penalty assessed, sought, or agreed upon by the State Director under paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall be appropriate to the violation.
Note: To the extent that State judgments or settlements provide penalties in amounts which EPA believes to be substantially inadequate in comparison to the amounts which EPA would require under similar facts, EPA, when authorized by the applicable statute, may commence separate actions for penalties.
Procedures for assessment by the State of the cost of investigations, inspections, or monitoring surveys which lead to the establishment of violations;
In addition to the requirements of this paragraph, the State may have other enforcement remedies. The following enforcement options, while not mandatory, are highly recommended:
Procedures which enable the State to assess or to sue any persons responsible for unauthorized activities for any expenses incurred by the State in removing, correcting, or terminating any adverse effects upon human health and the environment resulting from the unauthorized activity, whether or not accidental;
Procedures which enable the State to sue for compensation for any loss or destruction of wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or their habitat, and for any other damages caused by unauthorized activity, either to the State or to any residents of the State who are directly aggrieved by the unauthorized activity, or both; and
Procedures for the administrative assessment of penalties by the Director.
(d) Any State administering a program shall provide for public participation in the State enforcement process by providing either:
(1) Authority which allows intervention as of right in any civil or administrative action to obtain remedies specified in paragraphs (a)(1), (2) or (3) of this section by any citizen having an interest which is or may be adversely affected; or
(2) Assurance that the State agency or enforcement authority will:
(i) Investigate and provide written responses to all citizen complaints submitted pursuant to the procedures specified in §123.26(b)(4);
(ii) Not oppose intervention by any citizen when permissive intervention may be authorized by statute, rule, or regulation; and
(iii) Publish notice of and provide at least 30 days for public comment on any proposed settlement of a State enforcement action.
(e) Indian Tribes that cannot satisfy the criminal enforcement authority requirements of this section may still receive program approval if they meet the requirement for enforcement authority established under §123.34.
(Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.))
[48 FR 14178, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 39620, Sept. 1, 1983; 50 FR 6941, Feb. 19, 1985; 54 FR 258, Jan. 4, 1989; 58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993]
§ 123.28 Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.
State law must provide authority to issue permits to control the disposal of pollutants into wells. Such authority shall enable the State to protect the public health and welfare and to prevent the pollution of ground and surface waters by prohibiting well discharges or by issuing permits for such discharges with appropriate permit terms and conditions. A program approved under section 1422 of SDWA satisfies the requirements of this section.
Note: States which are authorized to administer the NPDES permit program under section 402 of CWA are encouraged to rely on existing statutory authority, to the extent possible, in developing a State UIC program under section 1422 of SDWA. Section 402(b)(1)(D) of CWA requires that NPDES States have the authority “to issue permits which * * * control the disposal of pollutants into wells.” In many instances, therefore, NPDES States will have existing statutory authority to regulate well disposal which satisfies the requirements of the UIC program. Note, however, that CWA excludes certain types of well injections from the definition of “pollutant.” If the State's statutory authority contains a similar exclusion it may need to be modified to qualify for UIC program approval.
§ 123.29 Prohibition.
State permit programs shall provide that no permit shall be issued when the Regional Administrator has objected in writing under §123.44.
§ 123.30 Judicial review of approval or denial of permits.
All States that administer or seek to administer a program under this part shall provide an opportunity for judicial review in State Court of the final approval or denial of permits by the State that is sufficient to provide for, encourage, and assist public participation in the permitting process. A State will meet this standard if State law allows an opportunity for judicial review that is the same as that available to obtain judicial review in federal court of a federally-issued NPDES permit (see §509 of the Clean Water Act). A State will not meet this standard if it narrowly restricts the class of persons who may challenge the approval or denial of permits (for example, if only the permittee can obtain judicial review, if persons must demonstrate injury to a pecuniary interest in order to obtain judicial review, or if persons must have a property interest in close proximity to a discharge or surface waters in order to obtain judicial review.) This requirement does not apply to Indian Tribes.
[61 FR 20980, May 8, 1996]
§ 123.31 Requirements for eligibility of Indian Tribes.
(a) Consistent with section 518(e) of the CWA, 33 U.S.C. 1377(e), the Regional Administrator will treat an Indian Tribe as eligible to apply for NPDES program authority if it meets the following criteria:
(1) The Indian Tribe is recognized by the Secretary of the Interior.
(2) The Indian Tribe has a governing body carrying out substantial governmental duties and powers.
(3) The functions to be exercised by the Indian Tribe pertain to the management and protection of water resources which are held by an Indian Tribe, held by the United States in trust for the Indians, held by a member of an Indian Tribe if such property interest is subject to a trust restriction on alienation, or otherwise within the borders of an Indian reservation.
(4) The Indian Tribe is reasonably expected to be capable, in the Regional Administrator's judgment, of carrying out the functions to be exercised, in a manner consistent with the terms and purposes of the Act and applicable regulations, of an effective NPDES permit program.
(b) An Indian Tribe which the Regional Administrator determines meets the criteria described in paragraph (a) of this section must also satisfy the State program requirements described in this part for assumption of the State program.
[58 FR 67981, Dec. 22, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994]
§ 123.32 Request by an Indian Tribe for a determination of eligibility.
An Indian Tribe may apply to the Regional Administrator for a determination that it qualifies pursuant to section 518 of the Act for purposes of seeking NPDES permit program approval. The application shall be concise and describe how the Indian Tribe will meet each of the requirements of §123.31. The application shall include the following information:
(a) A statement that the Tribe is recognized by the Secretary of the Interior;
(b) A descriptive statement demonstrating that the Tribal governing body is currently carrying out substantial governmental duties and powers over a defined area. This statement should:
(1) Describe the form of the Tribal government;
(2) Describe the types of governmental functions currently performed by the Tribal governing body, such as, but not limited to, the exercise of police powers affecting (or relating to) the health, safety, and welfare of the affected population; taxation; and the exercise of the power of eminent domain; and
(3) Identify the source of the Tribal government's authority to carry out the governmental functions currently being performed.
(c) A map or legal description of the area over which the Indian Tribe asserts authority under section 518(e)(2) of the Act; a statement by the Tribal Attorney General (or equivalent official authorized to represent the Tribe in all legal matters in court pertaining to the program for which it seeks approval) which describes the basis for the Tribe's assertion (including the nature or subject matter of the asserted regulatory authority); copies of those documents such as Tribal constitutions, by-laws, charters, executive orders, codes, ordinances, and/or resolutions which support the Tribe believes are relevant to its assertion under section 518(e)(2) of the Act; and a description of the location of the surface waters for which the Tribe proposes to establish an NPDES permit program.
(d) A narrative statement describing the capability of the Indian Tribe to administer an effective, environmentally sound NPDES permit program. The statement should include:
(1) A description of the Indian Tribe's previous management experience which may include the administration of programs and service authorized by the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), the Indian Mineral Development Act (25 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.), or the Indian Sanitation Facility Construction Activity Act (42 U.S.C. 2004a);
(2) A list of existing environmental or public health programs administered by the Tribal governing body, and a copy of related Tribal laws, regulations, and policies;
(3) A description of the entity (or entities) which exercise the executive, legislative, and judicial functions of the Tribal government;
(4) A description of the existing, or proposed, agency of the Indian Tribe which will assume primary responsibility for establishing and administering an NPDES permit program (including a description of the relationship between the existing or proposed agency and its regulated entities);
(5) A description of the technical and administrative abilities of the staff to administer and manage an effective, environmentally sound NPDES permit program or a plan which proposes how the Tribe will acquire additional administrative and technical expertise. The plan must address how the Tribe will obtain the funds to acquire the administrative and technical expertise.
(e) The Regional Administrator may, at his or her discretion, request further documentation necessary to support a Tribe's eligibility.
(f) If the Administrator or his or her delegatee has previously determined that a Tribe has met the prerequisites that make it eligible to assume a role similar to that of a state as provided by statute under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, or the Clean Air Act, then that Tribe need provide only that information unique to the NPDES program which is requested by the Regional Administrator.
[58 FR 67982, Dec. 22, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994]
§ 123.33 Procedures for processing an Indian Tribe's application.
(a) The Regional Administrator shall process an application of an Indian Tribe submitted pursuant to §123.32 in a timely manner. He shall promptly notify the Indian Tribe of receipt of the application.
(b) The Regional Administrator shall follow the procedures described in 40 CFR part 123, subpart D in processing a Tribe's request to assume the NPDES program.
[58 FR 67982, Dec. 22, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 64343, Dec. 14, 1994]
§ 123.34 Provisions for Tribal criminal enforcement authority.
To the extent that an Indian Tribe is precluded from asserting criminal enforcement authority as required under §123.27, the Federal Government will exercise primary criminal enforcement responsibility. The Tribe, with the EPA Region, shall develop a procedure by which the Tribal agency will refer potential criminal violations to the Regional Administrator, as agreed to by the parties, in an appropriate and timely manner. This procedure shall encompass all circumstances in which the Tribe is incapable of exercising the enforcement requirements of §123.27. This agreement shall be incorporated into a joint or separate Memorandum of Agreement with the EPA Region, as appropriate.
[58 FR 67983, Dec. 22, 1993]
§ 123.35 As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?
(a) You must comply with the requirements for all NPDES permitting authorities under Parts 122, 123, 124, and 125 of this chapter. (This section is meant only to supplement those requirements and discuss specific issues related to the small MS4 storm water program.)
(b) You must develop a process, as well as criteria, to designate small MS4s other than those described in §122.32(a)(1) of this chapter, as regulated small MS4s to be covered under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to designate a small MS4 waived under paragraph (d) of this section if circumstances change. EPA may make designations under this section if a State or Tribe fails to comply with the requirements listed in this paragraph. In making designations of small MS4s, you must:
(1)(i) Develop criteria to evaluate whether a storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality standards, including impairment of designated uses, or other significant water quality impacts, including habitat and biological impacts.
(ii) Guidance: For determining other significant water quality impacts, EPA recommends a balanced consideration of the following designation criteria on a watershed or other local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density, contiguity to an urbanized area, significant contributor of pollutants to waters of the United States, and ineffective protection of water quality by other programs;
(2) Apply such criteria, at a minimum, to any small MS4 located outside of an urbanized area serving a jurisdiction with a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile and a population of at least 10,000;
(3) Designate any small MS4 that meets your criteria by December 9, 2002. You may wait until December 8, 2004 to apply the designation criteria on a watershed basis if you have developed a comprehensive watershed plan. You may apply these criteria to make additional designations at any time, as appropriate; and
(4) Designate any small MS4 that contributes substantially to the pollutant loadings of a physically interconnected municipal separate storm sewer that is regulated by the NPDES storm water program.
(c) You must make a final determination within 180 days from receipt of a petition under §122.26(f) of this chapter (or analogous State or Tribal law). If you do not do so within that time period, EPA may make a determination on the petition.
(d) You must issue permits consistent with §§122.32 through 122.35 of this chapter to all regulated small MS4s. You may waive or phase in the requirements otherwise applicable to regulated small MS4s, as defined in §122.32(a)(1) of this chapter, under the following circumstances:
(1) You may waive permit coverage for each small MS4s in jurisdictions with a population under 1,000 within the urbanized area where all of the following criteria have been met:
(i) Its discharges are not contributing substantially to the pollutant loadings of a physically interconnected regulated MS4 (see paragraph (b)(4) of this section); and
(ii) If the small MS4 discharges any pollutant(s) that have been identified as a cause of impairment of any water body to which it discharges, storm water controls are not needed based on wasteload allocations that are part of an EPA approved or established “total maximum daily load” (TMDL) that address the pollutant(s) of concern.
(2) You may waive permit coverage for each small MS4 in jurisdictions with a population under 10,000 where all of the following criteria have been met:
(i) You have evaluated all waters of the U.S., including small streams, tributaries, lakes, and ponds, that receive a discharge from the MS4 eligible for such a waiver.
(ii) For all such waters, you have determined that storm water controls are not needed based on wasteload allocations that are part of an EPA approved or established TMDL that addresses the pollutant(s) of concern or, if a TMDL has not been developed or approved, an equivalent analysis that determines sources and allocations for the pollutant(s) of concern.
(iii) For the purpose of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the pollutant(s) of concern include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), sediment or a parameter that addresses sediment (such as total suspended solids, turbidity or siltation), pathogens, oil and grease, and any pollutant that has been identified as a cause of impairment of any water body that will receive a discharge from the MS4. (continued)
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