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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 1065—ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES
PART 1065—ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401–7671q.
Source: 70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—Applicability and General Provisions
§ 1065.1 Applicability.
(a) This part describes the procedures that apply to testing we require for the following engines or for vehicles using the following engines:
(1) Model year 2010 and later heavy-duty highway engines we regulate under 40 CFR part 86. For earlier model years, manufacturers may use the test procedures in this part or those specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart N, according to §1065.10.
(2) Land-based nonroad diesel engines we regulate under 40 CFR part 1039.
(3) Large nonroad spark-ignition engines we regulate under 40 CFR part 1048.
(4) Vehicles we regulate under 40 CFR part 1051 (such as snowmobiles and off-highway motorcycles) based on engine testing. See 40 CFR part 1051, subpart F, for standards and procedures that are based on vehicle testing.
(b) The procedures of this part may apply to other types of engines, as described in this part and in the standard-setting part.
(c) This part is addressed to you as a manufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you.
(d) Paragraph (a) of this section identifies the parts of the CFR that define emission standards and other requirements for particular types of engines. In this part, we refer to each of these other parts generically as the “standard-setting part.” For example, 40 CFR part 1051 is always the standard-setting part for snowmobiles.
(e) Unless we specify otherwise, the terms “procedures” and “test procedures” in this part include all aspects of engine testing, including the equipment specifications, calibrations, calculations, and other protocols and procedural specifications needed to measure emissions.
(f) For vehicles subject to this part and regulated under vehicle-based standards, use good engineering judgment to interpret the term “engine” in this part to include vehicles where appropriate.
(g) For additional information regarding these test procedures, visit our Web site at www.epa.gov, and in particular http://www.epa.gov/otaq/testingregs.htm.
§ 1065.2 Submitting information to EPA under this part.
(a) You are responsible for statements and information in your applications for certification, requests for approved procedures, selective enforcement audits, laboratory audits, production-line test reports, field test reports, or any other statements you make to us related to this part 1065.
(b) In the standard-setting part and in 40 CFR 1068.101, we describe your obligation to report truthful and complete information and the consequences of failing to meet this obligation. See also 18 U.S.C. 1001 and 42 U.S.C. 7413(c)(2).
(c) We may void any certificates associated with a submission of information if we find that you intentionally submitted false, incomplete, or misleading information. For example, if we find that you intentionally submitted incomplete information to mislead EPA when requesting approval to use alternate test procedures, we may void the certificates for all engines families certified based on emission data collected using the alternate procedures.
(d) We may require an authorized representative of your company to approve and sign the submission, and to certify that all of the information submitted is accurate and complete.
(e) See 40 CFR 1068.10 for provisions related to confidential information. Note however that under 40 CFR 2.301, emission data is generally not eligible for confidential treatment.
§ 1065.5 Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.
(a) This part specifies procedures that apply generally to testing various categories of engines. See the standard-setting part for directions in applying specific provisions in this part for a particular type of engine. Before using this part's procedures, read the standard-setting part to answer at least the following questions:
(1) What duty cycles must I use for laboratory testing?
(2) Should I warm up the test engine before measuring emissions, or do I need to measure cold-start emissions during a warm-up segment of the duty cycle?
(3) Which exhaust gases do I need to measure?
(4) Does testing require full-flow dilute sampling? Is raw sampling prohibited? Is partial-flow sampling prohibited?
(5) Do any unique specifications apply for test fuels?
(6) What maintenance steps may I take before or between tests on an emission-data engine?
(7) Do any unique requirements apply to stabilizing emission levels on a new engine?
(8) Do any unique requirements apply to test limits, such as ambient temperatures or pressures?
(9) Is field testing required, and are there different emission standards or procedures that apply to field testing?
(10) Are there any emission standards specified at particular engine-operating conditions or ambient conditions?
(11) Do any unique requirements apply for durability testing?
(b) The testing specifications in the standard-setting part may differ from the specifications in this part. In cases where it is not possible to comply with both the standard-setting part and this part, you must comply with the specifications in the standard-setting part. The standard-setting part may also allow you to deviate from the procedures of this part for other reasons.
(c) The following table shows how this part divides testing specifications into subparts:
Describes these specifications
This subpart . . . or procedures . . .
Subpart A.............................. Applicability and general
Subpart B.............................. Equipment for testing.
Subpart C.............................. Measurement instruments for
Subpart D.............................. Calibration and performance
verifications for measurement
Subpart E.............................. How to prepare engines for
testing, including service
Subpart F.............................. How to run an emission test.
Subpart G.............................. Test procedure calculations.
Subpart H.............................. Fuels, engine fluids,
analytical gases, and other
calibration standards for
Subpart I.............................. Special procedures related to
Subpart J.............................. How to test with portable
emission measurement systems
Subpart K.............................. Definitions, abbreviations, and
other reference information.
§ 1065.10 Other procedures.
(a) Your testing. The procedures in this part apply for all testing you do to show compliance with emission standards, with certain exceptions listed in this section. In some other sections in this part, we allow you to use other procedures (such as less precise or less accurate procedures) if they do not affect your ability to show that your engines comply with the applicable emission standards. This generally requires emission levels to be far enough below the applicable emission standards so that any errors caused by greater imprecision or inaccuracy do not affect your ability to state unconditionally that the engines meet all applicable emission standards.
(b) Our testing. These procedures generally apply for testing that we do to determine if your engines comply with applicable emission standards. We may perform other testing as allowed by the Act.
(c) Exceptions. We may allow or require you to use procedures other than those specified in this part in the following cases, which may apply to laboratory testing, field testing, or both. We intend to publicly announce when we allow or require such exceptions. All of the test procedures noted here as exceptions to the specified procedures are considered generically as “other procedures.” Note that the terms “special procedures” and “alternate procedures” have specific meanings; “special procedures” are those allowed by §1065.10(c)(2) and “alternate procedures” are those allowed by §1065.10(c)(7).
(1) The objective of the procedures in this part is to produce emission measurements equivalent to those that would result from measuring emissions during in-use operation using the same engine configuration as installed in a vehicle. However, in unusual circumstances these procedures may result in measurements that do not represent in-use operation. You must notify us if good engineering judgment indicates that the specified procedures cause unrepresentative emission measurements for your engines. Note that you need not notify us of unrepresentative aspects of the test procedure if measured emissions are equivalent to in-use emissions. This provision does not obligate you to pursue new information regarding the different ways your engine might operate in use, nor does it obligate you to collect any other in-use information to verify whether or not these test procedures are representative of your engine's in-use operation. If you notify us of unrepresentative procedures under this paragraph (c)(1), we will cooperate with you to establish whether and how the procedures should be appropriately changed to result in more representative measurements. While the provisions of this paragraph (c)(1) allow us to be responsive to issues as they arise, we would generally work toward making these testing changes generally applicable through rulemaking. We will allow reasonable lead time for compliance with any resulting change in procedures. We will consider the following factors in determining the importance of pursuing changes to the procedures:
(i) Whether supplemental emission standards or other requirements in the standard-setting part address the type of operation of concern or otherwise prevent inappropriate design strategies.
(ii) Whether the unrepresentative aspect of the procedures affect your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission standards.
(iii) The extent to which the established procedures require the use of emission-control technologies or strategies that are expected to ensure a comparable degree of emission control under the in-use operation that differs from the specified procedures.
(2) You may request to use special procedures if your engine cannot be tested using the specified procedures. We will approve your request if we determine that it would produce emission measurements that represent in-use operation and we determine that it can be used to show compliance with the requirements of the standard-setting part. The following situations illustrate examples that may require special procedures:
(i) Your engine cannot operate on the specified duty cycle. In this case, tell us in writing why you cannot satisfactorily test your engine using this part's procedures and ask to use a different approach.
(ii) Your electronic control module requires specific input signals that are not available during dynamometer testing. In this case, tell us in writing what signals you will simulate, such as vehicle speed or transmission signals, and explain why these signals are necessary for representative testing.
(3) In a given model year, you may use procedures required for later model year engines without request. If you upgrade your testing facility in stages, you may rely on a combination of procedures for current and later model year engines as long as you can ensure, using good engineering judgment, that the combination you use for testing does not affect your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission standards.
(4) In a given model year, you may ask to use procedures allowed for earlier model year engines. We will approve this only if you show us that using the procedures allowed for earlier model years does not affect your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission standards.
(5) You may ask to use emission data collected using other procedures, such as those of the California Air Resources Board or the International Organization for Standardization. We will approve this only if you show us that using these other procedures does not affect your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission standards.
(6) During the 12 months following the effective date of any change in the provisions of this part 1065, you may ask to use data collected using procedures specified in the previously applicable version of this part 1065. This paragraph (c)(6) does not restrict the use of carryover certification data otherwise allowed by the standard-setting part.
(7) You may request to use alternate procedures that are equivalent to allowed procedures, or more accurate or more precise than allowed procedures. You may request to use a particular device or method for laboratory testing even though it was originally designed for field testing. The following provisions apply to requests for alternate procedures:
(i) Applications. Follow the instructions in §1065.12.
(ii) Submission. Submit requests in writing to the Designated Compliance Officer.
(iii) Notification. We may approve your request by telling you directly, or we may issue guidance announcing our approval of a specific alternate procedure, which would make additional requests for approval unnecessary.
(d) If we require you to request approval to use other procedures under paragraph (c) of this section, you may not use them until we approve your request.
§ 1065.12 Approval of alternate procedures.
(a) To get approval for an alternate procedure under §1065.10(c), send the Designated Compliance Officer an initial written request describing the alternate procedure and why you believe it is equivalent to the specified procedure. We may approve your request based on this information alone, or, as described in this section, we may ask you to submit to us in writing supplemental information showing that your alternate procedure is consistently and reliably at least as accurate and repeatable as the specified procedure.
(b) We may make our approval under this section conditional upon meeting other requirements or specifications. We may limit our approval, for example, to certain time frames, specific duty cycles, or specific emission standards. Based upon any supplemental information we receive after our initial approval, we may amend a previously approved alternate procedure to extend, limit, or discontinue its use. We intend to publicly announce alternate procedures that we approve.
(c) Although we will make every effort to approve only alternate procedures that completely meet our requirements, we may revoke our approval of an alternate procedure if new information shows that it is significantly not equivalent to the specified procedure.
If we do this, we will grant time to switch to testing using an allowed procedure, considering the following factors:
(1) The cost, difficulty, and availability to switch to a procedure that we allow.
(2) The degree to which the alternate procedure affects your ability to show that your engines comply with all applicable emission standards.
(3) Any relevant factors considered in our initial approval.
(d) If we do not approve your proposed alternate procedure based on the information in your initial request, we may ask you to send the following information to fully evaluate your request:
(1) Theoretical basis. Give a brief technical description explaining why you believe the proposed alternate procedure should result in emission measurements equivalent to those using the specified procedure. You may include equations, figures, and references. You should consider the full range of parameters that may affect equivalence. For example, for a request to use a different NOX measurement procedure, you should theoretically relate the alternate detection principle to the specified detection principle over the expected concentration ranges for NO, NO2, and interference gases. For a request to use a different PM measurement procedure, you should explain the principles by which the alternate procedure quantifies particulate mass similarly to the specified procedures. For any proportioning or integrating procedure, such as a partial-flow dilution system, you should compare the alternate procedure's theoretical response to the expected response of the specified procedures.
(2) Technical description. Describe briefly any hardware or software needed to perform the alternate procedure. You may include dimensioned drawings, flowcharts, schematics, and component specifications. Explain any necessary calculations or other data manipulation.
(3) Procedure execution. Describe briefly how to perform the alternate procedure and recommend a level of training an operator should have to achieve acceptable results.
Summarize the installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures in a step-by-step format. Describe how any calibration is performed using NIST-traceable standards or other similar standards we approve. Calibration must be specified by using known quantities and must not be specified as a comparison with other allowed procedures.
(4) Data-collection techniques. Compare measured emission results using the proposed alternate procedure and the specified procedure, as follows:
(i) Both procedures must be calibrated independently to NIST-traceable standards or to other similar standards we approve.
(ii) Include measured emission results from all applicable duty cycles. Measured emission results should show that the test engine meets all applicable emission standards according to specified procedures.
(iii) Use statistical methods to evaluate the emission measurements, such as those described in paragraph (e) of this section.
(e) We may give you specific directions regarding methods for statistical analysis, or we may approve other methods that you propose. Absent any other directions from us, use a t-test and an F-test calculated according to §1065.602 to evaluate whether your proposed alternate procedure is equivalent to the specified procedure. We recommend that you consult a statistician if you are unfamiliar with these statistical tests. Perform the tests as follows:
(1) Repeat measurements for all applicable duty cycles at least seven times for each procedure. You may use laboratory duty cycles to evaluate field-testing procedures.
Be sure to include all available results to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the proposed alternate procedure, as described in §1065.2.
(2) Demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed alternate procedure by showing that it passes a two-sided t-test. Use an unpaired t-test, unless you show that a paired t-test is appropriate under both of the following provisions:
(i) For paired data, the population of the paired differences from which you sampled paired differences must be independent. That is, the probability of any given value of one paired difference is unchanged by knowledge of the value of another paired difference. For example, your paired data would violate this requirement if your series of paired differences showed a distinct increase or decrease that was dependent on the time at which they were sampled.
(ii) For paired data, the population of paired differences from which you sampled the paired differences must have a normal (i.e., Gaussian) distribution. If the population of paired difference is not normally distributed, consult a statistician for a more appropriate statistical test, which may include transforming the data with a mathematical function or using some kind of non-parametric test.
(3) Show that t is less than the critical t value, tcrit, tabulated in §1065.602, for the following confidence intervals:
(i) 90% for a proposed alternate procedure for laboratory testing.
(ii) 95% for a proposed alternate procedure for field testing.
(4) Demonstrate the precision of the proposed alternate procedure by showing that it passes an F-test. Use a set of at least seven samples from the reference procedure and a set of at least seven samples from the alternate procedure to perform an F-test. The sets must meet the following requirements:
(i) Within each set, the values must be independent. That is, the probability of any given value in a set must be unchanged by knowledge of another value in that set. For example, your data would violate this requirement if a set showed a distinct increase or decrease that was dependent upon the time at which they were sampled.
(ii) For each set, the population of values from which you sampled must have a normal (i.e., Gaussian) distribution. If the population of values is not normally distributed, consult a statistician for a more appropriate statistical test, which may include transforming the data with a mathematical function or using some kind of non-parametric test.
(iii) The two sets must be independent of each other. That is, the probability of any given value in one set must be unchanged by knowledge of another value in the other set. For example, your data would violate this requirement if one value in a set showed a distinct increase or decrease that was dependent upon a value in the other set. Note that a trend of emission changes from an engine would not violate this requirement.
(iv) If you collect paired data for the paired t-test in paragraph (e)(2) in this section, use caution when selecting sets from paired data for the F-test. If you do this, select sets that do not mask the precision of the measurement procedure. We recommend selecting such sets only from data collected using the same engine, measurement instruments, and test cycle.
(5) Show that F is less than the critical F value, Fcrit, tabulated in §1065.602. If you have several F-test results from several sets of data, show that the mean F-test value is less than the mean critical F value for all the sets. Evaluate Fcrit, based on the following confidence intervals:
(i) 90% for a proposed alternate procedure for laboratory testing.
(ii) 95% for a proposed alternate procedure for field testing.
§ 1065.15 Overview of procedures for laboratory and field testing.
This section outlines the procedures to test engines that are subject to emission standards.
(a) In the standard-setting part, we set brake-specific emission standards in g/(kW·hr) (or g/(hp·hr)), for the following constituents:
(1) Total oxides of nitrogen, NOX.
(2) Hydrocarbons (HC), which may be expressed in the following ways:
(i) Total hydrocarbons, THC.
(ii) Nonmethane hydrocarbons, NMHC, which results from subtracting methane (CH4) from THC.
(iii) Total hydrocarbon-equivalent, THCE, which results from adjusting THC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(iv) Nonmethane hydrocarbon-equivalent, NMHCE, which results from adjusting NMHC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(3) Particulate mass, PM.
(4) Carbon monoxide, CO.
(b) Note that some engines are not subject to standards for all the emission constituents identified in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) We set brake-specific emission standards over test intervals, as follows:
(1) Engine operation. Engine operation is specified over a test interval. A test interval is the time over which an engine's total mass of emissions and its total work are determined. Refer to the standard-setting part for the specific test intervals that apply to each engine. Testing may involve measuring emissions and work during the following types of engine operation:
(i) Laboratory testing. Under this type of testing, you determine brake-specific emissions for duty-cycle testing by using an engine dynamometer in a laboratory. This typically consists of one or more test intervals, each defined by a duty cycle, which is a sequence of speeds and torques that an engine must follow. If the standard-setting part allows it, you may also simulate field testing by running on an engine dynamometer in a laboratory.
(ii) Field testing. This type of testing consists of normal in-use engine operation while an engine is installed in a vehicle. The standard-setting part specifies how test intervals are defined for field testing.
(2) Constituent determination. Determine the total mass of each constituent over a test interval by selecting from the following methods:
(i) Continuous sampling. In continuous sampling, measure the constituent's concentration continuously from raw or dilute exhaust. Multiply this concentration by the continuous (raw or dilute) flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the constituent's flow rate. Sum the constituent's flow rate continuously over the test interval. This sum is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(ii) Batch sampling. In batch sampling, continuously extract and store a sample of raw or dilute exhaust for later measurement. Extract a sample proportional to the raw or dilute exhaust flow rate. You may extract and store a proportional sample of exhaust in an appropriate container, such as a bag, and then measure HC, CO, and NOX concentrations in the container after the test interval. You may deposit PM from proportionally extracted exhaust onto an appropriate substrate, such as a filter. In this case, divide the PM by the amount of filtered exhaust to calculate the PM concentration. Multiply batch sampled concentrations by the total (raw or dilute) flow from which it was extracted during the test interval. This product is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(iii) Combined sampling. You may use continuous and batch sampling simultaneously during a test interval, as follows:
(A) You may use continuous sampling for some constituents and batch sampling for others.
(B) You may use continuous and batch sampling for a single constituent, with one being a redundant measurement. See §1065.201 for more information on redundant measurements.
(3) Work determination. Determine work over a test interval by one of the following methods:
(i) Speed and torque. For laboratory testing, synchronously multiply speed and brake torque to calculate instantaneous values for engine brake power. Sum engine brake power over a test interval to determine total work.
(ii) Fuel consumed and brake-specific fuel consumption. Directly measure fuel consumed or calculate it with chemical balances of the fuel, intake air, and exhaust. To calculate fuel consumed by a chemical balance, you must also measure either intake-air flow rate or exhaust flow rate. Divide the fuel consumed during a test interval by the brake-specific fuel consumption to determine work over the test interval. For laboratory testing, calculate the brake-specific fuel consumption using fuel consumed and speed and torque over a test interval. For field testing, refer to the standard-setting part and §1065.915 for selecting an appropriate value for brake-specific fuel consumption.
(d) Refer to §1065.650 for calculations to determine brake-specific emissions.
(e) The following figure illustrates the allowed measurement configurations described in this part 1065:
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§ 1065.20 Units of measure and overview of calculations.
(a) System of units. The procedures in this part generally follow the International System of Units (SI), as detailed in NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 Edition, “Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI),” which we incorporate by reference in §1065.1010. This document is available on the Internet at http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/contents.html. Note the following exceptions:
(1) We designate rotational frequency, fn, of an engine's crankshaft in revolutions per minute (rev/min), rather than the SI unit of reciprocal seconds (1/s). This is based on the commonplace use of rev/min in many engine dynamometer laboratories. Also, we use the symbol fn to identify rotational frequency in rev/min, rather than the SI convention of using n. This avoids confusion with our usage of the symbol n for a molar quantity.
(2) We designate brake-specific emissions in grams per kilowatt-hour (g/(kW·hr)), rather than the SI unit of grams per megajoule (g/MJ). This is based on the fact that engines are generally subject to emission standards expressed in g/kW·hr. If we specify engine standards in grams per horsepower·hour (g/(hp·hr)) in the standard-setting part, convert units as specified in paragraph (d) of this section.
(3) We designate temperatures in units of degrees Celsius ( °C) unless a calculation requires an absolute temperature. In that case, we designate temperatures in units of Kelvin (K). For conversion purposes throughout this part, 0 °C equals 273.15 K.
(b) Concentrations. This part does not rely on amounts expressed in parts per million or similar units. Rather, we express such amounts in the following SI units:
(1) For ideal gases, µmol/mol, formerly ppm (volume).
(2) For all substances, µm 3 /m 3 , formerly ppm (volume).
(3) For all substances, mg/kg, formerly ppm (mass).
(c) Absolute pressure. Measure absolute pressure directly or calculate it as the sum of atmospheric pressure plus a differential pressure that is referenced to atmospheric pressure.
(d) Units conversion. Use the following conventions to convert units:
(1) Testing. You may record values and perform calculations with other units. For testing with equipment that involves other units, use the conversion factors from NIST Special Publication 811, as described in paragraph (a) of this section.
(2) Humidity. In this part, we identify humidity levels by specifying dewpoint, which is the temperature at which pure water begins to condense out of air. Use humidity conversions as described in §1065.645.
(3) Emission standards. If your standard is in g/(hp·hr) units, convert kW to hp before any rounding by using the conversion factor of 1 hp ( 550 ft·lbf/s) = 0.7456999 kW. Round the final value for comparison to the applicable standard.
(e) Rounding. Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, round only final values, not intermediate values. Round values to the number of significant digits necessary to match the number of decimal places of the applicable standard or specification. For information not related to standards or specifications, use good engineering judgment to record the appropriate number of significant digits.
(f) Interpretation of ranges. In this part, we specify ranges such as “±10% of maximum pressure”, “(40 to 50) kPa”, or “(30 ±10) kPa”. Interpret a range as a tolerance unless we explicitly identify it as an accuracy, repeatability, linearity, or noise specification. See §1065.1001 for the definition of Tolerance.
(g) Scaling of specifications with respect to a standard. Because this part 1065 is applicable to a wide range of engines and emission standards, some of the specifications in this part are scaled with respect to an engine's emission standard or maximum power. This ensures that the specification will be adequate to determine compliance, but not overly burdensome by requiring unnecessarily high-precision equipment. Many of these specifications are given with respect to a “flow-weighted mean” that is expected at the standard. Flow-weighted mean is the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded concentration times its respective exhaust flow rate, divided by the sum of the recorded flow rates. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration, because the CVS system itself flow-weights the bag concentration. Refer to §1065.602 for information needed to estimate and calculate flow-weighted means.
§ 1065.25 Recordkeeping.
The procedures in this part include various requirements to record data or other information. Refer to the standard-setting part regarding recordkeeping requirements. If the standard-setting part does not specify recordkeeping requirements, store these records in any format and on any media and keep them readily available for one year after you send an associated application for certification, or one year after you generate the data if they do not support an application for certification. You must promptly send us organized, written records in English if we ask for them. We may review them at any time.
Subpart B—Equipment Specifications
§ 1065.101 Overview.
(a) This subpart specifies equipment, other than measurement instruments, related to emission testing. The provisions of this subpart apply for all testing in laboratories. See subpart J of this part to determine which of the provisions of this subpart apply for field testing. This includes three broad categories of equipment—dynamometers, engine fluid systems (such as fuel and intake-air systems), and emission-sampling hardware.
(b) Other related subparts in this part identify measurement instruments (subpart C), describe how to evaluate the performance of these instruments (subpart D), and specify engine fluids and analytical gases (subpart H).
(c) Subpart J of this part describes additional equipment that is specific to field testing.
(d) Figures 1 and 2 of this section illustrate some of the possible configurations of laboratory equipment. These figures are schematics only; we do not require exact conformance to them. Figure 1 of this section illustrates the equipment specified in this subpart and gives some references to sections in this subpart. Figure 2 of this section illustrates some of the possible configurations of a full-flow dilution, constant-volume sampling (CVS) system. Not all possible CVS configurations are shown.
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§ 1065.110 Work inputs and outputs, accessory work, and operator demand.
(a) Work. Use good engineering judgment to simulate all engine work inputs and outputs as they typically would operate in use. Account for work inputs and outputs during an emission test by measuring them; or, if they are small, you may show by engineering analysis that disregarding them does not affect your ability to determine the net work output by more than ±0.5% of the net reference work output over the test interval. Use equipment to simulate the specific types of work, as follows:
(1) Shaft work. Use an engine dynamometer that is able to meet the cycle-validation criteria in §1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle.
(i) You may use eddy-current and water-brake dynamometers for any testing that does not involve engine motoring, which is identified by negative torque commands in a reference duty cycle. See the standard setting part for reference duty cycles that are applicable to your engine.
(ii) You may use alternating-current or direct-current motoring dynamometers for any type of testing.
(iii) You may use one or more dynamometers.
(2) Electrical work. Use one or more of the following to simulate electrical work:
(i) Use storage batteries or capacitors that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(ii) Use motors, generators, and alternators that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(iii) Use a resistor load bank to simulate electrical loads.
(3) Pump, compressor, and turbine work. Use pumps, compressors, and turbines that are of the type and capacity installed in use. Use working fluids that are of the same type and thermodynamic state as normal in-use operation.
(b) Laboratory work inputs. You may supply any laboratory inputs of work to the engine. For example, you may supply electrical work to the engine to operate a fuel system, and as another example you may supply compressor work to the engine to actuate pneumatic valves. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of laboratory work inputs to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) Engine accessories. You must either install or account for the work of engine accessories required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices. Operate the engine with these accessories installed or accounted for during all testing operations, including mapping. If these accessories are not powered by the engine during a test, account for the work required to perform these functions from the total work used in brake-specific emission calculations. For air-cooled engines only, subtract externally powered fan work from total work. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of engine accessories to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Engine starter. You may install a production-type starter.
(e) Operator demand for shaft work. Command the operator demand and the dynamometer(s) to follow the prescribed duty cycle with set points for engine speed and torque at 5 Hz (or more frequently) for transient testing or 1 Hz (or more frequently) for steady-state testing. Use a mechanical or electronic input to control operator demand such that the engine is able to meet the validation criteria in §1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle. Record feedback values for engine speed and torque at 5 Hz or more frequently for evaluating performance relative to the cycle validation criteria. Using good engineering judgment, you may improve control of operator demand by altering on-engine speed and torque controls. However, if these changes result in unrepresentative testing, you must notify us and recommend other test procedures under §1065.10(c)(1).
§ 1065.120 Fuel properties and fuel temperature and pressure.
(a) Use fuels as specified in subpart H of this part.
(b) If the engine manufacturer specifies fuel temperature and pressure tolerances and the location where they are to be measured, then measure the fuel temperature and pressure at the specified location to show that you are within these tolerances throughout testing.
(c) If the engine manufacturer does not specify fuel temperature and pressure tolerances, use good engineering judgment to set and control fuel temperature and pressure in a way that represents typical in-use fuel temperatures and pressures.
§ 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication.
(a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block, and head temperatures are within their expected ranges for normal operation. You may use laboratory auxiliary coolers and fans.
(1) If you use laboratory auxiliary fans you must account for work input to the fan(s) according to §1065.110.
(2) See §1065.125 for more information related to intake-air cooling.
(3) See §1065.127 for more information related to exhaust gas recirculation cooling.
(4) Measure temperatures at the manufacturer-specified locations. If the manufacturer does not specify temperature measurement locations, then use good engineering judgment to monitor intake-air, oil, coolant, block, and head temperatures to ensure that they are in their expected ranges for normal operation.
(b) Forced cooldown. You may install a forced cooldown system for an engine and an exhaust aftertreatment device according to §1065.530(a)(1).
(c) Lubricating oil. Use lubricating oils specified in §1065.740.
(d) Coolant. For liquid-cooled engines, use coolant as specified in §1065.745.
§ 1065.125 Engine intake air.
(a) Use the intake-air system installed on the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes the charge-air cooling and exhaust gas recirculation systems.
(b) Measure temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure near the entrance to the engine's air filter, or at the inlet to the air intake system for engines that have no air filter. You may use a shared atmospheric pressure meter as long as your equipment for handling intake air maintains ambient pressure where you test the engine within ±1 kPa of the shared atmospheric pressure. You may use a shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling intake air maintains dewpoint where you test the engine to within ±0.5 °C of the shared humidity measurement.
(c) Use an air-intake restriction that represents production engines. Make sure the intake-air restriction is between the manufacturer's specified maximum for a clean filter and the manufacturer's specified maximum allowed. Measure the static differential pressure of the restriction at the location and at the speed and torque set points specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not specify a location, measure this pressure upstream any turbocharger or exhaust gas recirculation system connection to the intake air system. If the manufacturer does not specify speed and torque points, measure this pressure while the engine outputs maximum power. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction you specify for a particular engine.
(d) This paragraph (d) includes provisions for simulating charge-air cooling in the laboratory. This approach is described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Limits on using this approach are described in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section.
(1) Use a charge-air cooling system with a total intake-air capacity that represents production engines' in-use installation. Maintain coolant conditions as follows:
(i) Maintain a coolant temperature of at least 20 °C at the inlet to the charge-air cooler throughout testing.
(ii) At maximum engine power, set the coolant flow rate to achieve an air temperature within ±5 °C of the value specified by the manufacturer at the charge-air cooler outlet. Measure the air-outlet temperature at the location specified by the manufacturer. Use this coolant flow rate set point throughout testing.
(2) Using a constant flow rate as described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section may result in unrepresentative overcooling of the intake air. If this causes any regulated emission to decrease, then you may still use this approach, but only if the effect on emissions is smaller than the degree to which you meet the applicable emission standards. If the effect on emissions is larger than the degree to which you meet the applicable emission standards, you must use a variable flow rate that controls intake-air temperatures to be representative of in-use operation.
(3) This approach does not apply for field testing. You may not correct measured emission levels from field testing to account for any differences caused by the simulated cooling in the laboratory.
§ 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation.
Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable EGR cooling devices.
§ 1065.130 Engine exhaust.
(a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable aftertreatment devices.
(b) Aftertreatment configuration. If you do not use the exhaust system installed with the engine, configure any aftertreatment devices as follows:
(1) Position any aftertreatment device so its distance from the nearest exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet is within the range specified by the engine manufacturer in the application for certification. If this distance is not specified, position aftertreatment devices to represent typical in-use vehicle configurations.
(2) You may use laboratory exhaust tubing upstream of any aftertreatment device that is of diameter(s) typical of in-use configurations. If you use laboratory exhaust tubing upstream of any aftertreatment device, position each aftertreatment device according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Sampling system connections. Connect an engine's exhaust system to any raw sampling location or dilution stage, as follows:
(1) Minimize laboratory exhaust tubing lengths and use a total length of laboratory tubing of no more than 10 m or 50 outside diameters, whichever is greater. If laboratory exhaust tubing consists of several different outside tubing diameters, count the number of diameters of length of each individual diameter, then sum all the diameters to determine the total length of exhaust tubing in diameters. Use the mean outside diameter of any converging or diverging sections of tubing. Use outside hydraulic diameters of any noncircular sections.
(2) You may install short sections of flexible laboratory exhaust tubing at any location in the engine or laboratory exhaust systems. You may use up to a combined total of 2 m or 10 outside diameters of flexible exhaust tubing.
(3) Insulate any laboratory exhaust tubing downstream of the first 25 outside diameters of length.
(4) Use laboratory exhaust tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with exhaust constituents. Stainless steel is an acceptable material.
(5) We recommend that you use laboratory exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust.
(d) In-line instruments. You may insert instruments into the laboratory exhaust tubing, such as an in-line smoke meter. If you do this, you may leave a length of up to 5 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated on each side of each instrument, but you must leave a length of no more than 25 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated in total, including any lengths adjacent to in-line instruments.
(e) Grounding. Electrically ground the entire exhaust system.
(f) Forced cooldown. You may install a forced cooldown system for an exhaust aftertreatment device according to §1065.530(a)(1)(i).
(g) Exhaust restriction. Use an exhaust restriction that represents the performance of production engines. Make sure the exhaust restriction set point is either (80 to 100) % of the maximum exhaust restriction specified by the manufacturer; or if the maximum is 5 kPa or less, make sure the set point is no less than 1.0 kPa from the maximum. For example, if the maximum back pressure is 4.5 kPa, do not use an exhaust restriction set point that is less than 3.5 kPa. Measure and set this pressure at the location and at the speed, torque and aftertreatment set points specified by the manufacturer. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction you specify for a particular engine.
(h) Open crankcase emissions. If the standard-setting part requires measuring open crankcase emissions, you may either measure open crankcase emissions separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the exhaust system for emission measurement as follows:
(1) Use laboratory tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with crankcase emissions. Stainless steel is an acceptable material.
Minimize tube lengths. We also recommend using heated or thin-walled or air gap-insulated tubing to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the crankcase emission constituents.
(2) Minimize the number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing and maximize the radius of any unavoidable bend.
(3) Use laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing that meets the engine manufacturer's specifications for crankcase back pressure.
(4) Connect the crankcase exhaust tubing into the raw exhaust downstream of any aftertreatment system, downstream of any installed exhaust restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing with the engine's exhaust before sampling. Extend the crankcase exhaust tube into the free stream of exhaust to avoid boundary-layer effects and to promote mixing. You may orient the crankcase exhaust tube's outlet in any direction relative to the raw exhaust flow.
§ 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.
(a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or nitrogen that is at least 15 °C. Note that the composition of the diluent affects some gaseous emission measurement instruments' response to emissions. We recommend diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would occur in use.
(b) Dilution-air conditions and background concentrations. Before a diluent is mixed with exhaust, you may precondition it by increasing or decreasing its temperature or humidity. You may also remove constituents to reduce their background concentrations. The following provisions apply to removing constituents or accounting for background concentrations:
(1) You may measure constituent concentrations in the diluent and compensate for background effects on test results. See §1065.650 for calculations that compensate forbackground concentrations. (continued)