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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 1048—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES
PART 1048—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401—7671q.
Source: 67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—Overview and Applicability
§ 1048.1 Does this part apply to me?
(a) The regulations in this part 1048 apply for all new, spark-ignition nonroad engines (defined in §1048.801) with maximum engine power above 19 kW, except as provided in §1048.5.
(b) This part 1048 applies for engines built on or after January 1, 2004. You need not follow this part for engines you produce before January 1, 2004. See §§1048.101 through 1048.115, §1048.145, and the definition of model year in §1048.801 for more information about the timing of new requirements.
(c) The definition of nonroad engine in 40 CFR 1068.30 excludes certain engines used in stationary applications. These engines are not required to comply with this part, except for the requirements in §1048.20. In addition, if these engines are uncertified, the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068.101 restrict their use as nonroad engines.
(d) In certain cases, the regulations in this part 1048 apply to engines with maximum engine power at or below 19 kW that would otherwise be covered by 40 CFR part 90. See 40 CFR 90.913 for provisions related to this allowance.
[70 FR 40465, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.5 Which engines are excluded from this part's requirements?
This part does not apply to the following nonroad engines:
(a) Engines that are certified to meet the requirements of 40 CFR part 1051, or are otherwise subject to 40 CFR part 1051 (for example, engines used in snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles).
(b) Propulsion marine engines. See 40 CFR part 91. This part applies with respect to auxiliary marine engines.
[70 FR 40465, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.10 How is this part organized?
The regulations in this part 1048 contain provisions that affect both engine manufacturers and others. However, the requirements of this part are generally addressed to the engine manufacturer. The term “you” generally means the engine manufacturer, as defined in §1048.801. This part 1048 is divided into the following subparts:
(a) Subpart A of this part defines the applicability of part 1048 and gives an overview of regulatory requirements.
(b) Subpart B of this part describes the emission standards and other requirements that must be met to certify engines under this part. Note that §1048.145 discusses certain interim requirements and compliance provisions that apply only for a limited time.
(c) Subpart C of this part describes how to apply for a certificate of conformity.
(d) Subpart D of this part describes general provisions for testing production-line engines.
(e) Subpart E of this part describes general provisions for testing in-use engines.
(f) Subpart F of this part describes how to test your engines (including references to other parts of the Code of Federal Regulations).
(g) Subpart G of this part and 40 CFR part 1068 describe requirements, prohibitions, and other provisions that apply to engine manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, owners, operators, rebuilders, and all others.
(i) Subpart I of this part contains definitions and other reference information.
[70 FR 40465, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.15 Do any other regulation parts affect me?
(a) Part 1065 of this chapter describes procedures and equipment specifications for testing engines. Subpart F of this part 1048 describes how to apply the provisions of part 1065 of this chapter to determine whether engines meet the emission standards in this part.
(b) The requirements and prohibitions of part 1068 of this chapter apply to everyone, including anyone who manufactures, imports, installs, owns, operates, or rebuilds any of the engines subject to this part 1048, or equipment containing these engines. Part 1068 of this chapter describes general provisions, including these seven areas:
(1) Prohibited acts and penalties for engine manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, and others.
(2) Rebuilding and other aftermarket changes.
(3) Exclusions and exemptions for certain engines.
(4) Importing engines.
(5) Selective enforcement audits of your production.
(6) Defect reporting and recall.
(7) Procedures for hearings.
(c) Other parts of this chapter apply if referenced in this part.
[70 FR 40465, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.20 What requirements from this part apply to excluded stationary engines?
(a) You must add a permanent label or tag to each new engine you produce or import that is excluded under §1048.1(c) as a stationary engine. To meet labeling requirements, you must do the following things:
(1) Attach the label or tag in one piece so no one can remove it without destroying or defacing it.
(2) Secure it to a part of the engine needed for normal operation and not normally requiring replacement.
(3) Make sure it is durable and readable for the engine's entire life.
(4) Write it in English.
(5) Follow the requirements in §1048.135(g) regarding duplicate labels if the engine label is obscured in the final installation.
(b) Engine labels or tags required under this section must have the following information:
(1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.
(2) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may instead include the full corporate name and trademark of another company you choose to designate.
(3) State the engine displacement (in liters) and maximum engine power.
(4) State: “THIS ENGINE IS EXCLUDED FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF 40 CFR PART 1048 AS A “STATIONARY ENGINE.” INSTALLING OR USING THIS ENGINE IN ANY OTHER APPLICATION MAY BE A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY.”.
[70 FR 40466, July 13, 2005]
Subpart B—Emission Standards and Related Requirements
§ 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?
The exhaust emission standards of this section apply by model year. You may certify engines earlier than we require. The Tier 1 standards apply only to steady-state testing, as described in paragraph (b) of this section. The Tier 2 standards apply to steady-state, transient, and field testing, as described in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section.
(a) Emission standards for transient testing. Starting in the 2007 model year, transient exhaust emissions from your engines may not exceed the Tier 2 emission standards, as follows:
(1) Measure emissions using the applicable transient test procedures described in subpart F of this part.
(2) The Tier 2 HC+NOX standard is 2.7 g/kW-hr and the Tier 2 CO standard is 4.4 g/kW-hr. For severe-duty engines, the Tier 2 HC+NOX standard is 2.7 g/kW-hr and the Tier 2 CO standard is 130.0 g/kW-hr. The following engines are not subject to the transient standards in this paragraph (a):
(i) High-load engines.
(ii) Engines with maximum engine power above 560 kW.
(iii) Engines with maximum test speed above 3400 rpm.
(3) You may optionally certify your engines according to the following formula instead of the standards in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (HC+NOX) × CO 0.784 = 8.57. The HC+NOX and CO emission levels you select to satisfy this formula, rounded to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr, become the emission standards that apply for those engines. You may not select an HC+NOX emission standard higher than 2.7 g/kW-hr or a CO emission standard higher than 20.6 g/kW-hr. The following table illustrates a range of possible values under this paragraph (a)(3):
Table 1 of § 1048.101_Examples of Possible Tier 2 Duty-cycle
HC+NOX (g/kW-hr) hr)
(b) Standards for steady-state testing. Except as we allow in paragraph (d) of this section, steady-state exhaust emissions from your engines may not exceed emission standards, as follows:
(1) Measure emissions using the applicable steady-state test procedures described in subpart F of this part:
(2) The following table shows the Tier 1 exhaust emission standards that apply to engines from 2004 through 2006 model years:
Table 2 of § 1048.101_Tier 1 Emission Standards (g/kW-hr)
General emission Alternate emission
standards standards for severe-
Testing -------------------------- duty engines
HC+NOX CO HC+NOX CO
Certification and production-line testing................... 4.0 50.0 4.0 130.0
In-use testing.............................................. 5.4 50.0 5.4 130.0
(3) Starting in the 2007 model year, steady-state exhaust emissions from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a) of this section. See paragraph (d) of this section for alternate standards that apply for certain engines.
(c) Standards for field testing. Starting in 2007, exhaust emissions may not exceed field-testing standards, as follows:
(1) Measure emissions using the field-testing procedures in subpart F of this part:
(2) The HC+NOX standard is 3.8 g/kW-hr and the CO standard is 6.5 g/kW-hr. For severe-duty engines, the HC+NOX standard is 3.8 g/kW-hr and the CO standard is 200.0 g/kW-hr. For natural gas-fueled engines, you are not required to measure nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions or total hydrocarbon emissions for testing to show that the engine meets the emission standards of this paragraph (c); that is, you may assume HC emissions are equal to zero.
(3) You may apply the following formula to determine alternate emission standards that apply to your engines instead of the standards in paragraph (c)(1) of this section: (HC+NOX) × CO 0.791 = 16.78. HC+NOX emission levels may not exceed 3.8 g/kW-hr and CO emission levels may not exceed 31.0 g/kW-hr. The following table illustrates a range of possible values under this paragraph (c)(2):
Table 3 of § 1048.101_Examples of Possible Tier 2 Field-testing
HC+NOX (g/kW-hr) hr)
(d) Engine protection. For engines that require enrichment at high loads to protect the engine, you may ask to meet alternate Tier 2 standards of 2.7 g/kW-hr for HC+NOX and 31.0 g/kW-hr for CO instead of the emission standards described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section for steady-state testing. If we approve your request, you must still meet the transient testing standards in paragraph (a) of this section and the field-testing standards in paragraph (c) of this section. To qualify for this allowance, you must do all the following things:
(1) Show that enrichment is necessary to protect the engine from damage.
(2) Show that you limit enrichment to operating modes that require additional cooling to protect the engine from damage.
(3) Show in your application for certification that enrichment will rarely occur in use in the equipment in which your engines are installed. For example, an engine that is expected to operate 5 percent of the time in use with enrichment would clearly not qualify.
(4) Include in your installation instructions any steps necessary for someone installing your engines to prevent enrichment during normal operation (see §1048.130).
(e) Fuel types. The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using each type of fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate, except for engines certified under §1048.625. For engines certified under §1048.625, the standards of this section apply to emissions measured using the specified test fuel. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the following fuels:
(1) Gasoline- and LPG-fueled engines: THC emissions.
(2) Natural gas-fueled engines: NMHC emissions.
(3) Alcohol-fueled engines: THCE emissions.
(f) Small engines. Certain engines with total displacement at or below 1000 cc may comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 90 instead of complying with the requirements of this part, as described in §1048.615.
(g) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section over their full useful life. For severe-duty engines, the minimum useful life is 1,500 hours of operation or seven years, whichever comes first. For all other engines, the minimum useful life is 5,000 hours of operation or seven years, whichever comes first.
(1) Specify a longer useful life in hours for an engine family under either of two conditions:
(i) If you design, advertise, or market your engine to operate longer than the minimum useful life (your recommended hours until rebuild may indicate a longer design life).
(ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life.
(2) You may request in your application for certification that we approve a shorter useful life for an engine family. We may approve a shorter useful life, in hours of engine operation but not in years, if we determine that these engines will rarely operate longer than the shorter useful life. If engines identical to those in the engine family have already been produced and are in use, your demonstration must include documentation from such in-use engines. In other cases, your demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in production. Your demonstration must also include any overhaul interval that you recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components, and any relevant customer design specifications. Your demonstration may include any other relevant information. The useful life value may not be shorter than any of the following:
(i) 1,000 hours of operation.
(ii) Your recommended overhaul interval.
(iii) Your mechanical warranty for the engine.
(h) Applicability for testing. The emission standards in this subpart apply to all testing, including certification, production-line, and in-use testing. For production-line testing, you must perform duty-cycle testing as specified in §§1048.505 and 1048.510. The field-testing standards of this section apply for those tests. You need not do additional testing of production-line engines to show that your engines meet the field-testing standards.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40466, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.105 What evaporative emission standards and requirements apply?
The requirements of this section apply to all engines that are subject to this part, except auxiliary marine engines.
(a) Starting in the 2007 model year, engines that run on a volatile liquid fuel (such as gasoline), must meet the following evaporative emissions standards and requirements:
(1) Evaporative hydrocarbon emissions may not exceed 0.2 grams per gallon of fuel tank capacity when measured with the test procedures for evaporative emissions in subpart F of this part.
(2) For nonmetallic fuel lines, you must specify and use products that meet the Category 1 specifications in SAE J2260 (incorporated by reference in §1048.810).
(3) Liquid fuel in the fuel tank may not reach boiling during continuous engine operation in the final installation at an ambient temperature of 30 °C. Note that gasoline with a Reid vapor pressure of 62 kPa (9 psi) begins to boil at about 53 °C.
(b) Note that §1048.245 allows you to use design-based certification instead of generating new emission data.
(c) If other companies install your engines in their equipment, give them any appropriate instructions, as described in §1048.130.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40467, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.110 How must my engines diagnose malfunctions?
(a) Equip your engines with a diagnostic system. Starting in the 2007 model year, equip each engine with a diagnostic system that will detect significant malfunctions in its emission-control system using one of the following protocols:
(1) If your emission-control strategy depends on maintaining air-fuel ratios at stoichiometry, an acceptable diagnostic design would identify malfunction whenever the air-fuel ratio does not cross stoichiometry for one minute of intended closed-loop operation. You may use other diagnostic strategies if we approve them in advance.
(2) If the protocol described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to your engine, you must use an alternative approach that we approve in advance. Your alternative approach must generally detect when the emission-control system is not functioning properly.
(b) Use a malfunction-indicator light (MIL). The MIL must be readily visible to the operator; it may be any color except red. When the MIL goes on, it must display “Check Engine,” “Service Engine Soon,” or a similar message that we approve. You may use sound in addition to the light signal. The MIL must go on under each of these circumstances:
(1) When a malfunction occurs, as described in paragraph (a) of this section.
(2) When the diagnostic system cannot send signals to meet the requirement of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(3) When the engine's ignition is in the “key-on” position before starting or cranking. The MIL should go out after engine starting if the system detects no malfunction.
(c) Control when the MIL can go out. If the MIL goes on to show a malfunction, it must remain on during all later engine operation until servicing corrects the malfunction. If the engine is not serviced, but the malfunction does not recur for three consecutive engine starts during which the malfunctioning system is evaluated and found to be working properly, the MIL may stay off during later engine operation.
(d) Store trouble codes in computer memory. Record and store in computer memory any diagnostic trouble codes showing a malfunction that should illuminate the MIL. The stored codes must identify the malfunctioning system or component as uniquely as possible. Make these codes available through the data link connector as described in paragraph (g) of this section. You may store codes for conditions that do not turn on the MIL. The system must store a separate code to show when the diagnostic system is disabled (from malfunction or tampering).
(e) Make data, access codes, and devices accessible. Make all required data accessible to us without any access codes or devices that only you can supply. Ensure that anyone servicing your engine can read and understand the diagnostic trouble codes stored in the onboard computer with generic tools and information.
(f) Consider exceptions for certain conditions. Your diagnostic systems may disregard trouble codes for the first three minutes after engine starting. You may ask us to approve diagnostic-system designs that disregard trouble codes under other conditions that would produce an unreliable reading, damage systems or components, or cause other safety risks. This might include operation at altitudes over 8,000 feet.
(g) Follow standard references for formats, codes, and connections. Follow conventions defined in the following documents (incorporated by reference in §1048.810) or ask us to approve using updated versions of (or variations from) these documents:
(1) ISO 9141–2 Road vehicles-Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements for interchange of digital information, February 1994.
(2) ISO 14230–4 Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Keyword Protocol 2000—Part 4: Requirements for emission-related systems, June 2000.
§ 1048.115 What other requirements must my engines meet?
Engines subject to this part must meet the following requirements:
(a) Crankcase emissions. Crankcase emissions may not be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere from any engine throughout its useful life, except as follows:
(1) Engines may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or mathematically) during all emission testing. If you take advantage of this exception, you must do the following things:
(i) Manufacture the engines so that all crankcase emissions can be routed into the applicable sampling systems specified in 40 CFR part 1065.
(ii) Account for deterioration in crankcase emissions when determining exhaust deterioration factors.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph (a), crankcase emissions that are routed to the exhaust upstream of exhaust aftertreatment during all operation are not considered to be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.
(b) Torque broadcasting. Electronically controlled engines must broadcast their speed and output shaft torque (in newton-meters). Engines may alternatively broadcast a surrogate value for determining torque. Engines must broadcast engine parameters such that they can be read with a remote device, or broadcast them directly to their controller area networks. This information is necessary for testing engines in the field (see §1048.515). This requirement applies beginning in the 2007 model year. Small-volume engine manufacturers may omit this requirement.
(c) EPA access to broadcast information. If we request it, you must provide us any hardware or tools we would need to readily read, interpret, and record all information broadcast by an engine's on-board computers and electronic control modules. If you broadcast a surrogate parameter for torque values, you must provide us what we need to convert these into torque units. We will not ask for hardware or tools if they are readily available commercially.
(e) Adjustable parameters. Engines that have adjustable parameters must meet all the requirements of this part for any adjustment in the physically adjustable range. An operating parameter is not considered adjustable if you permanently seal it or if it is not normally accessible using ordinary tools. We may require that you set adjustable parameters to any specification within the adjustable range during any testing, including certification testing, selective enforcement auditing, or in-use testing.
(f) Prohibited controls. You may not design your engines with emission-control devices, systems, or elements of design that cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety while operating. For example, this would apply if the engine emits a noxious or toxic substance it would otherwise not emit that contributes to such an unreasonable risk.
(g) Defeat devices. You may not equip your engines with a defeat device. A defeat device is an auxiliary emission-control device that reduces the effectiveness of emission controls under conditions that the engine may reasonably be expected to encounter during normal operation and use. This does not apply to auxiliary-emission control devices you identify in your certification application if any of the following is true:
(1) The conditions of concern were substantially included in the applicable test procedures described in subpart F of this part.
(2) You show your design is necessary to prevent engine (or equipment) damage or accidents.
(3) The reduced effectiveness applies only to starting the engine.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40467, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.120 What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?
(a) General requirements. You must warrant to the ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser that the new nonroad engine, including all parts of its emission-control system, meets two conditions:
(1) It is designed, built, and equipped so it conforms at the time of sale to the ultimate purchaser with the requirements of this part.
(2) It is free from defects in materials and workmanship that may keep it from meeting these requirements.
(b) Warranty period. Your emission-related warranty must be valid for at least 50 percent of the engine's useful life in hours of operation or at least three years, whichever comes first. In the case of a high-cost warranted part, the warranty must be valid for at least 70 percent of the engine's useful life in hours of operation or at least five years, whichever comes first. You may offer an emission-related warranty more generous than we require. The emission-related warranty for the engine may not be shorter than any published warranty you offer without charge for the engine. Similarly, the emission-related warranty for any component may not be shorter than any published warranty you offer without charge for that component. If an engine has no hour meter, we base the warranty periods in this paragraph (b) only on the engine's age (in years). The warranty period begins when the engine is placed into service.
(c) Components covered. The emission-related warranty covers all components whose failure would increase an engine's emissions of any pollutant. This includes components listed in 40 CFR part 1068, Appendix I, and components from any other system you develop to control emissions. The emission-related warranty covers these components even if another company produces the component. Your emission-related warranty does not cover components whose failure would not increase an engine's emissions of any pollutant.
(d) Limited applicability. You may deny warranty claims under this section if the operator caused the problem through improper maintenance or use, as described in 40 CFR 1068.115.
(e) Owners manual. Describe in the owners manual the emission-related warranty provisions from this section that apply to the engine.
[70 FR 40467, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.125 What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?
Give the ultimate purchaser of each new nonroad engine written instructions for properly maintaining and using the engine, including the emission-control system. The maintenance instructions also apply to service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as described in 40 CFR part 1065.
(a) Critical emission-related maintenance. Critical emission-related maintenance includes any adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of critical emission-related components. This may also include additional emission-related maintenance that you determine is critical if we approve it in advance. You may schedule critical emission-related maintenance on these components if you meet the following conditions:
(1) You demonstrate that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals on in-use engines. We will accept scheduled maintenance as reasonably likely to occur if you satisfy any of the following conditions:
(i) You present data showing that, if a lack of maintenance increases emissions, it also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance.
(ii) You present survey data showing that at least 80 percent of engines in the field get the maintenance you specify at the recommended intervals.
(iii) You provide the maintenance free of charge and clearly say so in maintenance instructions for the customer.
(iv) You otherwise show us that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals.
(2) You may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the following minimum intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(3), (b) and (c) of this section:
(i) For catalysts, fuel injectors, electronic control units, superchargers, and turbochargers: The useful life of the engine family.
(ii) For gaseous fuel-system components (cleaning without disassembly only) and oxygen sensors: 2,500 hours.
(3) If your engine family has an alternate useful life under §1048.101(g) that is shorter than the period specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the alternate useful life, except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
(b) Recommended additional maintenance. You may recommend any additional amount of maintenance on the components listed in paragraph (a) of this section, as long as you state clearly that these maintenance steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators do the maintenance specified in paragraph (a) of this section, but not the recommended additional maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.
(c) Special maintenance. You may specify more frequent maintenance to address problems related to special situations, such as substandard fuel or atypical engine operation. For example, you may specify more frequent cleaning of fuel system components for engines you have reason to believe will be using fuel that causes substantially more engine performance problems than commercial fuels of the same type that are generally available across the United States. You must clearly state that this additional maintenance is associated with the special situation you are addressing.
(d) Noncritical emission-related maintenance. You may schedule any amount of emission-related inspection or maintenance that is not covered by paragraph (a) of this section, as long as you state in the owners manual that these steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators fail to do this maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.
(e) Maintenance that is not emission-related. For maintenance unrelated to emission controls, you may schedule any amount of inspection or maintenance. You may also take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as long as they are reasonable and technologically necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, or injector lash. You may perform this nonemission-related maintenance on emission-data engines at the least frequent intervals that you recommend to the ultimate purchaser (but not the intervals recommended for severe service).
(f) Source of parts and repairs. State clearly on the first page of your written maintenance instructions that a repair shop or person of the owner's choosing may maintain, replace, or repair emission-control devices and systems. Your instructions may not require components or service identified by brand, trade, or corporate name. Also, do not directly or indirectly condition your warranty on a requirement that the engine be serviced by your franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may disregard the requirements in this paragraph (f) if you do one of two things:
(1) Provide a component or service without charge under the purchase agreement.
(2) Get us to waive this prohibition in the public's interest by convincing us the engine will work properly only with the identified component or service.
(g) Payment for scheduled maintenance. Owners are responsible for properly maintaining their engines. This generally includes paying for scheduled maintenance. However, manufacturers must pay for scheduled maintenance during the useful life if it meets all the following criteria:
(1) Each affected component was not in general use on similar engines before January 1, 2004.
(2) The primary function of each affected component is to reduce emissions.
(3) The cost of the scheduled maintenance is more than 2 percent of the price of the engine.
(4) Failure to perform the maintenance would not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the engine's performance.
(h) Owners manual. Explain the owner's responsibility for proper maintenance in the owners manual.
[70 FR 40468, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.130 What installation instructions must I give to equipment manufacturers?
(a) If you sell an engine for someone else to install in a piece of nonroad equipment, give the engine installer instructions for installing it consistent with the requirements of this part. Include all information necessary to ensure that an engine will be installed in its certified configuration.
(b) Make sure these instructions have the following information:
(1) Include the heading: “Emission-related installation instructions”.
(2) State: “Failing to follow these instructions when installing a certified engine in a piece of nonroad equipment violates federal law (40 CFR 1068.105(b)), subject to fines or other penalties as described in the Clean Air Act.”.
(3) Describe the instructions needed to properly install the exhaust system and any other components. Include instructions consistent with the requirements of §1048.205(v).
(4) Describe the steps needed to control evaporative emissions, as described in §§1048.105 and 1048.245.
(5) Describe any necessary steps for installing the diagnostic system described in §1048.110.
(6) Describe any limits on the range of applications needed to ensure that the engine operates consistently with your application for certification. For example, if your engines are certified only for constant-speed operation, tell equipment manufacturers not to install the engines in variable-speed applications. Also, if you need to avoid sustained high-load operation to meet the field-testing emission standards we specify in §1048.101(c) or to comply with the provisions of §1048.101(d), describe how the equipment manufacturer must properly size the engines for a given application.
(7) Describe any other instructions to make sure the installed engine will operate according to design specifications in your application for certification. This may include, for example, instructions for installing aftertreatment devices when installing the engines.
(8) State: “If you install the engine in a way that makes the engine's emission control information label hard to read during normal engine maintenance, you must place a duplicate label on the equipment, as described in 40 CFR 1068.105.”.
(c) You do not need installation instructions for engines you install in your own equipment.
(d) Provide instructions in writing or in an equivalent format. For example, you may post instructions on a publicly available Web site for downloading or printing. If you do not provide the instructions in writing, explain in your application for certification how you will ensure that each installer is informed of the installation requirements.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40469, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.135 How must I label and identify the engines I produce?
(a) Assign each engine a unique identification number and permanently affix, engrave, or stamp it on the engine in a legible way.
(b) At the time of manufacture, affix a permanent and legible label identifying each engine. The label must be—
(1) Attached in one piece so it is not removable without being destroyed or defaced.
(2) Secured to a part of the engine needed for normal operation and not normally requiring replacement.
(3) Durable and readable for the engine's entire life.
(4) Written in English.
(c) The label must—
(1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.
(2) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may identify another company and use its trademark instead of yours if you comply with the provisions of §1048.635.
(3) Include EPA's standardized designation for the engine family (and subfamily, where applicable).
(4) State the engine's displacement (in liters); however, you may omit this from the label if all the engines in the engine family have the same per-cylinder displacement and total displacement.
(5) State the date of manufacture [MONTH and YEAR]. You may omit this from the label if you keep a record of the engine-manufacture dates and provide it to us upon request.
(6) Identify the emission-control system. Use terms and abbreviations consistent with SAE J1930 (incorporated by reference in §1048.810). You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough room for it and you put it in the owners manual instead.
(7) State: “THIS ENGINE IS CERTIFIED TO OPERATE ON [specify operating fuel or fuels].”.
(8) Identify any requirements for fuel and lubricants. You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough room for it and you put it in the owners manual instead.
(9) List specifications and adjustments for engine tuneups; show the proper position for the transmission during tuneup and state which accessories should be operating. You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough room for it and you put it in the owners manual instead.
(10) State the useful life for your engine family if it has a longer useful life under §1048.101(g)(1) or a shortened useful life under §1048.101(g)(2).
(11) Identify the emission standards to which you have certified the engine.
(12) State: “THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR [MODEL YEAR] LARGE NONROAD SI ENGINES.”.
(13) If your engines are certified only for constant-speed operation, state: “USE IN CONSTANT–SPEED APPLICATIONS ONLY”.
(14) If your engines are certified only for variable-speed operation, state: “USE IN VARIABLE–SPEED APPLICATIONS ONLY”.
(15) If your engines are certified only for high-load engines, state: “THIS ENGINE IS NOT INTENDED FOR OPERATION AT LESS THAN 75 PERCENT OF FULL LOAD.”.
(16) If you certify your engines under §1048.101(d) (and show in your application for certification that in-use engines will experience infrequent high-load operation), state: “THIS ENGINE IS NOT INTENDED FOR OPERATION AT MORE THAN_PERCENT OF FULL LOAD.”. Specify the appropriate percentage of full load based on the nature of the engine protection. You may add other statements to discourage operation in engine-protection modes.
(17) If your engines are certified to the voluntary standards in §1048.140, state: “BLUE SKY SERIES”.
(d) You may add information to the emission control information label to identify other emission standards that the engine meets or does not meet (such as California standards). You may also add other information to ensure that the engine will be properly maintained and used.
(e) You may ask us to approve modified labeling requirements in this part 1048 if you show that it is necessary or appropriate. We will approve your request if your alternate label is consistent with the requirements of this part.
(f) If you obscure the engine label while installing the engine in the equipment such that the label will be hard to read during normal maintenance, you must place a duplicate label on the equipment. If others install your engine in their equipment in a way that obscures the engine label, we require them to add a duplicate label on the equipment (see 40 CFR 1068.105); in that case, give them the number of duplicate labels they request and keep the following records for at least five years:
(1) Written documentation of the request from the equipment manufacturer.
(2) The number of duplicate labels you send and the date you sent them.
[70 FR 40469, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?
This section defines voluntary standards for a recognized level of superior emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. Blue Sky Series engines must meet one of the following standards:
(a) For the 2003 model year, to receive a certificate of conformity, a “Blue Sky Series” engine family must meet all the requirements in this part that apply to 2004 model year engines. This includes all testing and reporting requirements.
(b) For the 2003 through 2006 model years, to receive a certificate of conformity, a “Blue Sky Series” engine family must meet all the requirements in this part that apply to 2007 model year engines. This includes all testing and reporting requirements.
(c) For any model year, to receive a certificate of conformity as a “Blue Sky Series” engine family must meet all the requirements in this part while certifying to one of the sets of exhaust emission standards in the following table:
Table 1 of § 1048.140_Long-Term Standards for Blue Sky Series
Standards for steady-state and Standards for field-testing
transient test procedures procedures
HC+NOX CO HC+NOX CO
0.80 4.4 1.10 6.6
0.60 4.4 0.84 6.6
0.40 4.4 0.56 6.6
0.20 4.4 0.28 6.6
0.10 4.4 0.14 6.6
(d) If you certify an engine family under this section, it is subject to all the requirements of this part as if these voluntary standards were mandatory.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40470, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.145 Are there interim provisions that apply only for a limited time?
The provisions in this section apply instead of other provisions in this part. This section describes when these interim provisions expire.
(a) Family banking. This paragraph (a) allows you to reduce the number of engines subject to the Tier 2 standards by certifying some of your engines earlier than otherwise required, as follows:
(1) For early-compliant engines to generate offsets under this paragraph (a), you must meet the following general provisions:
(i) You must begin actual production of early-compliant engines by September 1, 2006.
(ii) Engines you produce after December 31, 2006 may not generate offsets.
(iii) Offset-generating engines must be certified to the Tier 2 standards and requirements under this part 1048.
(iv) If you certify engines under the voluntary standards of §1048.140, you may not use them in your calculation under this paragraph (a).
(2) For every offset-generating engine certified to the Tier 2 standards, you may reduce the number of engines with the same maximum engine power that are required to meet the Tier 2 standards in later model years by one engine. You may calculate power-weighted offsets based on actual U.S.-directed sales volumes. For example, if you produce a total of 1,000 engines in 2005 and 2006 with an average maximum power of 60 kW certified to the Tier 2 standards, you may delay certification to that tier of standards for up to 60,000 kW-engine-years in any of the following ways:
(i) Delay certification of up to 600 engines with an average maximum power of 100 kW for one model year.
(ii) Delay certification of up to 200 engines with an average maximum power of 100 kW for three consecutive model years.
(iii) Delay certification of up to 400 engines with an average maximum power of 100 kW for one model year and up to 50 engines with an average maximum power of 200 kW for two model years.
(3) Offset-using engines (that is, those not required to certify to the Tier 2 standards) must be certified to the Tier 1 standards and requirements of this part 1048. You may delay compliance for up to three model years.
(4) By January 31 of each year in which you use the provisions of this paragraph (a), send us a report describing how many offset-generating or offset-using engines you produced in the preceding model year.
(b) Hydrocarbon standards. For 2004 through 2006 model years, engine manufacturers may use nonmethane hydrocarbon measurements to demonstrate compliance with applicable emission standards.
(d) Tier 1 deterioration factors. For Tier 1 engines, base the deterioration factor from §1048.240 on 3500 hours of operation. We may assign a deterioration factor for a Tier 1 engine family, but this would not affect your need to meet all emission standards that apply.
(f) Optional early field testing. You may optionally use the field-testing procedures in subpart F of this part for any in-use testing required under subpart E of this part to show that you meet Tier 1 standards. In this case, the same Tier 1 in-use emission standards apply to both steady-state testing in the laboratory and field testing.
(g) Small-volume provisions. If you qualify for the hardship provisions in §1068.250 of this chapter, we may approve extensions of up to four years total.
(h) 2004 certification. For the 2004 model year, you may choose to have the emission standards and other requirements that apply to these engines in California serve as the emission standards and other requirements applicable under this part, instead of those in subpart A of this part. To ask for a certificate under this paragraph (h), send us the application for certification that you prepare for the California Air Resources Board instead of the information we otherwise require in §1048.205.
(i) Recreational vehicles. Engines or vehicles identified in the scope of 40 CFR part 1051 that are not yet regulated under that part are excluded from the requirements of this part. For example, snowmobiles produced in 2004 are not subject to the emission standards in this part. Once emission standards apply to these engines and vehicles, they are excluded from the requirements of this part under §1048.5(a)(1).
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40470, July 13, 2005]
Subpart C—Certifying Engine Families
§ 1048.201 What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?
(a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid from the indicated effective date until December 31 of the model year for which it is issued.
(b) The application must contain all the information required by this part and must not include false or incomplete statements or information (see §1048.255).
(c) We may ask you to include less information than we specify in this subpart, as long as you maintain all the information required by §1048.250.
(d) You must use good engineering judgment for all decisions related to your application (see 40 CFR 1068.5).
(e) An authorized representative of your company must approve and sign the application.
(f) See §1048.255 for provisions describing how we will process your application.
(g) We may require you to deliver your test engines to a facility we designate for our testing (see §1048.235(c)).
[70 FR 40470, July 13, 2005]
§ 1048.205 What must I include in my application?
This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under §1048.201(c). We may require you to provide additional information to evaluate your application.
(a) Describe the engine family's specifications and other basic parametersof the engine's design and emission controls. List the fuel types on which your engines are designed to operate (for example, gasoline and natural gas). List each distinguishable engine configuration in the engine family. (continued)
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