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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 94—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 94—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401–7671q.
Source: 64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—General Provisions for Emission Regulations for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines
§ 94.1 Applicability.
(a) Except as noted in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the provisions of this part apply to manufacturers (including post-manufacture marinizers and dressers), rebuilders, owners and operators of:
(1) Marine engines that are compression-ignition engines manufactured (or that otherwise become new) on or after January 1, 2004;
(2) Marine vessels manufactured (or that otherwise become new) on or after January 1, 2004 and which include a compression-ignition marine engine.
(b) Notwithstanding the provision of paragraph (c) of this section, the requirements and prohibitions of this part do not apply with respect to the engines identified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section where such engines are:
(1) Marine engines with rated power below 37 kW; or
(2) Marine engines on foreign vessels.
(c) The provisions of Subpart L of this part apply to everyone with respect to the engines identified in paragraph (a) of this section.
[67 FR 68341, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 68 FR 9780, Feb. 28, 2003]
§ 94.2 Definitions.
(a) The definitions of this section apply to this subpart. They also apply to all subparts of this part, except where noted otherwise.
(b) As used in this part, all terms not defined in this section shall have the meaning given them in the Act: Act means the Clean Air Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.).
Adjustable Parameter means any device, system, or element of design which is physically or electronically capable of being adjusted (including those which are difficult to access) and which, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing.
Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency or his/her authorized representative.
Aftertreatment system or aftertreatment component or aftertreatment technology means any system or component or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve or exhaust port whose design function is to reduce exhaust emissions.
Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.
Annex VI Technical Code means the “Technical Code on Control of Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines,” adopted by the International Maritime Organization (incorporated by reference in §94.5).
Applicable standard means a standard to which an engine is subject; or, where an engine is certified to another standard or FEL, applicable standard means the other standard or FEL to which the engine is certified, as allowed by §94.8. This definition does not apply to subpart D of this part.
Auxiliary emission control device (AECD) means any element of design which senses temperature, vessel speed, engine RPM, atmospheric pressure, manifold pressure or vacuum, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system (including, but not limited to injection timing); or any other feature that causes in-use emissions to be higher than those measured under test conditions.
Averaging means the exchange of emission credits among engine families within a given manufacturer's product line.
Banking means the retention of emission credits by a credit holder for use in future calendar year averaging or trading as permitted by the regulations in this part.
Base engine means a land-based engine to be marinized, as configured prior to marinization.
Blue Sky Series engine means an engine meeting the requirements of §94.7(e).
Brake-specific fuel consumption means the mass of fuel consumed by an engine during a test segment divided by the brake-power output of the engine during that same test segment.
Calibration means the set of specifications, including tolerances, specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component, or components, or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
Category 1 means relating to a marine engine with a rated power greater than or equal to 37 kilowatts and a specific engine displacement less than 5.0 liters per cylinder.
Category 2 means relating to a marine engine with a specific engine displacement greater than or equal to 5.0 liters per cylinder but less than 30 liters per cylinder.
Category 3 means relating to a marine engine with a specific engine displacement greater than or equal to 30 liters per cylinder.
Commercial means relating to an engine or vessel that is not a recreational marine engine or a recreational vessel.
Compliance date means the date on which compliance with a standard becomes mandatory. For example, the compliance date for standards which first apply to the 2004 model year, is January 1, 2004.
Compression-ignition means relating to an engine that is not a spark-ignition engine.
Configuration means any subclassification of an engine family which can be described on the basis of gross power, emission control system, governed speed, injector size, engine calibration, and other parameters as designated by the Administrator.
Constant-speed engine means an engine that is governed to operate only at a single rated speed.
Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any portion of the engine crankcase ventilation or engine lubrication system.
Defeat device means an AECD or other control feature that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal engine operation and use, unless the AECD or other control feature has been identified by the manufacturer in the application for certification, and:
(1) Such conditions are substantially represented by the portion of the applicable duty cycle of §94.105 during which the applicable emission rates are measured;
(2) The need for the AECD or other control feature is justified in terms of protecting the engine or vessel against damage or accident; or
(3) The AECD or other control feature does not go beyond the requirements of engine starting.
Designated Officer means the Manager of the Engine Programs Group (6405–J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, DC 20460.
Deterioration factor means the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of useful life and exhaust emissions at the low hour test point expressed as either: the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of useful life to exhaust emissions at the low hour test point (for multiplicative deterioration factors); or the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of useful life and exhaust emissions at the low hour test point (for additive deterioration factors).
Diesel fuel means any fuel suitable for use in diesel engines which is commonly or commercially known or sold as diesel fuel or marine distillate fuel.
Dresser means any entity that modifies a land-based engine for use in a marine vessel, in compliance with the provisions of §94.907. This means that dressers may not modify the engine in a way that would affect emissions.
Emission control system means those devices, systems or elements of design which control or reduce the emission of substances from an engine. This includes, but is not limited to, mechanical and electronic components and controls, and computer software.
Emission credits means the amount of emission reduction or exceedance, by an engine family, below or above the emission standard, respectively, as calculated under subpart D of this part. Emission reductions below the standard are considered as “positive credits,” while emission exceedances above the standard are considered as “negative credits.” In addition, “projected credits” refer to emission credits based on the projected applicable production/sales volume of the engine family. “Reserved credits” are emission credits generated within a calendar year waiting to be reported to EPA at the end of the calendar year. “Actual credits” refer to emission credits based on actual applicable production/sales volume as contained in the end-of-year reports submitted to EPA.
Emission-data engine means an engine which is tested for purposes of emission certification or production line testing.
Emission-related defect means a defect in design, materials, or workmanship in a device, system, or assembly which affects any parameter or specification enumerated in Appendix I of this part.
Emission-related maintenance means that maintenance which substantially affects emissions or which is likely to affect the deterioration of the engine or vessel with respect to emissions.
Engine family means a group of engine configurations that are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout the useful lives of the engines (see §94.204), and that are (or were) covered (or requested to be covered) by a specific certificate of conformity.
Engineering analysis means a summary of scientific and/or engineering principles and facts that support a conclusion made by a manufacturer, with respect to compliance with the provisions of this part.
EPA Enforcement Officer means any officer or employee of the Environmental Protection Agency so designated in writing by the Administrator or his/her designee.
Exhaust emissions means substances (i.e., gases and particles) emitted to the atmosphere from any opening downstream from the exhaust port or exhaust valve of an engine.
Exhaust gas recirculation means an emission control technology that reduces emissions by routing gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air prior to or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air prior to or during combustion is not considered to be exhaust gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.
Family Emission Limit (FEL) means an emission level declared by the certifying manufacturer to serve in lieu of an otherwise applicable emission standard for certification and compliance purposes in the averaging, banking and trading program. FELs are expressed to the same number of decimal places as the applicable emission standard.
Foreign vessel means a vessel of foreign registry or a vessel operated under the authority of a country other than the United States.
Fuel system means the combination of fuel tank(s), fuel pump(s), fuel lines and filters, pressure regulator(s), and fuel injection components, fuel system vents, and any other component involved in the delivery of fuel to the engine.
Green Engine Factor means a factor that is applied to emission measurements from an engine that has had little or no service accumulation. The Green Engine Factor adjusts emission measurements to be equivalent to emission measurements from an engine that has had approximately 300 hours of use.
Hydrocarbon standard means an emission standard for total hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons, or total hydrocarbon equivalent; or a combined emission standard for NOX and total hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons, or total hydrocarbon equivalent.
Identification number means a specification (for example, model number/serial number combination) which allows a particular engine to be distinguished from other similar engines.
Importer means an entity or person who imports engines from a foreign country into the United States (including its territories).
Intermediate Speed means peak torque speed if peak torque speed occurs from 60 to 75 percent of maximum test speed. If peak torque speed is less than 60 percent of maximum test speed, intermediate speed means 60 percent of maximum test speed. If peak torque speed is greater than 75 percent of maximum test speed, intermediate speed means 75 percent of maximum test speed.
Low hour engine means an engine during the interval between the time that normal assembly operations and adjustments are completed and the time that 300 additional operating hours have been accumulated (including hours of operation accumulated during emission testing, if performed).
Malfunction means a condition in which the operation of a component in an engine occurs in a manner other than that specified by the certifying manufacturer (e.g., as specified in the application for certification); or the operation of an engine in that condition.
Manufacturer means any person engaged in the manufacturing or assembling of new engines or importing such engines for resale, or who acts for and is under the control of any such person in connection with the distribution of such engines. The term manufacturer includes post-manufacturer marinizers, but does not include any dealer with respect to new engines received by such person in commerce.
Manufacturer-owned engine means an uncertified marine engine that is owned and controlled by a manufacturer, is used for product development, and is not sold or leased.
Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a marine vessel. This includes a portable auxiliary marine engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:
(1) Propulsion marine engine means a marine engine that moves a vessel through the water or directs the vessel's movement.
(2) Auxiliary marine engine means a marine engine not used for propulsion.
Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
Maximum Test Power means:
(1) For Category 1 engines, the power output observed at the maximum test speed with the maximum fueling rate possible.
(2) For Category 2 engines, 90 percent of the power output observed at the maximum test speed with the maximum fueling rate possible.
Maximum test speed means the engine speed defined by §94.107 to be the maximum engine speed to use during testing.
Maximum Test Torque means the torque output observed at the test speed with the maximum fueling rate possible at that speed.
Method of aspiration means the method whereby air for fuel combustion enters the engine (e.g., naturally aspirated or turbocharged).
Model year means the manufacturer's annual new model production period which includes January 1 of the calendar year, ends no later than December 31 of the calendar year, and does not begin earlier than January 2 of the previous calendar year. Where a manufacturer has no annual new model production period, model year means calendar year.
New marine engine means:
(1)(i) A marine engine, the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser;
(ii) A marine engine installed on a vessel, the equitable or legal title to such vessel has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser; or
(iii) A marine engine that has not been placed into service on a vessel.
(2) Where the equitable or legal title to an engine or vessel is not transferred to an ultimate purchaser prior to its being placed into service, the engine ceases to be new after it is placed into service.
(3) With respect to imported engines, the term “new marine engine” means an engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity under this part at the time of importation, and that was manufactured after the starting date of the emission standards in this part which are applicable to such engine (or which would be applicable to such engine had it been manufactured for importation into the United States).
New vessel means:
(1)(i) A vessel, the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser; or
(ii) For vessels with no Category 3 engines, a vessel that has been modified such that the value of the modifications exceeds 50 percent of the value of the modified vessel. The value of the modification is the difference in the assessed value of the vessel before the modification and the assessed value of the vessel after the modification. Use the following equation to determine if the fractional value of the modification exceeds 50 percent:
Percent of value = [(Value after modification)-(Value before modification)] × 100% (Value after modification)
(iii) For vessels with Category 3 engines, a vessel that has undergone a modification, which:
(A) Substantially alters the dimensions or carrying capacity of the vessel; or
(B) Changes the type of vessel; or
(C) Substantially prolongs the vessel's life.
(2) Where the equitable or legal title to a vessel is not transferred to an ultimate purchaser prior to its being placed into service, the vessel ceases to be new when it is placed into service.
Nonconforming marine engine means a marine engine which is not covered by a certificate of conformity prior to importation or being offered for importation (or for which such coverage has not been adequately demonstrated to EPA); or a marine engine which was originally covered by a certificate of conformity, but which is not in a certified configuration, or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of that certificate of conformity.
Note: This definition does not include domestic marine engines which are not covered by a certificate of conformity prior to their introduction into U.S. commerce; such engines are considered to be “noncomplying marine engines.”
Oxides of nitrogen means nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Oxides of nitrogen are expressed quantitatively as if the nitric oxide were in the form of nitrogen dioxide (oxides of nitrogen are assumed to have a molecular weight equivalent to nitrogen dioxide).
Passenger has the meaning given by 46 U.S.C. 2101 (21) and (21a). In the context of commercial vessels, this generally means that a passenger is a person that pays to be on the vessel.
Post-manufacture marinizer means an entity that produces a marine engine by modifying a non-marine engine, whether certified or uncertified, complete or partially complete, where such entity is not controlled by the manufacturer of the base engine or by an entity that also controls the manufacturer of the base engine. In addition, vessel manufacturers that substantially modify marine engines are post-manufacture marinizers. For the purpose of this definition, “substantially modify” means changing an engine in a way that could change engine emission characteristics.
Presentation of credentials means the display of the document designating a person as an EPA enforcement officer.
Primary fuel means that type of fuel (e.g., petroleum distillate diesel fuel) that is expected to be consumed in the greatest quantity (volume basis) when the engine is operated in use.
Recreational marine engine means a Category 1 propulsion marine engine that is intended by the manufacturer to be installed on a recreational vessel, and which is permanently labeled as follows: “THIS ENGINE IS CATEGORIZED AS A RECREATIONAL MARINE ENGINE UNDER 40 CFR PART 94. INSTALLATION OF THIS ENGINE IN ANY NONRECREATIONAL VESSEL IS A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY.”.
Recreational vessel has the meaning given in 46 U.S.C. 2101 (25), but excludes “passenger vessels” and “small passenger vessels” as defined by 46 U.S.C. 2101 (22) and (35) and excludes vessels used solely for competition. In general, for this part, “recreational vessel” means a vessel that is intended by the vessel manufacturer to be operated primarily for pleasure or leased, rented or chartered to another for the latter's pleasure, excluding the following vessels:
(1) Vessels of less than 100 gross tons that carry more than 6 passengers (as defined in this section).
(2) Vessels of 100 gross tons or more that carry one or more passengers (as defined in this section).
(3) Vessels used solely for competition.
Residual fuel means a petroleum product containing the heavier compounds that remain after the distillate fuel oils (e.g., diesel fuel and marine distillate fuel) and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations.
Round means to round numbers according to ASTM E29–02 (incorporated by reference in §94.5), unless otherwise specified.
Service life means the total life of an engine. Service life begins when the engine is originally manufactured and continues until the engine is permanently removed from service.
Specific emissions means emissions expressed on the basis of observed brake power, using units of g/kW-hr. Observed brake power measurement includes accessories on the engine if these accessories are required for running an emission test (except for the cooling fan). When it is not possible to test the engine in the gross conditions, for example if the engine and transmission form a single integral unit, the engine may be tested in the net condition. Power corrections from net to gross conditions will be allowed with prior approval of the Administrator.
Small-volume boat builder means a boat manufacturer with fewer than 500 employees and with annual U.S.-directed production of fewer than 100 boats. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, these limits apply to the combined production and number of employees of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.
Small-volume manufacturer means a manufacturer with annual U.S.-directed production of fewer than 1,000 internal combustion engines (marine and nonmarine). For manufacturers owned by a parent company, the limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.
Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or other engines with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.
Specified by a certificate of conformity or specified in a certificate of conformity means stated or otherwise specified in a certificate of conformity or an approved application for certification.
Test engine means an engine in a test sample.
Test sample means the collection of engines or vessels selected from the population of an engine family for emission testing.
Tier 1 means relating to an engine subject to the Tier 1 emission standards listed in §94.8.
Tier 2 means relating to an engine subject to the Tier 2 emission standards listed in §94.8.
Total Hydrocarbon Equivalent means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as petroleum-fueled engine hydrocarbons. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Trading means the exchange of engine emission credits between credit holders.
Ultimate Purchaser means, with respect to any new engine or vessel, the first person who in good faith purchases such new engine or vessel for purposes other than resale.
United States means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
U.S.-directed production volume means the number of marine engine units, subject to this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.
Useful life means the period during which an engine is designed to properly function in terms of reliability and fuel consumption, without being remanufactured, specified as hours of operation and years. It is the period during which a new engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. (Note: §94.9(a) specifies minimum requirements for useful life values.)
Vessel means a marine vessel.
Vessel operator means any individual that physically operates or maintains a vessel, or exercises managerial control over the operation of the vessel.
Vessel owner means the individual or company that holds legal title to a vessel.
Voluntary emission recall means a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which notification of engine or vessel owners has been provided.
[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68341, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9781, Feb. 28, 2003; 68 FR 54960, Sept. 19, 2003; 70 FR 40457, July 13, 2005]
§ 94.3 Abbreviations.
The abbreviations of this section apply to all subparts of this part and have the following meanings:
AECD—Auxiliary emission control device.
API—American Petroleum Institute.
ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials.
disp.—volumetric displacement of an engine cylinder.
EGR—Exhaust gas recirculation.
EPA—Environmental Protection Agency.
FEL—Family emission limit.
ft—foot or feet.
FTP—Federal Test Procedure.
g/kW-hr—Grams per kilowatt hour.
ICI—Independent Commercial Importer.
L/cyl—liters per cylinder.
NIST—National Institute for Standards and Testing.
NTIS—National Technical Information Service.
NOX—oxides of nitrogen.
ppm—parts per million by volume.
ppmC—parts per million, carbon.
rpm—revolutions per minute.
SAE—Society of Automotive Engineers.
SEA—Selective Enforcement Auditing.
SI—International system of units (i.e., metric).
THCE—Total hydrocarbon equivalent.
U.S.C.—United States Code.
§ 94.4 Treatment of confidential information.
(a) Any manufacturer may assert that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this part is entitled to confidential treatment as provided by 40 CFR part 2, subpart B.
(b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information at the time it is submitted to EPA.
(c) To assert that information submitted pursuant to this part is confidential, a person or manufacturer must indicate clearly the items of information claimed confidential by marking, circling, bracketing, stamping, or otherwise specifying the confidential information. Furthermore, EPA requests, but does not require, that the submitter also provide a second copy of its submittal from which all confidential information has been deleted. If a need arises to publicly release nonconfidential information, EPA will assume that the submitter has accurately deleted the confidential information from this second copy.
(d) If a claim is made that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this part is entitled to confidential treatment, the information covered by that confidentiality claim will be disclosed by EPA only to the extent and by means of the procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2, subpart B.
(e) Information provided without a claim of confidentiality at the time of submission may be made available to the public by EPA without further notice to the submitter, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.204(c)(2)(i)(A).
§ 94.5 Reference materials.
We have incorporated by reference the documents listed in this section. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC 20460 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(a) ASTM material. Table 1 of §94.5 lists material from the American Society for Testing and Materials that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the sections of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. Table 1 follows:
Table 1 of § 94.5_ASTM Materials
Document No. and name Part 94 reference
ASTM D 86-01, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Distillation of Petroleum Products at
ASTM D 93-02, Standard Test Methods for 94.108
Flash-Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup
ASTM D 129-00, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General Bomb
ASTM D 287-92 (Reapproved 2000), Standard 94.108
Test Method for API Gravity of Crude
Petroleum and Petroleum Products
ASTM D 445-01, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and
Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic
ASTM D 613-01, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil.
ASTM D 1319-02a, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum
Products by Fluorescent Indicator
ASTM D 2622-98, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength
Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.
ASTM D 5186-99, Standard Test Method for 94.108
Determination of the Aromatic Content and
Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Diesel
Fuels and Aviation Turbine Fuels by
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.
ASTM E 29-02, Standard Practice for Using 94.2
Significant Digits in Test Data to
Determine Conformance with Specifications.
(b) ISO material. Table 2 of §94.5 lists material from the International Organization for Standardization that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the section of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, CH–1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
Table 2 follows:
Table 2 of § 94.5_ISO Materials
Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference
ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal 94.109
combustion engines_Exhaust emission
measurement_Part 1: Test-bed measurement
of gaseous and particulate exhaust
(c) IMO material. Table 3 of §94.5 lists material from the International Maritime Organization that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the section of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the International Maritime Organization, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom.
Table 3 follows:
Table 3 of § 94.5_IMO Materials
Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference
Resolution 2_Technical Code on Control of 94.2, 94.11, 94.108,
Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine 94.109, 94.204, 94.211,
Diesel Engines, 1997. 94.1004.
[68 FR 9781, Feb. 28, 2003]
§ 94.6 Regulatory structure.
This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part.
(a) The regulations of this Part 94 are intended to control emissions from in-use marine engines.
(b) The engines for which the regulations of this part (i.e., 40 CFR part 94) apply are specified by §94.1, and by the definitions of §94.2. The point at which an engine or vessel becomes subject to the regulations of this part is determined by the definitions of new marine engine and new marine vessel in §94.2. Subpart J of this part contains provisions exempting certain engines and vessels from the emission standards in this part under special circumstances.
(c) To comply with the requirements of this part, a manufacturer must demonstrate to EPA that the engine meets the applicable standards of §§94.7 and 94.8, and all other requirements of this part. The requirements of this certification process are described in subparts C and D of this part.
(d) Subpart B of this part specifies procedures and equipment to be used for conducting emission tests for the purpose of the regulations of this part.
(e) Subparts E, F, and H of this part specify requirements for manufacturers after certification; that is during production and use of the engines.
(f) Subpart I of this part contains requirements applicable to the importation of marine engines covered by the provisions of this part.
(g) Subpart L of this part describes prohibited acts and contains other enforcement provisions relating to marine engines and vessels covered by the provisions of this part.
(h) Unless specified otherwise, the provisions of this part apply to all marine engines and vessels subject to the emission standards of this part.
§ 94.7 General standards and requirements.
(a) Marine engines and vessels may not be equipped with a defeat device.
(b) An engine may not be equipped with an emission control system for the purpose of complying with emission standards if such a system will cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation or function.
(c) You may not design your engines with emission-control devices, systems, or elements of design that cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety while operating. For example, this would apply if the engine emits a noxious or toxic substance it would otherwise not emit that contributes to such an unreasonable risk.
(d) Manufacturers shall ensure that all engines subject to the emission standards of this part are equipped with a connection in the engine exhaust system that is located downstream of the engine and before any point at which the exhaust contacts water (or any other cooling/scrubbing medium) for the temporary attachment of gaseous and/or particulate emission sampling equipment. Use good engineering judgment to locate the connection. This connection shall be internally threaded with standard pipe threads of a size not larger than one-half inch, and shall be closed by a pipe-plug when not in use. Equivalent connections are allowed. Engine manufacturers may comply with this requirement by providing vessel manufacturers with clear instructions explaining how to meet this requirement, and noting in the instructions that failure to comply may subject the vessel manufacturer to federal penalties. Vessel manufacturers are required to comply with the engine manufacturer's instructions.
(e) Electronically controlled engines subject to the emission standards of this part shall broadcast on engine's controller area networks engine torque (as percent of maximum torque at that speed) and engine speed.
[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68341, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9782, Feb. 28, 2003]
§ 94.8 Exhaust emission standards.
(a) The Tier 1 standards of paragraph (a)(1) of this section apply until replaced by the standards of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(1) Tier 1 standards. NOX emissions from model year 2004 and later engines with displacement of 2.5 or more liters per cylinder may not exceed the following values:
(i) 17.0 g/kW-hr when maximum test speed is less than 130 rpm.
(ii) 45.0 × N-0.20 when maximum test speed is at least 130 but less than 2000 rpm, where N is the maximum test speed of the engine in revolutions per minute.
(Note: Round speed-dependent standards to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr.)
(iii) 9.8 g/kW-hr when maximum test speed is 2000 rpm or more.
(2) Tier 2 standards. (i) Exhaust emissions from marine compression-ignition engines shall not exceed the applicable Tier 2 exhaust emission standards contained in Table A–1 as follows:
Table A-1_Primary Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards (g/kW-hr)
Engine Size liters/cylinder, rated power Category Model year \a\ hr CO g/kW-hr PM g/kW-hr
disp. <0.9 and power >=37 kW............... Category 1, Commercial.................. 2005 7.5 5.0 0.40
Category 1, Recreational................ 2007 7.5 5.0 0.40
0.9 [le] disp. <1.2 all power levels....... Category 1, Commercial.................. 2004 7.2 5.0 0.30
Category 1, Recreational................ 2006 7.2 5.0 0.30
1.2 [le] disp. <2.5 all power levels....... Category 1, Commercial.................. 2004 7.2 5.0 0.20
Category 1, Recreational................ 2006 7.2 5.0 0.20
2.5 [le] disp. <5.0 all power levels....... Category 1, Commercial.................. 2007 7.2 5.0 0.20
Category 1, Recreational................ 2009 7.2 5.0 0.20
5.0 [le] disp. <15.0 all power levels...... Category 2.............................. 2007 7.8 5.0 0.27
15.0 [le] disp. <20.0 power <3300 kW.... Category 2.............................. 2007 8.7 5.0 0.50
15.0 [le] disp. <20.0 power >=3300 kW...... Category 2.............................. 2007 9.8 5.0 0.50
20.0 [le] disp. <25.0 all power levels..... Category 2.............................. 2007 9.8 5.0 0.50
25.0 [le] disp. <30.0 all power levels..... Category 2.............................. 2007 11.0 5.0 0.50
disp. >=30.0 all power levels................. Category 3.............................. See paragraph
\a\ The model years listed indicate the model years for which the specified standards start.
(ii) EPA has not finalized Tier 2 standards for Category 3 engines. EPA will promulgate final Tier 2 standards for Category 3 engines on or before April 27, 2007.
(b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter (and other compounds, as applicable) shall be measured using the procedures set forth in subpart B of this part.
(c) In lieu of the THC+NOX standards, and PM standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section, manufacturers may elect to include engine families in the averaging, banking, and trading program, the provisions of which are specified in subpart D of this part. The manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which will serve as the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart D of this part do not apply for Category 3 engines.
(d)(1) Naturally aspirated engines subject to the standards of this section shall not discharge crankcase emissions into the ambient atmosphere.
(2) For engines using turbochargers, pumps, blowers, or superchargers for air induction, if the engine discharges crankcase emissions into the ambient atmosphere in use, these crankcase emissions shall be included in all exhaust emission measurements. This requirement applies only for engines subject to hydrocarbon standards (e.g., THC standards, NMHC standards, or THC+NOX standards).
(3) The crankcase requirements of this paragraph (d) do not apply for Tier 1 engines.
(e) Exhaust emissions from Category 1 and Category 2 propulsion engines subject to the standards (or FELs) in paragraph (a), (c), or (f) of this section shall not exceed:
(1) Commercial marine engines. (i) 1.20 times the applicable standards (or FELs) when tested in accordance with the supplemental test procedures specified in §94.106 at loads greater than or equal to 45 percent of the maximum power at rated speed or 1.50 times the applicable standards (or FELs) at loads less than 45 percent of the maximum power at rated speed.
(ii) As an option, the manufacturer may choose to comply with limits of 1.25 times the applicable standards (or FELs) when tested over the whole power range in accordance with the supplemental test procedures specified in §94.106, instead of the limits in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section.
(2) Recreational marine engines. (i) 1.20 times the applicable standards (or FELs) when tested in accordance with the supplemental test procedures specified in §94.106 at loads greater than or equal to 45 percent of the maximum power at rated speed and speeds less than 95 percent of maximum test speed, or 1.50 times the applicable standards (or FELs) at loads less than 45 percent of the maximum power at rated speed, or 1.50 times the applicable standards (or FELs) at any loads for speeds greater than or equal to 95 percent of the maximum test speed.
(ii) As an option, the manufacturer may choose to comply with limits of 1.25 times the applicable standards (or FELs) when tested over the whole power range in accordance with the supplemental test procedures specified in §94.106, instead of the limits in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.
(f) The following define the requirements for low-emitting Blue Sky Series engines:
(1) Voluntary standards. (i) Category 1 and Category 2 engines may be designated “Blue Sky Series” engines by meeting the voluntary standards listed in Table A–2, which apply to all certification and in-use testing:
Table A-2_Voluntary Emission Standards [g/kW-hr]
Rated brake power (kW) THC+NOX PM
Power >= 37 kW, and displ. < 0.9..... 4.0 0.24
0.9 [le] displ. < 1.2................ 4.0 0.18
1.2 [le] displ. < 2.5................ 4.0 0.12
2.5 [le] displ. < 5.................. 5.0 0.12
5 [le] displ. < 15................... 5.0 0.16
15 [le] disp. < 20, and power < 5.2 0.30
15 [le] disp. < 20, and power >= 3300 5.9 0.30
20 [le] disp. < 25................... 5.9 0.30
25 [le] disp. < 30................... 6.6 0.30
(ii) Category 3 engines may be designated “Blue Sky Series” engines by meeting these voluntary standards that would apply to all certification and in-use testing:
(A) A NOX standard of 9.0 × N-0.20 where N = the maximum test speed of the engine in revolutions per minute (or 4.8 g/kW-hr for engines with maximum test speeds less than 130 rpm). (Note: Round speed-dependent standards to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr.)
(B) An HC standard of 0.4 g/kW-hr.
(C) A CO standard of 3.0 g/kW-hr.
(2) Additional standards. Blue Sky Series engines are subject to all provisions that would otherwise apply under this part.
(3) Test procedures. Manufacturers may use an alternate procedure to demonstrate the desired level of emission control if approved in advance by the Administrator.
(g) Standards for alternative fuels. The standards described in this section apply to compression-ignition engines, irrespective of fuel, with the following two exceptions for Category 1 and Category 2 engines:
(1) Engines fueled with natural gas shall comply with NMHC+NOX standards that are numerically equivalent to the THC+NOX described in paragraph (a) of this section; and
(2) Engines fueled with alcohol fuel shall comply with THCE+NOX standards that are numerically equivalent to the THC+NOX described in paragraph (a) of this section.
[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68342, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9782, Feb. 28, 2003; 68 FR 54960, Sept. 19, 2003]
§ 94.9 Compliance with emission standards.
(a) The general standards and requirements in §94.7 and the emission standards in §94.8 apply to each new engine throughout its useful life period. The useful life is specified both in years and in hours of operation, and ends when either of the values (hours of operation or years) is exceeded.
(1) The minimum useful life is:
(i) 10 years or 1,000 hours of operation for recreational Category 1 engines.
(ii) 10 years or 10,000 hours of operation for commercial Category 1 engines.
(iii) 10 years or 20,000 hours of operation for Category 2 engines.
(iv) 3 years or 10,000 hours of operation for Category 3 engines.
(2) The manufacturer shall specify a longer useful life if the engine is designed to remain in service longer than the applicable minimum useful life without being rebuilt. A manufacturer's recommended time to remanufacture/rebuild longer than the minimum useful life is one indicator of a longer design life.
(3) Manufacturers may request in the application for certification that we approve a shorter useful life for an engine family. We may approve a shorter useful life, in hours of engine operation but not in years, if we determine that these engines will rarely operate longer than the shorter useful life. If engines identical to those in the engine family have already been produced and are in use, the demonstration must include documentation from such in-use engines. In other cases, the demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in production. The demonstration must also include recommended overhaul intervals, any mechanical warranty offered for the engine or its components, and any relevant customer design specifications. The demonstration may include any other relevant information. The useful life value may not be shorter than any of the following:
(i) 1,000 hours of operation.
(ii) The recommended overhaul interval.
(iii) The mechanical warranty for the engine.
(b) Certification is the process by which manufacturers apply for and obtain certificates of conformity from EPA, which allows the manufacturer to introduce into commerce new marine engines for sale or use in the U.S.
(1) Compliance with the applicable emission standards by an engine family shall be demonstrated by the certifying manufacturer before a certificate of conformity may be issued under §94.208. Manufacturers shall demonstrate compliance using emission data, measured using the procedures specified in Subpart B of this part, from a low hour engine. A development engine that is equivalent in design to the marine engines being certified may be used for Category 2 or Category 3 certification.
(2) The emission values to compare with the standards shall be the emission values of a low hour engine, or a development engine, adjusted by the deterioration factors developed in accordance with the provisions of §94.219. Before comparing any emission value with the standard, round it to the same number of significant figures contained in the applicable standard. (continued)