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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 70—STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 70—STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.
Source: 57 FR 32295, July 21, 1992, unless otherwise noted.
§ 70.1 Program overview.
(a) The regulations in this part provide for the establishment of comprehensive State air quality permitting systems consistent with the requirements of title V of the Clean Air Act (Act) (42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.). These regulations define the minimum elements required by the Act for State operating permit programs and the corresponding standards and procedures by which the Administrator will approve, oversee, and withdraw approval of State operating permit programs.
(b) All sources subject to these regulations shall have a permit to operate that assures compliance by the source with all applicable requirements. While title V does not impose substantive new requirements, it does require that fees be imposed on sources and that certain procedural measures be adopted especially with respect to compliance.
(c) Nothing in this part shall prevent a State, or interstate permitting authority, from establishing additional or more stringent requirements not inconsistent with this Act. The EPA will approve State program submittals to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the Act and these regulations. No permit, however, can be less stringent than necessary to meet all applicable requirements. In the case of Federal intervention in the permit process, the Administrator reserves the right to implement the State operating permit program, in whole or in part, or the Federal program contained in regulations promulgated under title V of the Act.
(d) The requirements of part 70, including provisions regarding schedules for submission and approval or disapproval of permit applications, shall apply to the permitting of affected sources under the acid rain program, except as provided herein or modified in regulations promulgated under title IV of the Act (acid rain program).
(e) Issuance of State permits under this part may be coordinated with issuance of permits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and under the Clean Water Act, whether issued by the State, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
(f) States that choose to receive electronic documents must satisfy the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting) in their program.
[57 FR 32295, July 21, 1992, as amended at 70 FR 59887, Oct. 13, 2005]
§ 70.2 Definitions.
The following definitions apply to part 70. Except as specifically provided in this section, terms used in this part retain the meaning accorded them under the applicable requirements of the Act.
Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.
Affected source shall have the meaning given to it in the regulations promulgated under title IV of the Act.
Affected States are all States:
(1) Whose air quality may be affected and that are contiguous to the State in which a part 70 permit, permit modification or permit renewal is being proposed; or
(2) That are within 50 miles of the permitted source.
Affected unit shall have the meaning given to it in the regulations promulgated under title IV of the Act.
Applicable requirement means all of the following as they apply to emissions units in a part 70 source (including requirements that have been promulgated or approved by EPA through rulemaking at the time of issuance but have future-effective compliance dates):
(1) Any standard or other requirement provided for in the applicable implementation plan approved or promulgated by EPA through rulemaking under title I of the Act that implements the relevant requirements of the Act, including any revisions to that plan promulgated in part 52 of this chapter;
(2) Any term or condition of any preconstruction permits issued pursuant to regulations approved or promulgated through rulemaking under title I, including parts C or D, of the Act;
(3) Any standard or other requirement under section 111 of the Act, including section 111(d);
(4) Any standard or other requirement under section 112 of the Act, including any requirement concerning accident prevention under section 112(r)(7) of the Act;
(5) Any standard or other requirement of the acid rain program under title IV of the Act or the regulations promulgated thereunder;
(6) Any requirements established pursuant to section 504(b) or section 114(a)(3) of the Act;
(7) Any standard or other requirement under section 126(a)(1) and (c) of the Act;
(8) Any standard or other requirement governing solid waste incineration, under section 129 of the Act;
(9) Any standard or other requirement for consumer and commercial products, under section 183(e) of the Act;
(10) Any standard or other requirement for tank vessels under section 183(f) of the Act;
(11) Any standard or other requirement of the program to control air pollution from outer continental shelf sources, under section 328 of the Act;
(12) Any standard or other requirement of the regulations promulgated to protect stratospheric ozone under title VI of the Act, unless the Administrator has determined that such requirements need not be contained in a title V permit; and
(13) Any national ambient air quality standard or increment or visibility requirement under part C of title I of the Act, but only as it would apply to temporary sources permitted pursuant to section 504(e) of the Act.
Designated representative shall have the meaning given to it in section 402(26) of the Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Draft permit means the version of a permit for which the permitting authority offers public participation under §70.7(h) or affected State review under §70.8 of this part.
Emissions allowable under the permit means a federally enforceable permit term or condition determined at issuance to be required by an applicable requirement that establishes an emissions limit (including a work practice standard) or a federally enforceable emissions cap that the source has assumed to avoid an applicable requirement to which the source would otherwise be subject.
Emissions unit means any part or activity of a stationary source that emits or has the potential to emit any regulated air pollutant or any pollutant listed under section 112(b) of the Act. This term is not meant to alter or affect the definition of the term “unit” for purposes of title IV of the Act.
The EPA or the Administrator means the Administrator of the EPA or his designee.
Final permit means the version of a part 70 permit issued by the permitting authority that has completed all review procedures required by §§70.7 and 70.8 of this part.
Fugitive emissions are those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally-equivalent opening.
General permit means a part 70 permit that meets the requirements of §70.6(d).
Major source means any stationary source (or any group of stationary sources that are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under common control of the same person (or persons under common control)) belonging to a single major industrial grouping and that are described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this definition. For the purposes of defining “major source,” a stationary source or group of stationary sources shall be considered part of a single industrial grouping if all of the pollutant emitting activities at such source or group of sources on contiguous or adjacent properties belong to the same Major Group (i.e., all have the same two-digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.
(1) A major source under section 112 of the Act, which is defined as:
(i) For pollutants other than radionuclides, any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year (tpy) or more of any hazardous air pollutant which has been listed pursuant to section 112(b) of the Act, 25 tpy or more of any combination of such hazardous air pollutants, or such lesser quantity as the Administrator may establish by rule. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, emissions from any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment) and emissions from any pipeline compressor or pump station shall not be aggregated with emissions from other similar units, whether or not such units are in a contiguous area or under common control, to determine whether such units or stations are major sources; or
(ii) For radionuclides, “major source” shall have the meaning specified by the Administrator by rule.
(2) A major stationary source of air pollutants, as defined in section 302 of the Act, that directly emits or has the potential to emit, 100 tpy or more of any air pollutant (including any major source of fugitive emissions of any such pollutant, as determined by rule by the Administrator). The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be considered in determining whether it is a major stationary source for the purposes of section 302(j) of the Act, unless the source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary source:
(i) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);
(ii) Kraft pulp mills;
(iii) Portland cement plants;
(iv) Primary zinc smelters;
(v) Iron and steel mills;
(vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;
(vii) Primary copper smelters;
(viii) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 250 tons of refuse per day;
(ix) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants;
(x) Petroleum refineries;
(xi) Lime plants;
(xii) Phosphate rock processing plants;
(xiii) Coke oven batteries;
(xiv) Sulfur recovery plants;
(xv) Carbon black plants (furnace process);
(xvi) Primary lead smelters;
(xvii) Fuel conversion plants;
(xviii) Sintering plants;
(xix) Secondary metal production plants;
(xx) Chemical process plants;
(xxi) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input;
(xxii) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels;
(xxiii) Taconite ore processing plants;
(xxiv) Glass fiber processing plants;
(xxv) Charcoal production plants;
(xxvi) Fossil-fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input; or
(xxvii) Any other stationary source category, which as of August 7, 1980 is being regulated under section 111 or 112 of the Act.
(3) A major stationary source as defined in part D of title I of the Act, including:
(i) For ozone nonattainment areas, sources with the potential to emit 100 tpy or more of volatile organic compounds or oxides of nitrogen in areas classified as “marginal” or “moderate,” 50 tpy or more in areas classified as “serious,” 25 tpy or more in areas classified as “severe,” and 10 tpy or more in areas classified as “extreme”; except that the references in this paragraph to 100, 50, 25 and 10 tpy of nitrogen oxides shall not apply with respect to any source for which the Administrator has made a finding, under section 182(f) (1) or (2) of the Act, that requirements under section 182(f) of the Act do not apply;
(ii) For ozone transport regions established pursuant to section 184 of the Act, sources with the potential to emit 50 tpy or more of volatile organic compounds;
(iii) For carbon monoxide nonattainment areas:
(A) That are classified as “serious,” and
(B) in which stationary sources contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels as determined under rules issued by the Administrator, sources with the potential to emit 50 tpy or more of carbon monoxide; and
(iv) For particulate matter (PM–10) nonattainment areas classified as “serious,” sources with the potential to emit 70 tpy or more of PM–10.
Part 70 permit or permit (unless the context suggests otherwise) means any permit or group of permits covering a part 70 source that is issued, renewed, amended, or revised pursuant to this part.
Part 70 program or State program means a program approved by the Administrator under this part.
Part 70 source means any source subject to the permitting requirements of this part, as provided in §§70.3(a) and 70.3(b) of this part.
Permit modification means a revision to a part 70 permit that meets the requirements of §70.7(e) of this part.
Permit program costs means all reasonable (direct and indirect) costs required to develop and administer a permit program, as set forth in §70.9(b) of this part (whether such costs are incurred by the permitting authority or other State or local agencies that do not issue permits directly, but that support permit issuance or administration).
Permit revision means any permit modification or administrative permit amendment.
Permitting authority means either of the following:
(1) The Administrator, in the case of EPA-implemented programs; or
(2) The State air pollution control agency, local agency, other State agency, or other agency authorized by the Administrator to carry out a permit program under this part.
Potential to emit means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit any air pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of a source to emit an air pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design if the limitation is enforceable by the Administrator. This term does not alter or affect the use of this term for any other purposes under the Act, or the term “capacity factor” as used in title IV of the Act or the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Proposed permit means the version of a permit that the permitting authority proposes to issue and forwards to the Administrator for review in compliance with §70.8.
Regulated air pollutant means the following:
(1) Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compounds;
(2) Any pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard has been promulgated;
(3) Any pollutant that is subject to any standard promulgated under section 111 of the Act;
(4) Any Class I or II substance subject to a standard promulgated under or established by title VI of the Act; or
(5) Any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under section 112 or other requirements established under section 112 of the Act, including sections 112(g), (j), and (r) of the Act, including the following:
(i) Any pollutant subject to requirements under section 112(j) of the Act. If the Administrator fails to promulgate a standard by the date established pursuant to section 112(e) of the Act, any pollutant for which a subject source would be major shall be considered to be regulated on the date 18 months after the applicable date established pursuant to section 112(e) of the Act; and
(ii) Any pollutant for which the requirements of section 112(g)(2) of the Act have been met, but only with respect to the individual source subject to section 112(g)(2) requirement.
Regulated pollutant (for presumptive fee calculation), which is used only for purposes of §70.9(b)(2), means any “regulated air pollutant” except the following:
(1) Carbon monoxide;
(2) Any pollutant that is a regulated air pollutant solely because it is a Class I or II substance to a standard promulgated under or established by title VI of the Act; or
(3) Any pollutant that is a regulated air pollutant solely because it is subject to a standard or regulation under section 112(r) of the Act.
Renewal means the process by which a permit is reissued at the end of its term.
Responsible official means one of the following:
(1) For a corporation: a president, secretary, treasurer, or vice-president of the corporation in charge of a principal business function, or any other person who performs similar policy or decision-making functions for the corporation, or a duly authorized representative of such person if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more manufacturing, production, or operating facilities applying for or subject to a permit and either:
(i) The facilities employ more than 250 persons or have gross annual sales or expenditures exceeding $25 million (in second quarter 1980 dollars); or
(ii) The delegation of authority to such representatives is approved in advance by the permitting authority;
(2) For a partnership or sole proprietorship: a general partner or the proprietor, respectively;
(3) For a municipality, State, Federal, or other public agency: Either a principal executive officer or ranking elected official. For the purposes of this part, a principal executive officer of a Federal agency includes the chief executive officer having responsibility for the overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the agency (e.g., a Regional Administrator of EPA); or
(4) For affected sources:
(i) The designated representative in so far as actions, standards, requirements, or prohibitions under title IV of the Act or the regulations promulgated thereunder are concerned; and
(ii) The designated representative for any other purposes under part 70.
Section 502(b)(10) changes are changes that contravene an express permit term. Such changes do not include changes that would violate applicable requirements or contravene federally enforceable permit terms and conditions that are monitoring (including test methods), recordkeeping, reporting, or compliance certification requirements.
State means any non-Federal permitting authority, including any local agency, interstate association, or statewide program. The term “State” also includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Where such meaning is clear from the context, “State” shall have its conventional meaning. For purposes of the acid rain program, the term “State” shall be limited to authorities within the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia as provided in section 402(14) of the Act.
Stationary source means any building, structure, facility, or installation that emits or may emit any regulated air pollutant or any pollutant listed under section 112(b) of the Act.
Whole program means a part 70 permit program, or any combination of partial programs, that meet all the requirements of these regulations and cover all the part 70 sources in the entire State. For the purposes of this definition, the term “State” does not include local permitting authorities, but refers only to the entire State, Commonwealth, or Territory.
[57 FR 32295, July 21, 1992, as amended at 66 FR 59166, Nov. 27, 2001; 69 FR 31505, June 3, 2004]
§ 70.3 Applicability.
(a) Part 70 sources. A State program with whole or partial approval under this part must provide for permitting of the following sources:
(1) Any major source;
(2) Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard, limitation, or other requirement under section 111 of the Act;
(3) Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard or other requirement under section 112 of the Act, except that a source is not required to obtain a permit solely because it is subject to regulations or requirements under section 112(r) of this Act;
(4) Any affected source; and
(5) Any source in a source category designated by the Administrator pursuant to this section.
(b) Source category exemptions. (1) All sources listed in paragraph (a) of this section that are not major sources, affected sources, or solid waste incineration units required to obtain a permit pursuant to section 129(e) of the Act, may be exempted by the State from the obligation to obtain a part 70 permit until such time as the Administrator completes a rulemaking to determine how the program should be structured for nonmajor sources and the appropriateness of any permanent exemptions in addition to those provided for in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
(2) In the case of nonmajor sources subject to a standard or other requirement under either section 111 or section 112 of the Act after July 21, 1992 publication, the Administrator will determine whether to exempt any or all such applicable sources from the requirement to obtain a part 70 permit at the time that the new standard is promulgated.
(4) The following source categories are exempted from the obligation to obtain a part 70 permit:
(i) All sources and source categories that would be required to obtain a permit solely because they are subject to part 60, subpart AAA—Standards of Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters; and
(ii) All sources and source categories that would be required to obtain a permit solely because they are subject to part 61, subpart M—National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Asbestos, §61.145, Standard for Demolition and Renovation.
(c) Emissions units and part 70 sources. (1) For major sources, the permitting authority shall include in the permit all applicable requirements for all relevant emissions units in the major source.
(2) For any nonmajor source subject to the part 70 program under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the permitting authority shall include in the permit all applicable requirements applicable to emissions units that cause the source to be subject to the part 70 program.
(d) Fugitive emissions. Fugitive emissions from a part 70 source shall be included in the permit application and the part 70 permit in the same manner as stack emissions, regardless of whether the source category in question is included in the list of sources contained in the definition of major source.
[57 FR 32295, July 21, 1992, as amended at 70 FR 75346, Dec. 19, 2005]
§ 70.4 State program submittals and transition.
(a) Date for submittal. Not later than November 15, 1993, the Governor of each State shall submit to the Administrator for approval a proposed part 70 program, under State law or under an interstate compact, meeting the requirements of this part. If part 70 is subsequently revised such that the Administrator determines that it is necessary to require a change to an approved State program, the required revisions to the program shall be submitted within 12 months of the final changes to part 70 or within such other period as authorized by the Administrator.
(b) Elements of the initial program submission. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit to the Administrator a letter of submittal from the Governor or his designee requesting EPA approval of the program and at least three copies of a program submission. The submission shall contain the following:
(1) A complete program description describing how the State intends to carry out its responsibilities under this part.
(2) The regulations that comprise the permitting program, reasonably available evidence of their procedurally correct adoption, (including any notice of public comment and any significant comments received on the proposed part 70 program as requested by the Administrator), and copies of all applicable State or local statutes and regulations including those governing State administrative procedures that either authorize the part 70 program or restrict its implementation. The State shall include with the regulations any criteria used to determine insignificant activities or emission levels for purposes of determining complete applications consistent with §70.5(c) of this part.
(3) A legal opinion from the Attorney General for the State, or the attorney for those State, local, or interstate air pollution control agencies that have independent legal counsel, stating that the laws of the State, locality, or interstate compact provide adequate authority to carry out all aspects of the program. This statement shall include citations to the specific states, administrative regulations, and, where appropriate, judicial decisions that demonstrate adequate authority. State statutes and regulations cited by the State Attorney General or independent legal counsel shall be in the form of lawfully adopted State states and regulations at the time the statement is signed and shall be fully effective by the time the program is approved. To qualify as “independent legal counsel,” the attorney signing the statement required by this section shall have full authority to independently represent the State agency in court on all matters pertaining to the State program. The legal opinion shall also include a demonstration of adequate legal authority to carry out the requirements of this part, including authority to carry out each of the following:
(i) Issue permits and assure compliance with each applicable requirement and requirement of this part by all part 70 sources.
(ii) Incorporate monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting, and compliance certification requirements into part 70 permits consistent with §70.6.
(iii) Issue permits for a fixed term of 5 years in the case of permits with acid rain provisions and issue all other permits for a period not to exceed 5 years, except for permits issued for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 129(e) of the Act.
(iv) Issue permits for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 129(e) of the Act for a period not to exceed 12 years and review such permits at least every 5 years. No permit for a solid waste incineration unit may be issued by an agency, instrumentality or person that is also responsible, in whole or in part, for the design and construction or operation of the unit.
(v) Incorporate into permits all applicable requirements and requirements of this part.
(vi) Terminate, modify, or revoke and reissue permits for cause.
(vii) Enforce permits, permit fee requirements, and the requirement to obtain a permit, as specified in §70.11.
(viii) Make available to the public any permit application, compliance plan, permit, and monitoring and compliance, certification report pursuant to section 503(e) of the Act, except for information entitled to confidential treatment pursuant to section 114(c) of the Act. The contents of a part 70 permit shall not be entitled to protection under section 115(c) of the Act.
(ix) Not issue a permit if the Administrator timely objects to its issuance pursuant to §70.8(c) of this part or, if the permit has not already been issued, to §70.8(d) of this part.
(x) Provide an opportunity for judicial review in State court of the final permit action by the applicant, any person who participated in the public participation process provided pursuant to §70.7(h) of this part, and any other person who could obtain judicial review of such actions under State laws.
(xi) Provide that, solely for the purposes of obtaining judicial review in State court for failure to take final action, final permit action shall include the failure of the permitting authority to take final action on an application for a permit, permit renewal, or permit revision within the time specified in the State program. If the State program allows sources to make changes subject to post hoc review [as set forth in §§70.7(e)(2) and (3) of this part], the permitting authority's failure to take final action within 90 days of receipt of an application requesting minor permit modification procedures (or 180 days for modifications subject to group processing requirements) must be subject to judicial review in State court.
(xii) Provide that the opportunity for judicial review described in paragraph (b)(3)(x) of this section shall be the exclusive means for obtaining judicial review of the terms and conditions of permits, and require that such petitions for judicial review must be filed no later than 90 days after the final permit action, or such shorter time as the State shall designate. Notwithstanding the preceding requirement, petitions for judicial review of final permit actions can be filed after the deadline designated by the State, only if they are based solely on grounds arising after the deadline for judicial review. Such petitions shall be filed no later than 90 days after the new grounds for review arise or such shorter time as the State shall designate. If the final permit action being challenged is the permitting authority's failure to take final action, a petition for judicial review may be filed any time before the permitting authority denies the permit or issues the final permit.
(xiii) Ensure that the authority of the State/local permitting Agency is not used to modify the acid rain program requirements.
(4) Relevant permitting program documentation not contained in the State regulations, including the following:
(i) Copies of the permit form(s), application form(s), and reporting form(s) the State intends to employ in its program; and
(ii) Relevant guidance issued by the State to assist in the implementation of its permitting program, including criteria for monitoring source compliance (e.g., inspection strategies).
(5) A complete description of the State's compliance tracking and enforcement program or reference to any agreement the State has with EPA that provides this information.
(6) A showing of adequate authority and procedures to determine within 60 days of receipt whether applications (including renewal applications) are complete, to request such other information as needed to process the application, and to take final action on complete applications within 18 months of the date of their submittal, except for initial permit applications, for which the permitting authority may take up to 3 years from the effective date of the program to take final action on the application, as provided for in the transition plan.
(7) A demonstration, consistent with §70.9, that the permit fees required by the State program are sufficient to cover permit program costs.
(8) A statement that adequate personnel and funding have been made available to develop, administer, and enforce the program. This statement shall include the following:
(i) A description in narrative form of the scope, structure, coverage, and processes of the State program.
(ii) A description of the organization and structure of the agency or agencies that will have responsibility for administering the program, including the information specified in this paragraph. If more than one agency is responsible for administration of a program, the responsibilities of each agency must be delineated, their procedures for coordination must be set forth, and an agency shall be designated as a “lead agency” to facilitate communications between EPA and the other agencies having program responsibility.
(iii) A description of the agency staff who will carry out the State program, including the number, occupation, and general duties of the employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State program.
(iv) A description of applicable State procedures, including permitting procedures and any State administrative or judicial review procedures.
(v) An estimate of the permit program costs for the first 4 years after approval, and a description of how the State plans to cover those costs.
(9) A commitment from the State to submit, at least annually to the Administrator, information regarding the State's enforcement activities including, but not limited to, the number of criminal and civil, judicial and administrative enforcement actions either commenced or concluded; the penalties, fines, and sentences obtained in those actions; and the number of administrative orders issued.
(10) A requirement under State law that, if a timely and complete application for a permit renewal is submitted, consistent with §70.5(a)(2), but the State has failed to issue or deny the renewal permit before the end of the term of the previous permit, then:
(i) The permit shall not expire until the renewal permit has been issued or denied and any permit shield that may be granted pursuant to §70.6(f) may extend beyond the original permit term until renewal; or
(ii) All the terms and conditions of the permit including any permit shield that may be granted pursuant to §70.6(f) shall remain in effect until the renewal permit has been issued or denied.
(11) A transition plan providing a schedule for submittal and final action on initial permit applications for all part 70 sources. This plan shall provide that:
(i) Submittal of permit applications by all part 70 sources (including any sources subject to a partial or interim program) shall occur within 1 year after the effective date of the permit program;
(ii) Final action shall be taken on at least one-third of such applications annually over a period not to exceed 3 years after such effective date;
(iii) Any complete permit application containing an early reduction demonstration under section 112(i)(5) of the Act shall be acted on within 9 months of receipt of the complete application; and
(iv) Submittal of permit applications and the permitting of affected sources shall occur in accordance with the deadlines in title IV of the Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
(12) Provisions consistent with paragraphs (b)(12)(i) through (iii) of this section to allow changes within a permitted facility without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in the terms of total emissions): Provided, That the facility provides the Administrator and the permitting authority with written notification as required below in advance of the proposed changes, which shall be a minimum of 7 days, unless the permitting authority provides in its regulations a different time frame for emergencies. The source, permitting authority, and EPA shall attach each such notice to their copy of the relevant permit. The following provisions implement this requirement of an approvable part 70 permit program:
(i) The program shall allow permitted sources to make section 502(b)(10) changes without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in terms of total emissions).
(A) For each such change, the written notification required above shall include a brief description of the change within the permitted facility, the date on which the change will occur, any change in emissions, and any permit term or condition that is no longer applicable as a result of the change.
(B) The permit shield described in §70.6(f) of this part shall not apply to any change made pursuant to this paragraph (b)(12)(i) of this section.
(ii) The program may provide for permitted sources to trade increases and decreases in emissions in the permitted facility, where the applicable implementation plan provides for such emissions trades without requiring a permit revision and based on the 7-day notice prescribed in this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section. This provision is available in those cases where the permit does not already provide for such emissions trading.
(A) Under this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section, the written notification required above shall include such information as may be required by the provision in the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade, including at a minimum, when the proposed change will occur, a description of each such change, any change in emissions, the permit requirements with which the source will comply using the emissions trading provisions of the applicable implementation plan, and the pollutants emitted subject to the emissions trade. The notice shall also refer to the provisions with which the source will comply in the applicable implementation plan and that provide for the emissions trade.
(B) The permit shield described in §70.6(f) of this part shall not extend to any change made under this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section. Compliance with the permit requirements that the source will meet using the emissions trade shall be determined according to requirements of the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade.
(iii) The program shall require the permitting authority, if a permit applicant requests it, to issue permits that contain terms and conditions, including all terms required under §70.6 (a) and (c) of this part to determine compliance, allowing for the trading of emissions increases and decreases in the permitted facility solely for the purpose of complying with a federally-enforceable emissions cap that is established in the permit independent of otherwise applicable requirements. The permit applicant shall include in its application proposed replicable procedures and permit terms that ensure the emissions trades are quantifiable and enforceable. The permitting authority shall not be required to include in the emissions trading provisions any emissions units for which emissions are not quantifiable or for which there are no replicable procedures to enforce the emissions trades. The permit shall also require compliance with all applicable requirements.
(A) Under this paragraph (b)(12)(iii) of this section, the written notification required above shall state when the change will occur and shall describe the changes in emissions that will result and how these increases and decreases in emissions will comply with the terms and conditions of the permit.
(B) The permit shield described in §70.6(f) of this part may extend to terms and conditions that allow such increases and decreases in emissions.
(13) Provisions for adequate, streamlined, and reasonable procedures for expeditious review of permit revisions or modifications. The program may meet this requirement by using procedures that meet the requirements of §70.7(e) or that are substantially equivalent to those provided in §70.7(e) of this part.
(14) If a State allows changes that are not addressed or prohibited by the permit, other than those described in paragraph (b)(15) of this section, to be made without a permit revision, provisions meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b)(14) (i) through (iii) of this section. Although a State may, as a matter of State law, prohibit sources from making such changes without a permit revision, any such prohibition shall not be enforceable by the Administrator or by citizens under the Act unless the prohibition is required by an applicable requirement. Any State procedures implementing such a State law prohibition must include the requirements of paragraphs (b)(14) (i) through (iii) of this section.
(i) Each such change shall meet all applicable requirements and shall not violate any existing permit term or condition.
(ii) Sources must provide contemporaneous written notice to the permitting authority and EPA of each such change, except for changes that qualify as insignificant under the provisions adopted pursuant to §70.5(c) of this part. Such written notice shall describe each such change, including the date, any change in emissions, pollutants emitted, and any applicable requirement that would apply as a result of the change.
(iii) The change shall not qualify for the shield under §70.6(f) of this part.
(iv) The permittee shall keep a record describing changes made at the source that result in emissions of a regulated air pollutant subject to an applicable requirement, but not otherwise regulated under the permit, and the emissions resulting from those changes.
(15) Provisions prohibiting sources from making, without a permit revision, changes that are not addressed or prohibited by the part 70 permit, if such changes are subject to any requirements under title IV of the Act or are modifications under any provision of title I of the Act.
(16) Provisions requiring the permitting authority to implement the requirements of §§70.6 and 70.7 of this part.
(c) Partial programs. (1) The EPA may approve a partial program that applies to all part 70 sources within a limited geographic area (e.g., a local agency program covering all sources within the agency's jurisdiction). To be approvable, any partial program must, at a minimum, ensure compliance with all of the following applicable requirements, as they apply to the sources covered by the partial program:
(i) All requirements of title V of the Act and of part 70;
(ii) All applicable requirements of title IV of the Act and regulations promulgated thereunder which apply to affected sources; and
(iii) All applicable requirements of title I of the Act, including those established under sections 111 and 112 of the Act.
(2) Any partial permitting program, such as that of a local air pollution control agency, providing for the issuance of permits by a permitting authority other than the State, shall be consistent with all the elements required in paragraphs (b) (1) through (16) of this section.
(3) Approval of any partial program does not relieve the State from its obligation to submit a whole program or from application of any sanctions for failure to submit a fully-approvable whole program.
(4) Any partial program may obtain interim approval under paragraph (d) of this section if it substantially meets the requirements of this paragraph (c) of this section.
(d) Interim approval. (1) If a program (including a partial permit program) submitted under this part substantially meets the requirements of this part, but is not fully approvable, the Administrator may be rule grant the program interim approval.
(2) Interim approval shall expire on a date set by the Administrator (but not later than 2 years after such approval), and may not be renewed. Sources shall become subject to the program according to the schedule approved in the State program. Permits granted under an interim approval shall expire at the end of their fixed term, unless renewed under a part 70 program.
(3) The EPA may grant interim approval to any program if it meets each of the following minimum requirements and otherwise substantially meets the requirements of this part:
(i) Adequate fees. The program must provide for collecting permit fees adequate for it to meet the requirements of §70.9 of this part.
(ii) Applicable requirements. (A) The program must provide for adequate authority to issue permits that assure compliance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section for those major sources covered by the program.
(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, where a State or local permitting authority lacks adequate authority to issue or revise permits that assure compliance with applicable requirements established exclusively through an EPA-approved minor NSR program, EPA may grant interim approval to the program upon a showing by the permitting authority of compelling reasons which support the interim approval.
(C) Any part 70 permit issued during an interim approval granted under paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section that does not incorporate minor NSR requirements shall:
(1) Note this fact in the permit;
(2) Indicate how citizens may obtain access to excluded minor NSR permits;
(3) Provide a cross reference, such as a listing of the permit number, for each minor NSR permit containing an excluded minor NSR term; and
(4) State that the minor NSR requirements which are excluded are not eligible for the permit shield under §70.6(f).
(D) A program receiving interim approval for the reason specified in (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section must, upon or before granting of full approval, institute proceedings to reopen part 70 permits to incorporate excluded minor NSR permits as terms of the part 70 permits, as required by §70.7(f)(1)(iv). Such reopening need not follow full permit issuance procedures nor the notice requirement of §70.7(f)(3), but may instead follow the permit revision procedure in effect under the State's approved part 70 program for incorporation of minor NSR permits.
(iii) Fixed term. The program must provide for fixed permit terms, consistent with paragraphs (b)(3) (iii) and (iv) of this section.
(iv) Public participation. The program must provide for adequate public notice of and an opportunity for public comment and a hearing on draft permits and revisions, except for modifications qualifying for minor permit modification procedures under §70.7(e) of this part.
(v) EPA and affected State review. The program must allow EPA an opportunity to review each proposed permit, including permit revisions, and to object to its issuance consistent with §70.8(c) of this part. The program must provide for affected State review consistent with §70.8(b) of this part.
(vi) Permit issuance. The program must provide that the proposed permit will not be issued if EPA objects to its issuance.
(vii) Enforcement. The program must contain authority to enforce permits, including the authority to assess penalties against sources that do not comply with their permits or with the requirement to obtain a permit.
(viii) Operational flexibility. The program must allow changes within a permitted facility without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit, consistent with paragraph (b)(12) of this section.
(ix) Streamlined procedures. The program must provide for streamlined procedures for issuing and revising permits and determining expeditiously after receipt of a permit application or application for a permit revision whether such application is complete.
(x) Permit application. The program submittal must include copies of the permit application and reporting form(s) that the State will use in implementing the interim program.
(xi) Alternative scenarios. The program submittal must include provisions to insure that alternate scenarios requested by the source are included in the part 70 permit pursuant to §70.6(a)(9) of this part.
(e) EPA review of permit program submittals. Within 1 year after receiving a program submittal, the Administrator shall approve or disapprove the program, in whole or in part, by publishing a notice in the Federal Register. Prior to such notice, the Administrator shall provide an opportunity for public comment on such approval or disapproval. Any EPA action disapproving a program, in whole or in part, shall include a statement of the revisions or modifications necessary to obtain full approval. The Administrator shall approve State programs that conform to the requirements of this part.
(1) Within 60 days of receipt by EPA of a State program submission, EPA will notify the State whether its submission is complete enough to warrant review by EPA for either full, partial, or interim approval. If EPA finds that a State's submission is complete, the 1-year review period (i.e., the period of time allotted for formal EPA review of a proposed State program) shall be deemed to have begun on the date of receipt of the State's submission. If EPA finds that a State's submission is incomplete, the 1-year review period shall not begin until all the necessary information is received by EPA.
(2) If the State's submission is materially changed during the 1-year review period, the Administrator may extend the review period for no more than 1 year following receipt of the revised submission.
(3) In any notice granting interim or partial approval, the Administrator shall specify the changes or additions that must be made before the program can receive full approval and the conditions for implementation of the program until that time.
(f) State response to EPA review of program—(1) Disapproval. The State shall submit to EPA program revisions or modifications required by the Administrator's action disapproving the program, or any part thereof, within 180 days of receiving notification of the disapproval.
(2) Interim approval. The State shall submit to EPA changes to the program addressing the deficiencies specified in the interim approval no later than 6 months prior to the expiration of the interim approval.
(g) Effective date. The effective date of a part 70 program, including any partial or interim program approved under this part, shall be the effective date of approval by the Administrator.
(h) Individual permit transition. Upon approval of a State program, the Administrator shall suspend the issuance of Federal permits for those activities subject to the approved State program, except that the Administrator will continue to issue phase I acid rain permits. After program approval, EPA shall retain jurisdiction over any permit (including any general permit) that it has issued unless arrangements have been made with the State to assume responsibility for these permits. Where EPA retains jurisdiction, it will continue to process permit appeals and modification requests, to conduct inspections, and to receive and review monitoring reports. If any permit appeal or modification request is not finally resolved when the federally-issued permit expires, EPA may, with the consent of the State, retain jurisdiction until the matter is resolved. Upon request by a State, the Administrator may delegate authority to implement all or part of a permit issued by EPA, if a part 70 program has been approved for the State. The delegation may include authorization for the State to collect appropriate fees, consistent with §70.9 of this part. (continued)