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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 57—PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 57—PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS
Authority: Secs. 110, 114, 119, 301, Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7410, 7414, 7419, and 7601); sec. 406 of Pub. L. 95–95.
Source: 50 FR 6448, Feb. 15, 1985, unless otherwise noted.
§ 57.101 Purpose and scope.
(a) Applicability of the regulations. The regulations in subparts A through H govern:
(1) The eligibility of smelters for a Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) under section 119 of the Clean Air Act;
(2) The procedures through which an NSO can be approved or issued by EPA; and
(3) The minimum contents of each NSO required for EPA issuance or approval under section 119. Subpart I et seq., will contain NSOs in effect for individual smelters.
(b) State authority to adopt more stringent requrements. Nothing in this part shall preclude a State from imposing more stringent requirements, as provided by section 116 of the Clean Air Act.
§ 57.102 Eligibility.
(a) A primary copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, or other nonferrous smelter is eligible for an NSO if it meets the following conditions:
(1) The smelter was in existence and operating on August 7, 1977;
(2) The smelter is subject to an approved or promulgated sulfur dioxide (SO2) State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission limitation which is adequate to ensure that National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for SO2 are achieved without the use of any unauthorized dispersion techniques; and
(3) The Administrator determines, based on a showing by the smelter owner, that no means of emission limitation applicable to the smelter which would enable it to comply with its SIP stack emission limitation for SO2 has been adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available (taking into account the cost of compliance, nonair quality health and environmental impact, and energy considerations) in accordance with §57.201(d)(1).
(b) For the purposes of these regulations:
(1) The following means of emission limitation shall be considered adequately demonstrated for nonferrous smelters. (Taking into account nonair quality health and environmental impact and energy considerations, but not the cost of compliance).
(i) Retrofit control technologies. (A) Sulfuric acid plant in conjunction with an adequately demonstrated replacement technology or process modification;
(B) Magnesium oxide (concentration) scrubbing;
(C) Lime/limestone scrubbing; and
(D) Ammonia scrubbing.
(ii) Replacement or process modifications. (A) Flash smelting;
(B) Oxygen enrichment;
(C) Supplemental sulfur burning in conjunction with acid plant;
(D) Electric Furnace;
(E) Noranda process;
(F) Fluid bed roaster;
(G) Continuous smelting (Mitsubishi) process; and
(H) Strong stream/weak stream gas blending.
(2) Each adequately demonstrated means of emission limitation which would enable a smelter to comply with its SIP emission limitation for SO2 shall be considered applicable to the smelter unless the smelter operator demonstrates that the use of a particular system at that smelter is technically unreasonable, for reasons specific to that site.
(3) An applicable means of emission limitation which would enable a smelter to comply with its SIP emission limitation for SO2 shall be considered adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available to the smelter (taking into account the cost of compliance) if the information submitted under §§57.107(a) and 57.203(b) (plus any necessary supplemental information) shows, according to the criteria, procedures, and tests contained in appendix A to this part and in accordance with §57.201(d)(1), that both of the following two tests are met.
(i) The rate of return test. The present value of the smelter's future net cash flow (during and after investment in constant control technology) is more than book value of the smelter's net investment in constant dollars.
(ii) The profit protection test. The constant control technology expenditure reduces the present value of the smelter's forecast pretax profits by less than 50%.
(c) When applying for an NSO, a smelter must establish, for purposes of applying the financial eligibility tests, which adequately demonstrated constant control technology applicable to that smelter is the most economically feasible for use at that smelter.
[50 FR 6448, Feb. 15, 1985, as amended at 51 FR 10211, Mar. 25, 1986]
§ 57.103 Definitions.
(a) The Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended.
(b) Active use refers to an SO2 constant control system installed at a smelter before August 7, 1977 and not totally removed from regular service by that date.
(c) Adequate SO2 emission limitation means a SIP emission limitation which was approved or promulgated by EPA as adequate to attain and maintain the NAAQS in the areas affected by the stack emissions without the use of any unauthorized dispersion technique.
(d) Administrative Law Judge means an administrative law judge appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 (see also 5 CFR part 930, as amended by 37 FR 16787), and is synonymous with the term “Hearing Examiner” as formerly used in Title 5 of the U.S. Code.
(e) The Administrator means the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or the Administrator's authorized representative.
(f) Ambient air shall have the meaning given by 40 CFR 50.1(e), as that definition appears upon promulgation of this subpart, or as hereafter amended.
(g) Ambient air quality refers only to concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the ambient air, unless otherwise specified.
(h) An approved measure refers to one contained in an NSO which is in effect.
(i) Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation means the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
(j) Constant controls, control technology, and continuous emission reduction technology mean systems which limit the quantity, rate, or concentration, excluding the use of dilution, and emissions of air pollutants on a continuous basis.
(k) Effective date of an NSO means the effective date listed in the Federal Register publication of EPA's issuance or approval of an NSO.
(l) EPA and the Agency means the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or the Administrator's authorized representative.
(m) Fugitive emissions means any air pollutants emitted to the atmosphere other than from a stack.
(n) Issuance of an NSO means the final transmittal of the NSO pursuant to §57.107(a) by an issuing agency (other than EPA) to EPA for approval, or the publication of an NSO issued by EPA in the Federal Register.
(o) Issuing agency, unless otherwise specifically indicated, means the State or local air pollution control agency to which a smelter's owner has applied for an NSO, or which has issued the NSO, or EPA, when the NSO application has been made to EPA. Any showings or demonstrations required to be made under this part to the issuing agency, when not EPA, are subject to independent determinations by EPA.
(p) Malfunction means any unanticipated and unavoidable failure of air pollution control equipment or process equipment or of a process to operate in a normal or usual manner. Failures that are caused entirely or in part by poor design, poor maintenance, careless operation, or any other preventable upset condition or preventable equipment breakdown shall not be considered malfunctions. A malfunction exists only for the minimum time necessary to implement corrective measures.
(q) Maximum production capacity means either the maximum demonstrated rate at which a smelter has produced its principal metallic final product under the process equipment configuration and operating procedures prevailing on or before August 7, 1977, or a rate which the smelter is able to demonstrate by calculation is attainable with process equipment existing on August 7, 1977. The rate may be expressed as a concentrate feed rate to the smelter.
(r) NAAQS and National Ambient Air Quality Standards, unless otherwise specified, refer only to the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide.
(s) Scheduled maintenance means any periodic procedure, necessary to maintain the integrity or reliability of emissions control performance, which can be anticipated and scheduled in advance. In sulfuric acid plants, it includes among other items the screening or replacement of catalyst, the re-tubing of heat exchangers, and the routine repair and cleaning of gas handling/cleaning equipment.
(t) Smelter owner and operator means the owner or operator of the smelter, without distinction.
(u) Supplementary control system (SCS) means any technique for limiting the concentration of a pollutant in the ambient air by varying the emissions of that pollutant according to atmospheric conditions. For the purposes of this part, the term supplementary control system does not include any dispersion technique based solely on the use of a stack the height of which exceeds good engineering practice (as determined under regulations implementing section 123 of the Act).
(v) Unauthorized dispersion technique refers to any dispersion technique which, under section 123 of the Act and the regulations promulgated pursuant to that section, may not be used to reduce the degree of emission limitation otherwise required in the applicable SIP.
(w) Unless otherwise specified in this part, all terms shall have the same meaning given them by the Act.
[50 FR 6448, Feb. 15, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 5328, Feb. 13, 1992]
§ 57.104 Amendment of the NSO.
An NSO shall be amended whenever necessary for compliance with the requirements and purposes of this part.
(a)(1) Issuance of amendment. A State or local issuing agency may issue an amendment of any NSO it has issued. Any amendment issued by a State or local issuing agency shall be subject to approval by EPA to the same extent as was the original NSO. Any smelter owner may apply to the agency which originally issued its NSO for an amendment of the NSO at any time. Such an application shall be accompanied by whatever documentation is required by that agency (or EPA) to support the requested amendment.
(2)(i) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, amendments to SIP compliance schedule interim compliance dates in State-issued NSO's need not be submitted for EPA approval if the amendment does not delay the interim date by more than three months from the date as approved by the Administrator and if the final compliance date is unchanged. Delays longer than 3 months shall be handled according to the provisions of §57.104(a)(1).
(ii) Changes made in accordance with this subparagraph may be effective immediately but must be submitted to EPA within seven days. EPA will give public notice of receipt of such changes by publication of a Notice in the Federal Register.
(3) In any case in which the issuing agency fails to issue an amendment necessary for compliance with the requirements and purposes of this part, EPA may, after first giving the issuing Agency notice, issue such amendment.
(b) Revision of SCS Manual. Operation in accordance with the revised provisions of an SCS operational manual (see §57.402(e)) shall not be considered a violation of an NSO while the application for approval of those revisions as NSO amendments is pending before the issuing agency (or EPA) for approval: Provided, that:
(1) No violations of NAAQS occur in the smelter's Designated Liability Area during that time; and
(2) The smelter operator has not been informed by the issuing agency or EPA that its application is not adequately documented, unless such deficiency has been remedied promptly.
(c) Notice and opportunity for hearing. Notice and opportunity for public hearing shall be provided before issuance of all major amendments.
§ 57.105 Submittal of required plans, proposals, and reports.
(a) The failure of a smelter owner to submit any plan, report, document or proposal as required by its NSO or by this part shall constitute a violation of its NSO.
(b) If the Administrator determines that a nonferrous smelter is in violation of a requirement contained in an NSO approved under these regulations, the Administrator shall, as provided by section 119(f) of the Act:
(1) Enforce such requirement under section 113 (a), (b), or (c) of the Act;
(2) Revoke the order after notice and opportunity for hearing;
(3) Give notice of noncompliance and commence action under section 120 of the act; or
(4) Take any appropriate combinations of these actions.
(c) Under section 304 of the Act, any person may commence a civil action against an owner or operator of a smelter which is alleged to be in violation or any order approved under this part.
§ 57.106 Expiration date.
Each NSO shall state its expiration date. No NSO issued under this regulation shall expire later than January 1, 1988.
§ 57.107 The State or local agency's transmittal to EPA.
(a) Content and bases of the State or local agency's NSO. Issuance of an NSO by a State or local agency shall be completed by the issuing agency's transmittal to the appropriate EPA Regional Office of:
(1) The text of the NSO;
(2) The application submitted by the smelter owner, except for appendix A to this part, all correspondence between the issuing agency and the applicant relating to the NSO, and any material submitted in support of the application;
(3) A concise statement of the State or local agency's findings and their bases; and
(4) All documentation or analyses prepared by or for the issuing agency in support of the NSO.
(b) The State or local agency's enforcement plan. The transmittal under paragraph (a) of this section shall be accompanied by a description of the issuing agency's plans for monitoring compliance with and enforcement of the NSO. The transmittal shall also include a description of the resources which will be used to implement those plans. If the enforcement plans appear inadequate, EPA may require that the NSO be modified such that the NSO will be adequately enforced.
§ 57.108 Comparable existing SIP provisions.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, an NSO may contain provisions to which the affected smelter is subject under the applicable EPA-approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) for sulfur dioxide in lieu of the corresponding provisions which would otherwise be required under this part if the Administrator determines that those SIP provisions are substantially equivalent to the corresponding NSO provisions which would otherwise be required, and if the Administrator determines that the smelter is in substantial compliance with those SIP provisions. For the purposes of this section, provisions to which the affected smelter is subject under the applicable EPA-approved State Implementation Plan are those which became effective before the smelter owner applied for the NSO.
§ 57.109 Maintenance of pay.
The Administrator will not approve or issue an NSO for any smelter unless he has approved or promulgated SIP provisions which are applicable to the smelter and which satisfy the requirements of section 110(a)(6) of the Clean Air Act.
§ 57.110 Reimbursement of State or local agency.
As a condition of issuing an NSO, any issuing agency may require the smelter operator to pay a fee to the State or local agency sufficient to defray the issuing agency's expenses in issuing and enforcing the NSO.
§ 57.111 Severability of provisions.
The provisions promulgated in this part and the various applications thereof are distinct and severable. If any provision of this part or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions, or the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances, which can be given effect without the invalid provision of application.
Subpart B—The Application and the NSO Process
§ 57.201 Where to apply.
Any eligible smelter may apply for an NSO to the appropriate EPA Regional Office or to the appropriate State or local air pollution control agency.
(a) When application is made to EPA, all parts of the application required to be submitted under this subpart shall be sent directly to the Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division (EN–341), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460, Attention: Confidential Information Unit. In addition, the smelter owner shall send a copy of the application, except that part required to be submitted under §57.203(b) (eligibility), directly to the appropriate EPA Regional Office.
(b) When application is made to the appropriate State or local agency, the smelter owner shall submit one complete copy of all parts of the application required to be submitted under this subpart to that agency, in addition to the application requirements contained in paragraph (a) of this section. If the smelter owner is requesting an advance eligibility determination pursuant to §57.203(b), such request must be made in writing and shall accompany the copy of the application being sent to the Director of the Stationary Source Compliance Division of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(c) If the smelter owner is requesting a waiver of the interim constant control requirement of §57.301, such request must be sent directly to the Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division, at the time of application, in accordance with §57.802.
(d) The NSO Process. (1) A smelter desiring an NSO shall apply for an NSO by submitting an application under subpart B including the financial information required in appendix A and including the information necessary to make the determinations required by this subparagraph and §57.201(d)(2). The issuing agency shall analyze the financial information according to the financial eligibility test prescribed by subpart A and described in appendix A. The issuing Agency shall then determine whether the smelter is able to comply with its SIP on or before the date required in the SIP by installing adequately demonstrated technology which is reasonably available. See also §57.102(a)(3). If the test demonstrates that adequately demonstrated technology is not reasonably available to the smelter to allow it to comply with the SIP by the required compliance date, the smelter is eligible for an NSO.
(2)(i) If the smelter is determined to be eligible for an NSO under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the issuing Agency shall apply the appendix A financial eligibility tests again before issuing an NSO in order to determine if the smelter can comply with its SIP requirements on or before January 1, 1988 by installing adequately demonstrated technology which is reasonably available.
(ii) If application of the tests shows that the smelter could comply by or before January 1, 1988, the issuing agency shall notify the smelter of this determination, and shall not issue an NSO to the smelter unless the NSO contains a SIP compliance schedule meeting the requirements of §57.705. Such a compliance schedule must provide for compliance with the smelter's SO2 SIP as expeditiously as practicable and in no case later than January 1, 1988. A smelter must submit to the issuing agency information necessary to determine a compliance schedule meeting the requirements of §57.705. This information shall be submitted by a smelter within thirty days after the smelter is notified by the issuing agency that a SIP compliance schedule is required. The Administrator may consider an NSO application to be withdrawn for SIP enforcement purposes if a smelter fails to submit such information within the time required under this paragraph.
(iii) If no adequately demonstrated technology is found to be reasonably available to enable a smelter to comply by January 1, 1988, it would be excused from the compliance schedule requirement in §57.201(d)(2)(ii), but it would be subject to reevaluation of its ability to comply by that date at any time during the term of the NSO. (See §57.201(d)(3)).
(3) At any time during the term of an NSO which does not contain a SIP compliance schedule, EPA or the issuing agency may reevaluate the availability of technology to the smelter. If EPA or the issuing agency determines that adequately demonstrated technology is reasonably available to permit the smelter to comply with its SIP by or before January 1, 1988, the NSO shall be amended within 3 months time after such determination. The amendment shall require compliance with all SIP requirements by or before January 1, 1988, and shall include a compliance schedule meeting the requirements of §57.705. The determination that adequately demonstrated technology is reasonably available shall be made by reapplying the same appendix A financial eligibility tests required by subpart B, updated by economic data reflecting current operating conditions and currently demonstrated control technology. Any such determination and amendment shall be governed by the provisions of this part and section 119 of the Clean Air Act.
(4) Notice and opportunity for public hearing in accordance with section 119 of the Clean Air Act must be provided before issuance of any NSO.
(e) A smelter that does not have any constant SO2 controls or whose existing constant SO2 controls when in full operation and optimally maintained are not sufficient to treat all strong SO2 streams may apply for a waiver of the requirements of subpart C to install interim constant controls by submitting an application under subpart H. A waiver may be granted only with respect to the requirement to eliminate bypass of constant controls through the installation of new constant control equipment, not with respect to the requirements for optimum maintenance and operation of existing equipment. EPA shall then determine the smelter's ability to afford installation of the required additional interim constant SO2 control equipment at the smelter based on financial eligibility information analyzed according to the financial test prescribed in appendix A. A waiver of the requirement for additional interim constant controls will be granted if EPA determines in accordance with the procedures of subpart H that imposition of this requirement would necessitate closure of the smelter for at least one year.
§ 57.202 How to apply.
(a) Letter of intent. To initiate an application for an NSO, the owner or operator of a smelter shall send a letter of intent to an appropriate air pollution control agency. The letter of intent shall contain a statement of the owner's intent to apply for an NSO, and an agreement to provide any information required under this part. The letter of intent shall be signed by a corporate official authorized to make such commitments. Upon receipt of any letter of intent by the issuing agency, the SIP emission limitation for sulfur dioxide, as to that applicant, shall be deemed suspended for 60 days. The 60 day suspension may be extended for good cause at the discretion of the Administrator.
(b) Complete application. (1) Within the period referred to in paragraph (a) of this section, the smelter owner shall submit its completed application pursuant to §57.201. Receipt of all parts of a substantially complete application postmarked within the original or extended application period shall be deemed to continue the suspension of the SIP emission limitation for SO2 until the issuing agency issues or declines to issue an NSO. This suspension shall in all cases terminate, however, 90 days after receipt of the substantially completed application, unless extended for good cause at the discretion of the Administrator. If, in the Administrator's judgment, good faith effort has been made to submit a complete application, additional time may be granted to allow for correction of minor deficiencies.
(2) If an issuing agency transmits an NSO to EPA for approval before the expiration of the suspension of the Federal SIP emission limitation, the suspension shall continue until EPA approves or disapproves the NSO.
§ 57.203 Contents of the application.
(a) Claim of confidentiality. The smelter owner may make a business confidentiality claim covering all or part of the information in the NSO application in accordance with 40 CFR part 2, subpart B (41 FR 36906 et seq., Sept. 1, 1976 as amended by 43 FR 39997 et seq., Sept. 8, 1978). A claim is effective only if it is made at the time the material is submitted to the issuing agency or EPA. A claim shall be made by attaching to the information a notice of confidentiality. Information claimed as confidential will be handled by EPA under the provisions of 40 CFR part 2, subpart B. If no claim accompanies the information, it may be made available to the public without further notice.
(b) Each smelter owner shall make the showing required by §57.102(a)(3) by completing and submitting appendix A to this part and any necessary supplemental information to the issuing agency as a part of its application. Each smelter shall also submit as part of its application the information which, in conjunction with the information required by appendix A, is necessary for the issuing agency to make the determination required by §57.201(d)(2). Any smelter owner or State may, at its option, simultaneously submit this material to EPA for an advance eligibility determination.
(c) Current operating information. A complete NSO application shall also contain the following information:
(1) A process flow diagram of the smelter, including current process and instrumentation diagrams for all processes or equipment which may emit or affect the emission of sulfur dioxide; the characteristics of all gas streams emitted from the smelter's process equipment (flow rates, temperature, volumes, compositions, and variations over time); and a list of all monitoring data and strip charts, including all data, charts, logs or sheets kept with respect to the operation of any process equipment which may emit or affect the emission of sulfur dioxide;
(2) The smelter's maximum daily production capacity (as defined in §57.103(r)), the operational rate (in pounds of concentrate charged to the smelting furnace per hour) of each major piece of process equipment when the smelter is operating at that capacity; and the smelter's average and maximum daily production rate for each product, co-product, or by-product, by year, for the past four years;
(3) The optimal conversion efficiency (defined in terms of percent of total SO2 removed from the input flow stream) of any acid plant or other sulfur dioxide control system under the normal process operating conditions (excluding malfunctions) most conducive to optimal conversion efficiency;
(4) The average conversion efficiency of any acid plant or other sulfur dioxide control system during normal process operations (excluding malfunctions), by month, during the past four years.
(5) The percent of the time the acid plant or other control system was available for service during each month for the past four years, excluding downtime for scheduled maintenance, and a full explanation of any major or recurring problems with the system during that time;
(6) The frequency and duration of times during the past four years when the SO2 system was unavailable because of scheduled maintenance of the system;
(7) A description of all scheduled, periodic, shutdowns of the smelter during the past four years, including their purpose, frequency and duration; and the same information with respect to unscheduled shutdowns;
(8) The gas volume, rates, and SO2 concentration which the control system was actually designed to accommodate, taking into account any modifications made after its installation;
(9) The average monthly sulfur balance across the process and control equipment, including fugitive emissions, for the past 4 years; and
(10) A description of engineering techniques now in use at the smelter to prevent the release of fugitive emissions into the atmosphere at low elevations.
(d) The smelter owner's proposals. The smelter owner shall submit as part of its application, draft NSO provisions which would implement the requirements of subparts C through G of this part. The issuing agency may use these proposals as the basis for any NSO that may be granted, or may modify these proposals in any way it deems necessary in order to comply with the requirements of this part.
(e) A smelter may submit as part of its application, information necessary to determine any SIP compliance schedule which might be required under §57.201(d)(2).
(f) Additional information. The smelter owner shall designate in its application a corporate officer responsible and authorized to supply supplemental technical and economic information and explanations as required by the issuing agency during the formulation of the NSO. Failure to supply such information and explanations shall constitute a failure to submit a complete application.
(g) Request for a waiver of constant controls. Any request for a waiver of the requirement interim constant control of all strpmg streams of §57.301 shall be made in accordance with §57.802. The criteria and procedures for granting the waiver are governed by subpart H of this part.
(h) Unless a smelter applies for a waiver in accordance with subpart H, a smelter shall submit as part of its application a proposed schedule for compliance with the interim constant control requirements of subpart C which satisfies the requirements of §57.702.
§ 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.
(a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the Federal Register, without requiring a complete reapplication under this subpart and new State proceedings, provided:
(1) The second period NSO was issued by the State consistent with the procedural requirements of section 119 of the Clean Air Act;
(2) EPA can make a determination that the smelter is eligible for a second period NSO and whether the smelter can comply with its SO2 SIP limits on or before January 1, 1988 under the financial eligibility tests in these regulations on the basis of available information and such supplementary information as the Agency may request the smelter to submit; and
(3) The provisions of the NSO are consistent with the requirements of these regulations.
(b) Should EPA require a smelter to submit information before taking final action on an NSO referred to in paragraph (a), of this section, it shall specify a reasonable period for submission of such information in light of the nature of the information being required. The duration of such period shall not exceed the period allowed for submission of a complete application under §57.202 (a) and (b).
(c) The Agency shall consider the SIP emission limitation for SO2 to be suspended with respect to a smelter which received an NSO described in subpart A until EPA takes final action on such NSO. Such suspension shall terminate if the smelter does not submit supplementary information within the time specified under paragraph (b).
§ 57.205 Submission of supplementary information upon relaxation of an SO2 SIP emission limitation.
(a) In the event an SO2 SIP limit is relaxed subsequent to EPA approval or issuance of a second period NSO, the smelter issued the NSO shall submit to the issuing agency and EPA such supplementary information that EPA considers appropriate for purposes of determining whether the means of compliance with the new SIP limit are adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available under the financial eligibility tests specified in §57.102(b)(3). The smelter shall submit such information within sixty days of notification by EPA. This time limit may be extended by EPA for good cause.
(b) Upon receipt of any supplementary information required under paragraph (a), the issuing agency shall promptly reevaluate the availability of the means of compliance with the new SIP limit under the NSO eligibility tests specified in §57.102(b)(3). If the issuing agency determines that the demonstrated control technology necessary to attain the new SO2 SIP limit is adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available under the eligibility tests, so as to permit the smelter to comply with the new SIP limit on or before January 1, 1988, the NSO shall be amended within the time contemplated by §57.202(a) after receipt of the supplementary information. Such amendment shall require compliance with the new SO2 SIP limit as expeditiously as practicable in accordance with §57.201(d)(3). The issuing agency, if not EPA, shall promptly submit its determination and any necessary NSO amendments to EPA.
(c) EPA shall take action to approve or disapprove the issuing agency's determination and NSO amendment, if any, within a reasonable time after receipt of such determination and amendment.
(d) If EPA disapproves the issuing agency's determination or NSO amendment, or if a smelter fails to submit any supplementary information as required under paragraph (a), EPA and/or the issuing agency shall take appropriate remedial action. EPA shall take appropriate remedial action if the issuing agency does not make any determination and amendment required by this section within the time contemplated by §57.202(a).
Subpart C—Constant Controls and Related Requirements
§ 57.301 General requirements.
Each NSO shall require an interim level of sulfur dioxide constant controls to be operated at the smelter, unless a waiver of this requirement has been granted to the owner under subpart H of this part. Except as otherwise provided in §57.304, the interim constant controls shall be properly operated and maintained at all times. The NSO shall require the following gas streams to be treated by interim constant controls:
(a) In copper smelters, off-gases from fluidized bed roasters, flash furnaces, NORANDA reactors, electric furnaces and copper converters;
(b) In lead smelters, off-gases from the front end of the sintering machine and any other sinter gases which are recirculated;
(c) In zinc smelters, off-gases from mult-hearth roasters, flash roasters and fluidized bed roasters; and
(d) In all primary nonferrous smelters, all other strong SO2 streams.
(e) In all primary nonferrous smelters, any other process streams which were regularly or intermittently treated by constant controls at the smelter as of August 7, 1977.
§ 57.302 Performance level of interim constant controls.
(a) Maximum feasible efficiency. Each NSO shall require: that the smelter operate its interim constant control systems at their maximum feasible efficiency, including the making of any improvements necessary to correct the effects of any serious deficiencies; that the process and control equipment be maintained in the way best designed to ensure such operation; and that process operations be scheduled and coordinated to facilitate treatment of process gas streams to the maximum possible extent. Maximum feasible efficiency shall be expressed in the NSO in the form of a limitation on the concentration of SO2 in the tail gas of each individual control system in combination with an appropriate averaging period, as provided below in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.
(b) The limitation level for SO2 concentration in the control system tail gas. The level at which the concentration limitation is set shall take into account fluctuations in the strength and volume of process off-gases to the extent that those fluctuations affect the SO2 content of the tail gas and cannot be avoided by improved scheduling and coordination of process operations. The limitation shall exclude the effect of any increase in emissions caused by process or control equipment malfunction. The limitation shall take into account unavoidable catalyst deterioration in sulfuric acid plants, but may prescribe the frequency of catalyst screening or replacement. The NSO shall also prohibit the smelter owner from using dilution air to meet the limitation.
(c) Averaging period. (1) The averaging period shall be derived in combination with the concentration limitation and shall take into account the same factors described in paragraph (b). The averaging period established under this paragraph should generally not exceed the following:
(i) For sulfuric acid plants on copper smelters, 12-hour running average;
(ii) For sulfuric acid plants on lead smelters, 6-hour running average;
(iii) For sulfuric acid plants on zinc smelters, 2-hour running average;
(iv) For dimethylaniline (DMA) scrubbing units on copper smelters, 2-hour running average.
(2) A different averaging period may be established if the applicant demonstrates that such a period is necessary in order to account for the factors described in paragraph (b) of this section: Provided, that the period is enforceable and satisfies the criteria of paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Improved performance. (1) The performance level representing maximum feasible efficiency for any existing control system (e.g., a sulfuric acid plant or a DMA scrubber) shall require the correction of the effects of any serious deficiencies in the system. For the purpose of this paragraph, at least the following problems shall constitute serious deficiencies in acid plants:
(i) Heat exchangers and associated equipment inadequate to sustain efficient, autothermal operation at the average gas strengths and volumes received by the acid plant during routine process equipment operation;
(ii) Failure to completely fill all available catalyst bed stages with sufficient catalyst;
(iii) Inability of the gas pre-treatment system to prevent unduly frequent plugging or fouling (deterioration) of catalyst or other components of the acid plant; or
(iv) Blower capacity inadequate to permit the treatment of the full volume of gas which the plant could otherwise accommodate, or in-leakage of air into the flues leading to the plant, to the extent that this inadequacy results in bypassing of gas around the plant.
(2) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of §57.304(c) (malfunction demonstration), no excess emissions (as defined in §57.304(a)) shall be considered to have resulted from a malfunction in the constant control system if the smelter owner has not upgraded serious deficiencies in the constant control system in compliance with the requirements of §57.302(d)(1), unless the smelter owner demonstrates under §57.304(c) that compliance with those requirements would not have affected the magnitude of the emission.
(e) Multiple control devices. (1) At any smelter where off-gas streams are treated by various existing control systems (e.g., multiple acid plants or a DMA scrubber and an acid plant), the NSO shall require the use of those systems in the combination that will result in the maximum feasible net SO2 removal.
(2) To the extent that compliance with this requirement is demonstrated by the smelter operator to result in excess emissions during unavoidable start up and shut down of the control systems, those excess emissions shall not constitute violations of the NSO.
§ 57.303 Total plantwide emission limitation.
(a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in §57.103(r)) as of August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as the sum of uncontrolled process and fugitive emissions, and emissions from any control systems (operating at the efficiency prescribed under §57.302). These emission rates may be derived from either direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations.
(b) Compliance with the emission limitation. Each NSO shall require the use of specific, enforceable testing methods and measurement periods for determining compliance with the limitation established under paragraph (a) of this section.
§ 57.304 Bypass, excess emissions and malfunctions.
(a) Definition of excess emissions. For the purposes of this subpart, any emissions greater than those permitted by the NSO provisions established under §57.302 (performance level of interim constant controls) or §57.303 (plantwide emission limitation) of this subpart shall constitute excess emissions. Emission of any gas stream identified under §57.301 (a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) of this subpart that is not treated by a sulfur dioxide constant control system shall also constitute an excess emission under this subpart.
(b) The excess emission report. Each NSO shall require the smelter to report all excess emissions to the issuing agency, as provided in §57.305(b). The report shall include the following:
(1) Identity of the stack or other emission points where the excess emissions occurred;
(2) Magnitude of the excess emissions expressed in the units of each applicable emission limitation, as well as the operating data, documents, and calculations used in determining the magnitude of the excess emissions;
(3) Time and duration of the excess emissions;
(4) Identity of the equipment causing the excess emissions;
(5) Nature and cause of such excess emissions;
(6) Steps taken to limit the excess emissions, and when those steps were commenced;
(7) If the excess emissions were the result of a malfunction, the steps taken to remedy the malfunction and to prevent the recurrence of such malfunction; and
(8) At the smelter owner's election, the demonstration specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
(c) Malfunction demonstration. Except as provided in §57.302(e)(2) or in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section, any excess emission shall be a violation of the NSO unless the owner demonstrates in the excess emissions report required under paragraph (b) of this section that the excess emission resulted from a malfunction (or an unavoidable start up and shut down resulting from a malfunction) and that:
(1) The air pollution control systems, process equipment, or processes were at all times maintained and operated, to the maximum extent practicable, in a manner consistent with good practice for minimizing emissions;
(2) Repairs were made as expeditiously as practicable, including the use of off-shift labor and overtime;
(3) The amount and duration of the excess emissions were minimized to the maximum extent practicable during periods of such emissions; and
(4) The excess emissions were not part of a recurring pattern indicative of serious deficiencies in, or inadequate operation, design, or maintenance of, the process or control equipment.
(d) Scheduled maintenance exception. Excess emissions occurring during scheduled maintenance shall not constitute violations of the NSO to the extent that:
(1) The expected additional annual sulfur dioxide removal by any control system (including associated process changes) for which construction had not commenced (as defined in 40 CFR 60.2 (g) and (i)) as of August 7, 1977 and which the smelter owner agrees to install and operate under subpart F, would have offset such excess emissions if the system had been in operation throughout the year in which the maintenance was performed;
(2) The system is installed and operated as provided in the NSO provisions established under subpart F; and
(3) The system performs at substantially the expected efficiency and reliability subsequent to its initial break-in period.
(e) An NSO may provide that excess emissions which occur during acid plant start-up as the result of the cooling of acid plant catalyst due to the unavailability of process gas to an acid plant during a prolonged SCS curtailment or scheduled maintenance are not excess emissions. If the NSO does so provide, it shall also require the use of techniques or practices designed to minimize these excess emissions, such as the sealing of the acid plant during prolonged curtailments, the use of auxiliary heat or SO2 injected during the curtailment, or the preheating of the acid plant before start-up of the process equipment it serves.
(f) Requirements for a smelter with constant controls that applies for a waiver.
(1) If a smelter that has some interim constant controls applies for a waiver in accordance with subpart H, the following requirements shall apply pending action on the waiver application and following final action granting or approving a waiver:
(i) The NSO shall require the smelter to implement maintenance and operation measures designed to reduce to the maximum extent feasible the potential for bypass of existing interim constant controls.
(ii) Upon application for a waiver under subpart H, the smelter shall submit to the issuing agency for its approval and to EPA proposed maintenance and operation measures for compliance with the requirements of paragraph (i).
(iii) The remainder of this subpart shall apply except that: (A) The emission limitations required under this subpart shall be based only on existing constant control equipment as upgraded through the improved maintenance and operation required by this paragraph, and (B) bypass of existing controls shall not constitute excess emissions, provided the maintenance and operation requirements and emission limitations prescribed by the NSO are satisfied.
(2) After any denial of a waiver by the issuing Agency, or any disapproval by EPA of a waiver granted by the issuing agency, the NSO shall be amended consistent with the requirements of this subpart and §57.702.
§ 57.305 Compliance monitoring and reporting.
(a) Monitoring. (1) Each NSO shall require compliance with the control system performance requirements established pursuant to this subpart to be determined through the use of continuous monitors for measuring SO2 concentration.
(i) Such monitors must be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the performance specifications and other requirements contained in appendix D to 40 CFR part 52 or part 60. The monitors must take and record at least one measurement of SO2 concentration from the effluent of each control system in each 15-minute period. Failure of the monitors to record at least 95% of the 15-minute periods in any 30-day period shall constitute a violation of the NSO.
(ii) The sampling point shall be located at least 8 stack diameters (diameter measured at sampling point) downstream and 2 diameters upstream from any flow disturbance such as a bend, expansion, constriction, or flame, unless another location is approved by the Administrator.
(iii) The sampling point for monitoring emissions shall be in the duct at the centroid of the cross section if the cross sectional area is less than 4.645m2 (50 ft2) or at a point no closer to the wall than 0.914m (3 ft) if the cross sectional area is 4.645m2 (50 ft2) or more. The monitor sample point shall be in an area of small spatial concentration gradient and shall be representative of the concentration in the duct.
(iv) The measurement system(s) installed and used pursuant to this paragraph shall be subject to the manufacturer's recommended zero adjustment and calibration procedures at least once per 24-hour operating period unless the manufacturer specifies or recommends calibration at shorter intervals, in which case such specifications or recommendations shall be followed. Records of these procedures shall be made which clearly show instrument readings before and after zero adjustment and calibration.
(2) Each NSO shall require the monitoring of any ducts or flues used to bypass gases, required under this subpart to be treated by constant controls, around the smelter's sulfur dioxide constant control system(s) for ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. Such monitoring shall be adequate to disclose the time of the bypass, its duration, and the approximate volume and SO2 concentration of gas bypassed.
(b) Reporting. (1) Each NSO shall require that the smelter maintain a record of all measurements required under paragraph (a) of this section. Results shall be summarized monthly and shall be submitted to the issuing agency within 15 days after the end of each month. The smelter owner shall retain a record of such measurements for one year after the NSO period terminates.
(2) Each NSO shall require that the smelter maintain a record of all measurements and calculations required under §57.303(b). Results shall be summarized on a monthly basis and shall be submitted to the issuing agency at 6-month intervals. The smelter owner shall retain a record of such measurements and calculations for at least one year after the NSO terminates.
(3) The report required under §57.304(b) shall accompany the report required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Quality assurance and continuous data—(1) Quality assurance. Each NSO shall require that the smelter submit a plan for quality assurance to the issuing agency for approval and that all monitoring performed by continuous monitors shall be verified for quality assurance by the smelter. Such plans must follow current EPA guidelines for quality assurance, in order to be approvable.
(2) Continuous data. Manual source testing methods equivalent to 40 CFR part 60, appendix A shall be used to determine compliance if the continuous monitoring system malfunctions.
Subpart D—Supplementary Control System Requirements
§ 57.401 General requirements.
Except as provided in subpart E, each NSO shall require the smelter owner to preventall violations of the NAAQS in the smelter's designated liability area (DLA) through the operation of an approved supplementary control system (SCS). (continued)