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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 50—NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 50—NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.
Source: 36 FR 22384, Nov. 25, 1971, unless otherwise noted.
§ 50.1 Definitions.
(a) As used in this part, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them by the Act.
(b) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857–18571, as amended by Pub. L. 91–604).
(c) Agency means the Environmental Protection Agency.
(d) Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(e) Ambient air means that portion of the atmosphere, external to buildings, to which the general public has access.
(f) Reference method means a method of sampling and analyzing the ambient air for an air pollutant that is specified as a reference method in an appendix to this part, or a method that has been designated as a reference method in accordance with part 53 of this chapter; it does not include a method for which a reference method designation has been cancelled in accordance with §53.11 or §53.16 of this chapter.
(g) Equivalent method means a method of sampling and analyzing the ambient air for an air pollutant that has been designated as an equivalent method in accordance with part 53 of this chapter; it does not include a method for which an equivalent method designation has been cancelled in accordance with §53.11 or §53.16 of this chapter.
(h) Traceable means that a local standard has been compared and certified either directly or via not more than one intermediate standard, to a primary standard such as a National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Material (NBS SRM), or a USEPA/NBS-approved Certified Reference Material (CRM).
(i) Indian country is as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151.
[36 FR 22384, Nov. 25, 1971, as amended at 41 FR 11253, Mar. 17, 1976; 48 FR 2529, Jan. 20, 1983; 63 FR 7274, Feb. 12, 1998]
§ 50.2 Scope.
(a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards under section 109 of the Act are set forth in this part.
(b) National primary ambient air quality standards define levels of air quality which the Administrator judges are necessary, with an adequate margin of safety, to protect the public health. National secondary ambient air quality standards define levels of air quality which the Administrator judges necessary to protect the public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects of a pollutant. Such standards are subject to revision, and additional primary and secondary standards may be promulgated as the Administrator deems necessary to protect the public health and welfare.
(c) The promulgation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards shall not be considered in any manner to allow significant deterioration of existing air quality in any portion of any State or Indian country.
(d) The proposal, promulgation, or revision of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards shall not prohibit any State or Indian country from establishing ambient air quality standards for that State or area under a tribal CAA program or any portion thereof which are more stringent than the national standards.
[36 FR 22384, Nov. 25, 1971, as amended at 63 FR 7274, Feb. 12, 1998]
§ 50.3 Reference conditions.
All measurements of air quality that are expressed as mass per unit volume (e.g., micrograms per cubic meter) other than for the particulate matter (PM2.5) standards contained in §50.7 shall be corrected to a reference temperature of 25 °C and a reference pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1,013.2 millibars). Measurements of PM2.5 for purposes of comparison to the standards contained in §50.7 shall be reported based on actual ambient air volume measured at the actual ambient temperature and pressure at the monitoring site during the measurement period.
[69 FR 45595, July 30, 2004]
§ 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).
(a) The level of the annual standard is 0.030 parts per million (ppm), not to be exceeded in a calendar year. The annual arithmetic mean shall be rounded to three decimal places (fractional parts equal to or greater than 0.0005 ppm shall be rounded up).
(b) The level of the 24-hour standard is 0.14 parts per million (ppm), not to be exceeded more than once per calendar year. The 24-hour averages shall be determined from successive nonoverlapping 24-hour blocks starting at midnight each calendar day and shall be rounded to two decimal places (fractional parts equal to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up).
(c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described in appendix A to this part or by an equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
(d) To demonstrate attainment, the annual arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages must be based upon hourly data that are at least 75 percent complete in each calendar quarter. A 24-hour block average shall be considered valid if at least 75 percent of the hourly averages for the 24-hour period are available. In the event that only 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, or 23 hourly averages are available, the 24-hour block average shall be computed as the sum of the available hourly averages using 18, 19, etc. as the divisor. If fewer than 18 hourly averages are available, but the 24-hour average would exceed the level of the standard when zeros are substituted for the missing values, subject to the rounding rule of paragraph (b) of this section, then this shall be considered a valid 24-hour average. In this case, the 24-hour block average shall be computed as the sum of the available hourly averages divided by 24.
[61 FR 25579, May 22, 1996]
§ 50.5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).
(a) The level of the 3-hour standard is 0.5 parts per million (ppm), not to be exceeded more than once per calendar year. The 3-hour averages shall be determined from successive nonoverlapping 3-hour blocks starting at midnight each calendar day and shall be rounded to 1 decimal place (fractional parts equal to or greater than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up).
(b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described in appendix A of this part or by an equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
(c) To demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average must be based upon hourly data that are at least 75 percent complete in each calendar quarter. A 3-hour block average shall be considered valid only if all three hourly averages for the 3-hour period are available. If only one or two hourly averages are available, but the 3-hour average would exceed the level of the standard when zeros are substituted for the missing values, subject to the rounding rule of paragraph (a) of this section, then this shall be considered a valid 3-hour average. In all cases, the 3-hour block average shall be computed as the sum of the hourly averages divided by 3.
[61 FR 25580, May 22, 1996]
§ 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.
(a) The level of the national primary and secondary 24-hour ambient air quality standards for particulate matter is 150 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ), 24-hour average concentration. The standards are attained when the expected number of days per calendar year with a 24-hour average concentration above 150 µg/m 3 , as determined in accordance with appendix K to this part, is equal to or less than one.
(b) The level of the national primary and secondary annual standards for particulate matter is 50 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ), annual arithmetic mean. The standards are attained when the expected annual arithmetic mean concentration, as determined in accordance with appendix K to this part, is less than or equal to 50 µg/m 3 .
(c) For the purpose of determining attainment of the primary and secondary standards, particulate matter shall be measured in the ambient air as PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by:
(1) A reference method based on appendix J and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, or
(2) An equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
[52 FR 24663, July 1, 1987, as amended at 62 FR 38711, July 18, 1997; 65 FR 80779, Dec. 22, 2000]
§ 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.
(a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for particulate matter are 15.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m 3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 micrometers) by either:
(1) A reference method based on appendix L of this part and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter; or
(2) An equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
(b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean concentration, as determined in accordance with appendix N of this part, is less than or equal to 15.0 micrograms per cubic meter.
(c) The 24-hour primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the 98th percentile 24-hour concentration, as determined in accordance with appendix N of this part, is less than or equal to 65 micrograms per cubic meter.
[62 FR 38711, July 18, 1997, as amended at 69 FR 45595, July 30, 2004]
§ 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.
(a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are:
(1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour average concentration not to be exceeded more than once per year and
(2) 35 parts per million (40 milligrams per cubic meter) for a 1-hour average concentration not to be exceeded more than once per year.
(b) The levels of carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by:
(1) A reference method based on appendix C and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, or
(2) An equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
(c) An 8-hour average shall be considered valid if at least 75 percent of the hourly average for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only six (or seven) hourly averages are available, the 8-hour average shall be computed on the basis of the hours available using six (or seven) as the divisor.
(d) When summarizing data for comparision with the standards, averages shall be stated to one decimal place. Comparison of the data with the levels of the standards in parts per million shall be made in terms of integers with fractional parts of 0.5 or greater rounding up.
[50 FR 37501, Sept. 13, 1985]
§ 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
(a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by a reference method based on appendix D to this part and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, is 0.12 parts per million (235 µg/m 3 ). The standard is attained when the expected number of days per calendar year with maximum hourly average concentrations above 0.12 parts per million (235 µg/m 3 ) is equal to or less than 1, as determined by appendix H to this part.
(b) The 1-hour standards set forth in this section will remain applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of 8-hour ozone standards under §50.10. The 1-hour NAAQS set forth in paragraph (a) of this section will no longer apply to an area one year after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS pursuant to section 107 of the Clean Air Act. Area designations and classifications with respect to the 1-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81.
(c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section to determine that the 1-hour standard no longer applies to an area based on a determination that the area has attained the 1-hour standard is stayed until such time as EPA issues a final rule revising or reinstating such authority and considers and addresses in such rulemaking any comments concerning (1) which, if any, implementation activities for a revised ozone standard (including but not limited to designation and classification of areas) would need to occur before EPA would determine that the 1-hour ozone standard no longer applies to an area, and (2) the effect of revising the ozone NAAQS on the existing 1-hour ozone designations.
[62 FR 38894, July 18, 1997, as amended at 65 FR 45200, July 20, 2000; 68 FR 38163, June 26, 2003, 69 FR 23996, Apr. 30, 2004]
§ 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
(a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by a reference method based on appendix D to this part and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, is 0.08 parts per million (ppm), daily maximum 8-hour average.
(b) The 8-hour primary and secondary ozone ambient air quality standards are met at an ambient air quality monitoring site when the average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentration is less than or equal to 0.08 ppm, as determined in accordance with appendix I to this part.
[62 FR 38894, July 18, 1997]
§ 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide.
(a) The level of the national primary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide is 0.053 parts per million (100 micrograms per cubic meter), annual arithmetic mean concentration.
(b) The level of national secondary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide is 0.053 parts per million (100 micrograms per cubic meter), annual arithmetic mean concentration.
(c) The levels of the standards shall be measured by:
(1) A reference method based on appendix F and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, or
(2) An equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter.
(d) The standards are attained when the annual arithmetic mean concentration in a calendar year is less than or equal to 0.053 ppm, rounded to three decimal places (fractional parts equal to or greater than 0.0005 ppm must be rounded up). To demonstrate attainment, an annual mean must be based upon hourly data that are at least 75 percent complete or upon data derived from manual methods that are at least 75 percent complete for the scheduled sampling days in each calendar quarter.
[50 FR 25544, June 19, 1985]
§ 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.
National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method based on appendix G to this part, or by an equivalent method, are: 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter, maximum arithmetic mean averaged over a calendar quarter.
(Secs. 109, 301(a) Clean Air Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 7409, 7601(a)))
[43 FR 46258, Oct. 5, 1978]
Appendix A to Part 50—Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)
1.1 This method provides a measurement of the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air for determining compliance with the primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide) as specified in §50.4 and §50.5 of this chapter. The method is applicable to the measurement of ambient SO2 concentrations using sampling periods ranging from 30 minutes to 24 hours. Additional quality assurance procedures and guidance are provided in part 58, appendixes A and B, of this chapter and in references 1 and 2.
2.1 A measured volume of air is bubbled through a solution of 0.04 M potassium tetrachloromercurate (TCM). The SO2 present in the air stream reacts with the TCM solution to form a stable monochlorosulfonatomercurate(3) complex. Once formed, this complex resists air oxidation(4, 5) and is stable in the presence of strong oxidants such as ozone and oxides of nitrogen. During subsequent analysis, the complex is reacted with acid-bleached pararosaniline dye and formaldehyde to form an intensely colored pararosaniline methyl sulfonic acid.(6) The optical density of this species is determined spectrophotometrically at 548 nm and is directly related to the amount of SO2 collected. The total volume of air sampled, corrected to EPA reference conditions (25 °C, 760 mm Hg [101 kPa]), is determined from the measured flow rate and the sampling time. The concentration of SO2 in the ambient air is computed and expressed in micrograms per standard cubic meter (µg/std m 3 ).
3.1 The lower limit of detection of SO2 in 10 mL of TCM is 0.75 µg (based on collaborative test results).(7) This represents a concentration of 25 µg SO2/m 3 (0.01 ppm) in an air sample of 30 standard liters (short-term sampling) and a concentration of 13 µg SO2/m 3 (0.005 ppm) in an air sample of 288 standard liters (long-term sampling). Concentrations less than 25 µg SO2/m 3 can be measured by sampling larger volumes of ambient air; however, the collection efficiency falls off rapidly at low concentrations.(8, 9) Beer's law is adhered to up to 34 µg of SO2 in 25 mL of final solution. This upper limit of the analysis range represents a concentration of 1,130 µg SO2/m 3 (0.43 ppm) in an air sample of 30 standard liters and a concentration of 590 µg SO2/m 3 (0.23 ppm) in an air sample of 288 standard liters. Higher concentrations can be measured by collecting a smaller volume of air, by increasing the volume of absorbing solution, or by diluting a suitable portion of the collected sample with absorbing solution prior to analysis.
4.1 The effects of the principal potential interferences have been minimized or eliminated in the following manner: Nitrogen oxides by the addition of sulfamic acid,(10, 11) heavy metals by the addition of ethylenediamine tetracetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) and phosphoric acid,(10, 12) and ozone by time delay.(10) Up to 60 µg Fe (III), 22 µg V (V), 10 µg Cu (II), 10 µg Mn (II), and 10 µg Cr (III) in 10 mL absorbing reagent can be tolerated in the procedure.(10) No significant interference has been encountered with 2.3 µg NH3.(13)
5.0 Precision and Accuracy.
5.1 The precision of the analysis is 4.6 percent (at the 95 percent confidence level) based on the analysis of standard sulfite samples.(10)
5.2 Collaborative test results(14) based on the analysis of synthetic test atmospheres (SO2 in scrubbed air) using the 24-hour sampling procedure and the sulfite-TCM calibration procedure show that:
• The replication error varies linearly with concentration from ±2.5 µg/m 3 at concentrations of 100 µg/m 3 to ±7 µg/m 3 at concentrations of 400 µg/m 3 .
• The day-to-day variability within an individual laboratory (repeatability) varies linearly with concentration from ±18.1 µg/m 3 at levels of 100 µg/m 3 to ±50.9 µg/m 3 at levels of 400 µg/m 3 .
• The day-to-day variability between two or more laboratories (reproducibility) varies linearly with concentration from ±36.9 µg/m 3 at levels of 100 µg/m 3 to ±103.5 µ g/m 3 at levels of 400 µg/m 3 .
• The method has a concentration-dependent bias, which becomes significant at the 95 percent confidence level at the high concentration level. Observed values tend to be lower than the expected SO2 concentration level.
6.1 By sampling in a controlled temperature environment of 15°±10 °C, greater than 98.9 percent of the SO2–TCM complex is retained at the completion of sampling.(15) If kept at 5 °C following the completion of sampling, the collected sample has been found to be stable for up to 30 days.(10) The presence of EDTA enhances the stability of SO2 in the TCM solution and the rate of decay is independent of the concentration of SO2.(16)
7.1.1 Sample probe: A sample probe meeting the requirements of section 7 of 40 CFR part 58, appendix E (Teflon® or glass with residence time less than 20 sec.) is used to transport ambient air to the sampling train location. The end of the probe should be designed or oriented to preclude the sampling of precipitation, large particles, etc. A suitable probe can be constructed from Teflon® tubing connected to an inverted funnel.
7.1.2 Absorber—short-term sampling: An all glass midget impinger having a solution capacity of 30 mL and a stem clearance of 4 ±1 mm from the bottom of the vessel is used for sampling periods of 30 minutes and 1 hour (or any period considerably less than 24 hours). Such an impinger is shown in Figure 1. These impingers are commercially available from distributors such as Ace Glass, Incorporated.
7.1.3 Absorber—24-hour sampling: A polypropylene tube 32 mm in diameter and 164 mm long (available from Bel Art Products, Pequammock, NJ) is used as the absorber. The cap of the absorber must be a polypropylene cap with two ports (rubber stoppers are unacceptable because the absorbing reagent can react with the stopper to yield erroneously high SO2 concentrations). A glass impinger stem, 6 mm in diameter and 158 mm long, is inserted into one port of the absorber cap. The tip of the stem is tapered to a small diameter orifice (0.4 ±0.1 mm) such that a No. 79 jeweler's drill bit will pass through the opening but a No. 78 drill bit will not. Clearance from the bottom of the absorber to the tip of the stem must be 6 ±2 mm. Glass stems can be fabricated by any reputable glass blower or can be obtained from a scientific supply firm. Upon receipt, the orifice test should be performed to verify the orifice size. The 50 mL volume level should be permanently marked on the absorber. The assembled absorber is shown in Figure 2.
7.1.4 Moisture trap: A moisture trap constructed of a glass trap as shown in Figure 1 or a polypropylene tube as shown in Figure 2 is placed between the absorber tube and flow control device to prevent entrained liquid from reaching the flow control device. The tube is packed with indicating silica gel as shown in Figure 2. Glass wool may be substituted for silica gel when collecting short-term samples (1 hour or less) as shown in Figure 1, or for long term (24 hour) samples if flow changes are not routinely encountered.
7.1.5 Cap seals: The absorber and moisture trap caps must seal securely to prevent leaks during use. Heat-shrink material as shown in Figure 2 can be used to retain the cap seals if there is any chance of the caps coming loose during sampling, shipment, or storage.
7.1.6 Flow control device: A calibrated rotameter and needle valve combination capable of maintaining and measuring air flow to within ±2 percent is suitable for short-term sampling but may not be used for long-term sampling. A critical orifice can be used for regulating flow rate for both long-term and short-term sampling. A 22-gauge hypodermic needle 25 mm long may be used as a critical orifice to yield a flow rate of approximately 1 L/min for a 30-minute sampling period. When sampling for 1 hour, a 23-gauge hypodermic needle 16 mm in length will provide a flow rate of approximately 0.5 L/min. Flow control for a 24-hour sample may be provided by a 27-gauge hypodermic needle critical orifice that is 9.5 mm in length. The flow rate should be in the range of 0.18 to 0.22 L/min.
7.1.7 Flow measurement device: Device calibrated as specified in 9.4.1 and used to measure sample flow rate at the monitoring site.
7.1.8 Membrane particle filter: A membrane filter of 0.8 to 2 µm porosity is used to protect the flow controller from particles during long-term sampling. This item is optional for short-term sampling.
7.1.9 Vacuum pump: A vacuum pump equipped with a vacuum gauge and capable of maintaining at least 70 kPa (0.7 atm) vacuum differential across the flow control device at the specified flow rate is required for sampling.
7.1.10 Temperature control device: The temperature of the absorbing solution during sampling must be maintained at 15° ±10 °C. As soon as possible following sampling and until analysis, the temperature of the collected sample must be maintained at 5° ±5 °C. Where an extended period of time may elapse before the collected sample can be moved to the lower storage temperature, a collection temperature near the lower limit of the 15 ±10 °C range should be used to minimize losses during this period. Thermoelectric coolers specifically designed for this temperature control are available commercially and normally operate in the range of 5° to 15 °C. Small refrigerators can be modified to provide the required temperature control; however, inlet lines must be insulated from the lower temperatures to prevent condensation when sampling under humid conditions. A small heating pad may be necessary when sampling at low temperatures (<7 °C) to prevent the absorbing solution from freezing.(17)
7.1.11 Sampling train container: The absorbing solution must be shielded from light during and after sampling. Most commercially available sampler trains are enclosed in a light-proof box.
7.1.12 Timer: A timer is recommended to initiate and to stop sampling for the 24-hour period. The timer is not a required piece of equipment; however, without the timer a technician would be required to start and stop the sampling manually. An elapsed time meter is also recommended to determine the duration of the sampling period.
7.2.1 Shipping container: A shipping container that can maintain a temperature of 5° ±5 °C is used for transporting the sample from the collection site to the analytical laboratory. Ice coolers or refrigerated shipping containers have been found to be satisfactory. The use of eutectic cold packs instead of ice will give a more stable temperature control. Such equipment is available from Cole-Parmer Company, 7425 North Oak Park Avenue, Chicago, IL 60648.
7.3.1 Spectrophotometer: A spectrophotometer suitable for measurement of absorbances at 548 nm with an effective spectral bandwidth of less than 15 nm is required for analysis. If the spectrophotometer reads out in transmittance, convert to absorbance as follows:
A = absorbance, and
T = transmittance (0<=T<1).
A standard wavelength filter traceable to the National Bureau of Standards is used to verify the wavelength calibration according to the procedure enclosed with the filter. The wavelength calibration must be verified upon initial receipt of the instrument and after each 160 hours of normal use or every 6 months, whichever occurs first.
7.3.2 Spectrophotometer cells: A set of 1-cm path length cells suitable for use in the visible region is used during analysis. If the cells are unmatched, a matching correction factor must be determined according to Section 10.1.
7.3.3 Temperature control device: The color development step during analysis must be conducted in an environment that is in the range of 20° to 30 °C and controlled to ±1 °C. Both calibration and sample analysis must be performed under identical conditions (within 1 °C). Adequate temperature control may be obtained by means of constant temperature baths, water baths with manual temperature control, or temperature controlled rooms.
7.3.4 Glassware: Class A volumetric glassware of various capacities is required for preparing and standardizing reagents and standards and for dispensing solutions during analysis. These included pipets, volumetric flasks, and burets.
7.3.5 TCM waste receptacle: A glass waste receptacle is required for the storage of spent TCM solution. This vessel should be stoppered and stored in a hood at all times.
8.1.1 Distilled water: Purity of distilled water must be verified by the following procedure:(18)
• Place 0.20 mL of potassium permanganate solution (0.316 g/L), 500 mL of distilled water, and 1mL of concentrated sulfuric acid in a chemically resistant glass bottle, stopper the bottle, and allow to stand.
• If the permanganate color (pink) does not disappear completely after a period of 1 hour at room temperature, the water is suitable for use.
• If the permanganate color does disappear, the water can be purified by redistilling with one crystal each of barium hydroxide and potassium permanganate in an all glass still.
8.1.2 Absorbing reagent (0.04 M potassium tetrachloromercurate [TCM]): Dissolve 10.86 g mercuric chloride, 0.066 g EDTA, and 6.0 g potassium chloride in distilled water and dilute to volume with distilled water in a 1,000-mL volumetric flask. (Caution: Mercuric chloride is highly poisonous. If spilled on skin, flush with water immediately.) The pH of this reagent should be between 3.0 and 5.0 (10) Check the pH of the absorbing solution by using pH indicating paper or a pH meter. If the pH of the solution is not between 3.0 and 5.0, dispose of the solution according to one of the disposal techniques described in Section 13.0. The absorbing reagent is normally stable for 6 months. If a precipitate forms, dispose of the reagent according to one of the procedures described in Section 13.0.
8.2.1 Sulfamic acid (0.6%): Dissolve 0.6 g sulfamic acid in 100 mL distilled water. Perpare fresh daily.
8.2.2 Formaldehyde (0.2%): Dilute 5 mL formaldehyde solution (36 to 38 percent) to 1,000 mL with distilled water. Prepare fresh daily.
8.2.3 Stock iodine solution (0.1 N): Place 12.7 g resublimed iodine in a 250-mL beaker and add 40 g potassium iodide and 25 mL water. Stir until dissolved, transfer to a 1,000 mL volumetric flask and dilute to volume with distilled water.
8.2.4 Iodine solution (0.01 N): Prepare approximately 0.01 N iodine solution by diluting 50 mL of stock iodine solution (Section 8.2.3) to 500 mL with distilled water.
8.2.5 Starch indicator solution: Triturate 0.4 g soluble starch and 0.002 g mercuric iodide (preservative) with enough distilled water to form a paste. Add the paste slowly to 200 mL of boiling distilled water and continue boiling until clear. Cool and transfer the solution to a glass stopperd bottle.
8.2.6 1 N hydrochloric acid: Slowly and while stirring, add 86 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid to 500 mL of distilled water. Allow to cool and dilute to 1,000 mL with distilled water.
8.2.7 Potassium iodate solution: Accurately weigh to the nearest 0.1 mg, 1.5 g (record weight) of primary standard grade potassium iodate that has been previously dried at 180 °C for at least 3 hours and cooled in a dessicator. Dissolve, then dilute to volume in a 500-mL volumetric flask with distilled water.
8.2.8 Stock sodium thiosulfate solution (0.1 N): Prepare a stock solution by dissolving 25 g sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2 O3÷5H2 O) in 1,000 mL freshly boiled, cooled, distilled water and adding 0.1 g sodium carbonate to the solution. Allow the solution to stand at least 1 day before standardizing. To standardize, accurately pipet 50 mL of potassium iodate solution (Section 8.2.7) into a 500-mL iodine flask and add 2.0 g of potassium iodide and 10 mL of 1 N HCl. Stopper the flask and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Titrate the solution with stock sodium thiosulfate solution (Section 8.2.8) to a pale yellow color. Add 5 mL of starch solution (Section 8.2.5) and titrate until the blue color just disappears. Calculate the normality (Ns) of the stock sodium thiosulfate solution as follows:
M = volume of thiosulfate required in mL, and
W = weight of potassium iodate in g (recorded weight in Section 8.2.7).
8.2.9 Working sodium thiosulfate titrant (0.01 N): Accurately pipet 100 mL of stock sodium thiosulfate solution (Section 8.2.8) into a 1,000-mL volumetric flask and dilute to volume with freshly boiled, cooled, distilled water. Calculate the normality of the working sodium thiosulfate titrant (NT) as follows:
8.2.10 Standardized sulfite solution for the preparation of working sulfite-TCM solution: Dissolve 0.30 g sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) or 0.40 g sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3) in 500 mL of recently boiled, cooled, distilled water. (Sulfite solution is unstable; it is therefore important to use water of the highest purity to minimize this instability.) This solution contains the equivalent of 320 to 400 µg SO2/mL. The actual concentration of the solution is determined by adding excess iodine and back-titrating with standard sodium thiosulfate solution. To back-titrate, pipet 50 mL of the 0.01 N iodine solution (Section 8.2.4) into each of two 500-mL iodine flasks (A and B). To flask A (blank) add 25 mL distilled water, and to flask B (sample) pipet 25 mL sulfite solution. Stopper the flasks and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Prepare the working sulfite-TCM solution (Section 8.2.11) immediately prior to adding the iodine solution to the flasks. Using a buret containing standardized 0.01 N thiosulfate titrant (Section 8.2.9), titrate the solution in each flask to a pale yellow color. Then add 5 mL starch solution (Section 8.2.5) and continue the titration until the blue color just disappears.
8.2.11 Working sulfite-TCM solution: Accurately pipet 5 mL of the standard sulfite solution (Section 8.2.10) into a 250-mL volumetric flask and dilute to volume with 0.04 M TCM. Calculate the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the working solution as follows:
A = volume of thiosulfate titrant required for the blank, mL;
B = volume of thiosulfate titrant required for the sample, mL;
NT = normality of the thiosulfate titrant, from equation (3);
32,000 = milliequivalent weight of SO2, µg;
25 = volume of standard sulfite solution, mL; and
0.02 = dilution factor.
This solution is stable for 30 days if kept at 5 °C. (16) If not kept at 5 °C, prepare fresh daily.
8.2.12 Purified pararosaniline (PRA) stock solution (0.2% nominal):
184.108.40.206 Dye specifications—
• The dye must have a maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 540 nm when assayed in a buffered solution of 0.1 M sodium acetate-acetic acid;
• The absorbance of the reagent blank, which is temperature sensitive (0.015 absorbance unit/ °C), must not exceed 0.170 at 22 °C with a 1-cm optical path length when the blank is prepared according to the specified procedure;
• The calibration curve (Section 10.0) must have a slope equal to 0.030 ±0.002 absorbance unit/µg SO2 with a 1-cm optical path length when the dye is pure and the sulfite solution is properly standardized.
220.127.116.11 Preparation of stock PRA solution—A specially purified (99 to 100 percent pure) solution of pararosaniline, which meets the above specifications, is commercially available in the required 0.20 percent concentration (Harleco Co.). Alternatively, the dye may be purified, a stock solution prepared, and then assayed according to the procedure as described below.(10)
18.104.22.168 Purification procedure for PRA—
1. Place 100 mL each of 1-butanol and 1 N HCl in a large separatory funnel (250-mL) and allow to equilibrate. Note: Certain batches of 1-butanol contain oxidants that create an SO2 demand. Before using, check by placing 20 mL of 1-butanol and 5 mL of 20 percent potassium iodide (KI) solution in a 50-mL separatory funnel and shake thoroughly. If a yellow color appears in the alcohol phase, redistill the 1-butanol from silver oxide and collect the middle fraction or purchase a new supply of 1-butanol.
2. Weigh 100 mg of pararosaniline hydrochloride dye (PRA) in a small beaker. Add 50 mL of the equilibrated acid (drain in acid from the bottom of the separatory funnel in 1.) to the beaker and let stand for several minutes. Discard the remaining acid phase in the separatory funnel.
3. To a 125-mL separatory funnel, add 50 mL of the equilibrated 1-butanol (draw the 1-butanol from the top of the separatory funnel in 1.). Transfer the acid solution (from 2.) containing the dye to the funnel and shake carefully to extract. The violet impurity will transfer to the organic phase.
4. Transfer the lower aqueous phase into another separatory funnel, add 20 mL of equilibrated 1-butanol, and extract again.
5. Repeat the extraction procedure with three more 10-mL portions of equilibrated 1-butanol.
6. After the final extraction, filter the acid phase through a cotton plug into a 50-mL volumetric flask and bring to volume with 1 N HCl. This stock reagent will be a yellowish red.
7. To check the purity of the PRA, perform the assay and adjustment of concentration (Section 22.214.171.124) and prepare a reagent blank (Section 11.2); the absorbance of this reagent blank at 540 nm should be less than 0.170 at 22 °C. If the absorbance is greater than 0.170 under these conditions, further extractions should be performed.
126.96.36.199 PRA assay procedure—The concentration of pararosaniline hydrochloride (PRA) need be assayed only once after purification. It is also recommended that commercial solutions of pararosaniline be assayed when first purchased. The assay procedure is as follows:(10)
1. Prepare 1 M acetate-acetic acid buffer stock solution with a pH of 4.79 by dissolving 13.61 g of sodium acetate trihydrate in distilled water in a 100-mL volumetric flask. Add 5.70 mL of glacial acetic acid and dilute to volume with distilled water.
2. Pipet 1 mL of the stock PRA solution obtained from the purification process or from a commercial source into a 100-mL volumetric flask and dilute to volume with distilled water.
3. Transfer a 5–mL aliquot of the diluted PRA solution from 2. into a 50–mL volumetric flask. Add 5mL of 1 M acetate-acetic acid buffer solution from 1. and dilute the mixture to volume with distilled water. Let the mixture stand for 1 hour.
4. Measure the absorbance of the above solution at 540 nm with a spectrophotometer against a distilled water reference. Compute the percentage of nominal concentration of PRA by
A = measured absorbance of the final mixture (absorbance units);
W = weight in grams of the PRA dye used in the assay to prepare 50 mL of stock solution (for example, 0.100 g of dye was used to prepare 50 mL of solution in the purification procedure; when obtained from commercial sources, use the stated concentration to compute W; for 98% PRA, W=.098 g.); and
K = 21.3 for spectrophotometers having a spectral bandwidth of less than 15 nm and a path length of 1 cm.
8.2.13 Pararosaniline reagent: To a 250–mL volumetric flask, add 20 mL of stock PRA solution. Add an additional 0.2 mL of stock solution for each percentage that the stock assays below 100 percent. Then add 25 mL of 3 M phosphoric acid and dilute to volume with distilled water. The reagent is stable for at least 9 months. Store away from heat and light.
9.0 Sampling Procedure.
9.1 General Considerations. Procedures are described for short-term sampling (30-minute and 1-hour) and for long-term sampling (24-hour). Different combinations of absorbing reagent volume, sampling rate, and sampling time can be selected to meet special needs. For combinations other than those specifically described, the conditions must be adjusted so that linearity is maintained between absorbance and concentration over the dynamic range. Absorbing reagent volumes less than 10 mL are not recommended. The collection efficiency is above 98 percent for the conditions described; however, the efficiency may be substantially lower when sampling concentrations below 25 µ?SO2/m 3 .(8,9)
9.2 30-Minute and 1-Hour Sampling. Place 10 mL of TCM absorbing reagent in a midget impinger and seal the impinger with a thin film of silicon stopcock grease (around the ground glass joint). Insert the sealed impinger into the sampling train as shown in Figure 1, making sure that all connections between the various components are leak tight. Greaseless ball joint fittings, heat shrinkable Teflon® tubing, or Teflon® tube fittings may be used to attain leakfree conditions for portions of the sampling train that come into contact with air containing SO2. Shield the absorbing reagent from direct sunlight by covering the impinger with aluminum foil or by enclosing the sampling train in a light-proof box. Determine the flow rate according to Section 9.4.2. Collect the sample at 1 ±0.10 L/min for 30-minute sampling or 0.500 ±0.05 L/min for 1-hour sampling. Record the exact sampling time in minutes, as the sample volume will later be determined using the sampling flow rate and the sampling time. Record the atmospheric pressure and temperature.
9.3 24-Hour Sampling. Place 50 mL of TCM absorbing solution in a large absorber, close the cap, and, if needed, apply the heat shrink material as shown in Figure 3. Verify that the reagent level is at the 50 mL mark on the absorber. Insert the sealed absorber into the sampling train as shown in Figure 2. At this time verify that the absorber temperature is controlled to 15 ±10 °C. During sampling, the absorber temperature must be controlled to prevent decomposition of the collected complex. From the onset of sampling until analysis, the absorbing solution must be protected from direct sunlight. Determine the flow rate according to Section 9.4.2. Collect the sample for 24 hours from midnight to midnight at a flow rate of 0.200 ±0.020 L/min. A start/stop timer is helpful for initiating and stopping sampling and an elapsed time meter will be useful for determining the sampling time.
9.4 Flow Measurement.
9.4.1 Calibration: Flow measuring devices used for the on-site flow measurements required in 9.4.2 must be calibrated against a reliable flow or volume standard such as an NBS traceable bubble flowmeter or calibrated wet test meter. Rotameters or critical orifices used in the sampling train may be calibrated, if desired, as a quality control check, but such calibration shall not replace the on-site flow measurements required by 9.4.2. In-line rotameters, if they are to be calibrated, should be calibrated in situ, with the appropriate volume of solution in the absorber.
9.4.2 Determination of flow rate at sampling site: For short-term samples, the standard flow rate is determined at the sampling site at the initiation and completion of sample collection with a calibrated flow measuring device connected to the inlet of the absorber. For 24-hour samples, the standard flow rate is determined at the time the absorber is placed in the sampling train and again when the absorber is removed from the train for shipment to the analytical laboratory with a calibrated flow measuring device connected to the inlet of the sampling train. The flow rate determination must be made with all components of the sampling system in operation (e.g., the absorber temperature controller and any sample box heaters must also be operating). Equation 6 may be used to determine the standard flow rate when a calibrated positive displacement meter is used as the flow measuring device. Other types of calibrated flow measuring devices may also be used to determine the flow rate at the sampling site provided that the user applies any appropriate corrections to devices for which output is dependent on temperature or pressure.
Qstd = flow rate at standard conditions, std L/min (25 °C and 760 mm Hg);
Qact = flow rate at monitoring site conditions, L/min;
Pb = barometric pressure at monitoring site conditions, mm Hg or kPa;
RH = fractional relative humidity of the air being measured;
PH2O = vapor pressure of water at the temperature of the air in the flow or volume standard, in the same units as Pb, (for wet volume standards only, i.e., bubble flowmeter or wet test meter; for dry standards, i.e., dry test meter, PH2O=0);
Pstd = standard barometric pressure, in the same units as Pb (760 mm Hg or 101 kPa); and
Tmeter = temperature of the air in the flow or volume standard, °C (e.g., bubble flowmeter).
If a barometer is not available, the following equation may be used to determine the barometric pressure:
H = sampling site elevation above sea level in meters.
If the initial flow rate (Qi) differs from the flow rate of the critical orifice or the flow rate indicated by the flowmeter in the sampling train (Qc) by more than 5 percent as determined by equation (8), check for leaks and redetermine Qi.
Invalidate the sample if the difference between the initial (Qi) and final (Qf) flow rates is more than 5 percent as determined by equation (9):
9.5 Sample Storage and Shipment. Remove the impinger or absorber from the sampling train and stopper immediately. Verify that the temperature of the absorber is not above 25 °C. Mark the level of the solution with a temporary (e.g., grease pencil) mark. If the sample will not be analyzed within 12 hours of sampling, it must be stored at 5° ±5 °C until analysis. Analysis must occur within 30 days. If the sample is transported or shipped for a period exceeding 12 hours, it is recommended that thermal coolers using eutectic ice packs, refrigerated shipping containers, etc., be used for periods up to 48 hours. (17) Measure the temperature of the absorber solution when the shipment is received. Invalidate the sample if the temperature is above 10 °C. Store the sample at 5° ±5 °C until it is analyzed.
10.0 Analytical Calibration.
10.1 Spectrophotometer Cell Matching. If unmatched spectrophotometer cells are used, an absorbance correction factor must be determined as follows:
1. Fill all cells with distilled water and designate the one that has the lowest absorbance at 548 nm as the reference. (This reference cell should be marked as such and continually used for this purpose throughout all future analyses.)
2. Zero the spectrophotometer with the reference cell.
3. Determine the absorbance of the remaining cells (Ac) in relation to the reference cell and record these values for future use. Mark all cells in a manner that adequately identifies the correction.
The corrected absorbance during future analyses using each cell is determining as follows:
A = corrected absorbance,
Aobs = uncorrected absorbance, and
Ac = cell correction.
10.2 Static Calibration Procedure (Option 1). Prepare a dilute working sulfite-TCM solution by diluting 10 mL of the working sulfite-TCM solution (Section 8.2.11) to 100 mL with TCM absorbing reagent. Following the table below, accurately pipet the indicated volumes of the sulfite-TCM solutions into a series of 25-mL volumetric flasks. Add TCM absorbing reagent as indicated to bring the volume in each flask to 10 mL.
Volume of Total
sulfite- Volume of µg
Sulfite-TCM solution TCM TCM, mL SO2
Working................................ 4.0 6.0 28.8
Working................................ 3.0 7.0 21.6
Working................................ 2.0 8.0 14.4
Dilute working......................... 10.0 0.0 7.2
Dilute working......................... 5.0 5.0 3.6
0.0 10.0 0.0
*Based on working sulfite-TCM solution concentration of 7.2 µg SO2/
mL; the actual total µg SO2 must be calculated using equation 11
To each volumetric flask, add 1 mL 0.6% sulfamic acid (Section 8.2.1), accurately pipet 2 mL 0.2% formaldehyde solution (Section 8.2.2), then add 5 mL pararosaniline solution (Section 8.2.13). Start a laboratory timer that has been set for 30 minutes. Bring all flasks to volume with recently boiled and cooled distilled water and mix thoroughly. The color must be developed (during the 30-minute period) in a temperature environment in the range of 20° to 30 °C, which is controlled to ±1 °C. For increased precision, a constant temperature bath is recommended during the color development step. After 30 minutes, determine the corrected absorbance of each standard at 548 nm against a distilled water reference (Section 10.1). Denote this absorbance as (A). Distilled water is used in the reference cell rather than the reagant blank because of the temperature sensitivity of the reagent blank. Calculate the total micrograms SO2 in each solution:
VTCM/SO2 = volume of sulfite-TCM solution used, mL;
CTCM/SO2 = concentration of sulfur dioxide in the working sulfite-TCM, µg SO2/mL (from equation 4); and
D = dilution factor (D = 1 for the working sulfite-TCM solution; D = 0.1 for the diluted working sulfite-TCM solution).
A calibration equation is determined using the method of linear least squares (Section 12.1). The total micrograms SO2 contained in each solution is the x variable, and the corrected absorbance (eq. 10) associated with each solution is the y variable. For the calibration to be valid, the slope must be in the range of 0.030 ±0.002 absorbance unit/µg SO2, the intercept as determined by the least squares method must be equal to or less than 0.170 absorbance unit when the color is developed at 22 °C (add 0.015 to this 0.170 specification for each °C above 22 °C) and the correlation coefficient must be greater than 0.998. If these criteria are not met, it may be the result of an impure dye and/or an improperly standardized sulfite-TCMsolution. A calibration factor (Bs) is determined by calculating the reciprocal of the slope and is subsequently used for calculating the sample concentration (Section 12.3). (continued)
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