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United States Regulations
40 CFR PART 2—PUBLIC INFORMATION
Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 2—PUBLIC INFORMATION
Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301, 552 (as amended), 553; secs. 114, 205, 208, 301, and 307, Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7414, 7525, 7542, 7601, 7607); secs. 308, 501 and 509(a), Clean Water Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1318, 1361, 1369(a)); sec. 13, Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4912); secs. 1445 and 1450, Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300j–4, 300j–9); secs. 2002, 3007, and 9005, Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6912, 6927, 6995); secs. 8(c), 11, and 14, Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2607(c), 2610, 2613); secs. 10, 12, and 25, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 136h, 136j, 136w); sec. 408(f), Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 346(f)); secs. 104(f) and 108, Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1414(f), 1418); secs. 104 and 115, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (42 U.S.C. 9604 and 9615); sec. 505, Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 2005).
Source: 41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act
Source: 67 FR 67307, Nov. 5, 2002, unless otherwise noted.
§ 2.100 General provisions.
(a) This subpart contains the rules that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) follows in processing requests for records under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552. The Agency also has rules that it follows in processing Freedom of Information (FOI) requests for records submitted to it as Confidential Business Information (CBI). Such records are covered in subpart B of this part. Requests made by individuals for records about themselves under the Privacy Act of 1974 which are processed under 40 CFR part 16, will also be treated as FOIA requests under this subpart. This ensures that the requestor has access to all responsive records. Information routinely provided to the public as part of a regular EPA activity may be provided to the public without following this subpart.
(b) When documents responsive to a request are maintained for distribution by agencies operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as, but not limited to, the Government Printing Office or the National Technical Information Service, EPA will inform the requester of the steps necessary to obtain records from these sources.
§ 2.101 Where requests for records are to be filed.
(a) You may request records by writing to the Records, FOIA, and Privacy Branch, Office of Environmental Information, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue (2822T), NW, Washington, DC 20460; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also access EPA Headquarters and Regional Freedom of Information Offices' Web sites at http://www.epa.gov/foia and submit a request via an online form. If you believe the records sought may be located in an EPA regional office, you should send your request to the appropriate regional FOI Officer as indicated in the following list:
(1) Region I (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT): EPA, FOI Officer, One Congress Street, Suite 1100, Boston, MA 02114–2023; e-mail: email@example.com.
(2) Region II (NJ, NY, PR, VI): EPA, FOI Officer, 290 Broadway, 26th Floor, New York, NY 10007–1866; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(3) Region III (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV): EPA, FOI Officer, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103–2029; e-mail: email@example.com.
(4) Region IV (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, Sam Nunn Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, GA 30303–8960; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(5) Region V (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI): EPA. Freedom of Information Officer, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604–3507; e-mail: email@example.com.
(6) Region VI (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202–2733; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(7) Region VII (IA, KS, MO, NE): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, 901 North Fifth Street, Kansas City, KS 66101; e-mail: email@example.com.
(8) Region VIII (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, CO 80202–2466, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(9) Region IX (AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105; e-mail: email@example.com.
(10) Region X (AK, ID, OR, WA): EPA, Freedom of Information Officer, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(b) EPA provides access to all records that the FOIA requires an agency to make regularly available for public inspection and copying. Each office is responsible for determining which of the records it generates are required to be made publicly available and for providing access by the public to them. The Agency will also maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of such records and provide a copy or a link to the respective Web site for Headquarters or the Regions. Each index will be updated regularly, at least quarterly, with respect to newly-included records.
(c) All records created by EPA on or after November 1, 1996, which the FOIA requires an agency to make regularly available for public inspection and copying, will be made available electronically through EPA's worldwide Web site, located at http://www.epa.gov, or, upon request, through other electronic means. EPA will also include on its worldwide Web site the current subject-matter index of all such records.
§ 2.102 Procedures for making requests.
(a) How made and addressed. You may make a request for EPA records that are not publicly available under §2.201(a)–(b) by writing directly to the appropriate FOI Officer, as listed in §2.101(a). Only written requests for records will be accepted for processing under this subpart. For records located at EPA Headquarters, or in those instances when you cannot determine where to send your request, you may send it to the Records, FOIA, and Privacy Branch, Office of Environmental Information, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; e-mail: email@example.com. That office will forward your request to the regional FOI Office it believes most likely to have the records that you want. Your request will be considered received as of the date it is received by the correct FOI Office. Misdirected requests will not be considered received by EPA until the appropriate FOI Office receives the request. For proper handling, you should mark both your request letter and its envelope or e-mail subject line “Freedom of Information Act Request.” You should also include your name, mailing address, and daytime telephone number in the event we need to contact you.
(b) EPA employees may attempt in good faith to comply with oral requests for inspection or disclosure of EPA records publicly available under §2.201(a)–(b) , but such requests are not subject to the FOIA or the regulations in this part.
(c) Description of records sought. Your request should reasonably describe the records you are seeking in a way that will permit EPA employees to identify and locate them. Whenever possible, your request should include specific information about each record sought, such as the date, title or name, author, recipient, and subject matter. If known, you should include any file designations or descriptions for the records that you want. The more specific you are about the records or type of records that you want, the more likely EPA will be able to identify and locate records responsive to your request. If EPA determines that your request does not reasonably describe the records, it will tell you either what additional information you need to provide or why your request is otherwise insufficient. EPA will also give you an opportunity to discuss and modify your request to meet the requirements of this section. Should it be necessary for you to provide a revised description of the records you are seeking, the time necessary to do so will be excluded from the statutory 20 working day period (or any authorized extension of time) that EPA has to respond to your request as discussed in §2.104.
(d) Agreement to pay fees. If you make a FOIA request, EPA will consider your request to be an agreement that you will pay all applicable fees charged under §2.107, up to $25.00, unless you seek a waiver of fees. The EPA office responsible for responding to your request ordinarily will confirm this agreement in writing. When making a request, you may specify a willingness to pay a greater or lesser amount. Should it be necessary for you to provide a written agreement to pay additional fees, the time necessary to do so will be excluded from the statutory 20 working day period (or any authorized extension of time).
§ 2.103 Responsibility for responding to requests.
(a) In general. Except as stated in paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section, the EPA office that has possession of that record is the office responsible for responding to you. In determining which records are within the scope of a request, an office will ordinarily include only those records in its possession as of the date the request was received in the Headquarters or Regional FOI Office. If any other date is used, the office will inform you of that date.
(b) Authority to grant or deny requests. The head of an office, or that individual's designee, is authorized to grant or deny any request for a record of that office or other Agency records when appropriate.
(c) Authority to grant or deny fee waivers or requests for expedited treatment. The head of the Headquarters FOIA Office and Regional FOI Officers, or their designees, are authorized to grant or deny fee waivers or requests for expedited treatment.
(d) Consultations and referrals. When a request to EPA seeks records in its possession that originated with another Federal agency, the EPA office receiving the request shall either:
(1) Consult with the Federal agency where the record or portion thereof originated and then respond to your request, or
(2) Direct the FOI Office to refer your request to the Federal agency where the record or portion thereof originated. Whenever all or any part of the responsibility for responding to a request has been referred to another agency, the FOI Office will notify you accordingly.
(e) Law enforcement information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that relates to an investigation of a possible violation of law and was originated by another agency, the receiving office will either direct the FOI Office to refer the request to that other agency or consult with that other agency prior to making any release determination.
§ 2.104 Responses to requests and appeals.
(a) Unless the Agency and the requester have agreed otherwise, or when unusual circumstances exist as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, EPA offices will respond to requests no later than 20 working days from the date the request is received and logged in by the appropriate FOI Office. EPA will ordinarily respond to requests in the order in which they were received. If EPA fails to respond to your request within the 20 working day period, or any authorized extension of time, you may seek judicial review to obtain the records without first making an administrative appeal.
(b) On receipt of a request, the FOI Office ordinarily will send a written acknowledgment advising you of the date it was received and of the processing number assigned to the request for future reference.
(c) Multitrack processing. The Agency uses three or more processing tracks by distinguishing between simple and complex requests based on the amount of work and/or time needed to process the request, including limits based on the number of pages involved. The Agency will advise you of the processing track in which your request has been placed and of the limits of the different processing tracks. The Agency may place your request in its slower track(s) while providing you the opportunity to limit the scope of your request in order to qualify for faster processing within the specified limits of the faster track(s). If your request is placed in a slower track, the Agency will contact you either by telephone or by letter, whichever is most efficient in each case.
(d) Unusual circumstances. When the statutory time limits for processing a request cannot be met because of “unusual circumstances,” as defined in the FOIA, and the time limits are extended on that basis, you will be notified in writing, as soon as practicable, of the unusual circumstances and of the date by which processing of the request should be completed. When the extension is for more than 10 working days, the Agency will provide you with an opportunity either to modify the request so that it may be processed within the 10 working day time limit extension or to arrange an alternative time period for processing the original or modified request.
(e) Expedited processing. (1) Requests or appeals will be taken out of order and given expedited treatment whenever EPA determines that such requests or appeals involve a compelling need, as follows:
(i) Circumstances in which the lack of expedited treatment could reasonably be expected to pose an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual; or
(ii) An urgency to inform the public about an actual or alleged Federal government activity, if the information is requested by a person primarily engaged in disseminating information to the public.
(2) A request for expedited processing must be made at the time of the initial request for records or at the time of appeal.
(3) If you are seeking expedited processing, you must submit a statement, certified to be true and correct to the best of your knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis for the request. For example, if you fit within the category described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section and are not a full-time member of the news media, you must establish that you are a person whose primary professional activity or occupation is information dissemination, although it need not be your sole occupation. If you fit within the category described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, you must also establish a particular urgency to inform the public about the government activity involved in the request, beyond the public's right to know about government activity generally.
(4) Within 10 calendar days from the date of your request for expedited processing, the head of the Headquarters FOI Staff or Regional FOI Officer will decide whether to grant your request and will notify you of the decision. If your request for expedited treatment is granted, the request will be given priority and will be processed as soon as practicable. If your request for expedited processing is denied, any appeal of that decision will be acted on expeditiously.
(f) Grants of requests. Once an office makes a determination to grant a request in whole or in part, it will release the records or parts of records to you and notify you of any applicable fee charged under §2.107. Records released in part will be annotated, whenever technically feasible, with the applicable FOIA exemption(s) at that part of the record from which the exempt information was deleted.
(g) Adverse determinations of requests. Once the Agency makes an adverse determination of a request, the requestor will be notified of that determination in writing. An adverse determination consists of a determination to withhold any requested record in whole or in part; a determination that a requested record does not exist or cannot be located; a determination that what has been requested is not a record subject to the FOIA; a determination on any disputed fee matter, including a denial of a request for a fee waiver; or a denial of a request for expedited treatment.
(h) Initial denials of requests. The Deputy Administrator, Assistant Administrators, Regional Administrators, the General Counsel, the Inspector General, Associate Administrators, and heads of headquarters staff offices are delegated the authority to issue initial determinations. However, the authority to issue initial denials of requests for existing, located records (other than initial denials based solely on §2.204(d)(1)) may be redelegated only to persons occupying positions not lower than division director or equivalent. Each letter will include:
(1) The name and title or position of the person responsible for the denial;
(2) A brief statement of the reason(s) for the denial, including an identification of records being withheld (individual, or if a large number of similar records are being denied, by described category), and any FOIA exemption applied by the office in denying the request;
(3) An estimate of the volume of records or information withheld, in number of pages or in some other reasonable form of estimation. This estimate does not need to be provided if the volume is otherwise indicated through annotated deletions on records disclosed in part, or if providing an estimate would harm an interest protected by an applicable exemption; and
(4) A statement that the denial may be appealed under, and a description of the requirements of, paragraph (j) of this section.
(i) Denial of fee waiver. The letter denying a request for a fee waiver or expedited treatment will be signed by the head of the Headquarters FOI Staff or Regional FOI Officers.
(j) Appeals of adverse determinations. If you are dissatisfied with any adverse determination of your request by an office, you may appeal that determination to the Headquarters Freedom of Information Staff, Records, Privacy and FOIA Branch, Office of Information Collection, Office of Environmental Information, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue (2822T), NW., Washington, DC 20460; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The appeal must be made in writing, and it must be submitted to the Headquarters FOI Staff no later than 30 calendar days from the date of the letter denying the request. The Agency will not consider appeals received after the 30-day limit. The appeal letter may include as much or as little related information as you wish, as long as it clearly identifies the determination being appealed (including the assigned FOIA request number, if known). For quickest possible handling, the appeal letter and its envelope should be marked “Freedom of Information Act Appeal.” Unless the Administrator directs otherwise, the General Counsel or his/her designee will act on behalf of the Administrator on all appeals under this section, except that:
(1) In the case of an adverse initial determination by the General Counsel or his/her designee, the Administrator or his/her designee will act on the appeal;
(2) The Counsel to the Inspector General will act on any appeal where the Inspector General or his/her designee has made the initial adverse determination; however, if the Counsel to the Inspector General has signed the initial adverse determination, the General Counsel or his/her designee will act on the appeal;
(3) An adverse determination by the Administrator on an initial request will serve as the final action of the Agency; and
(4) If a requester seeks judicial review because the Agency has not responded in a timely manner, any further action on an appeal will take place through the lawsuit.
(k) The decision on your appeal will be made in writing, normally within 20 working days of its receipt by the Headquarters Freedom of Information Staff. A decision affirming an adverse determination in whole or in part will contain a statement of the reason(s) for the decision, including any FOIA exemption(s) applied, and inform you of the FOIA provisions for judicial review of the decision. If the adverse determination is reversed or modified on appeal, you will be notified in a written decision. This written decision will either have the requested information that has been determined on appeal to be releasable attached to it, or your request will be returned to the appropriate office so that it may be reprocessed in accordance with the appeal decision.
(l) If you wish to seek judicial review of any adverse determination, you must first appeal that adverse determination under this section, except when EPA has not responded to your request within the statutory 20 working day time limit. In such cases, you may seek judicial review without making an administrative appeal.
§ 2.105 Exemption categories.
(a) The FOIA, 5 U.S.C. 552(b), establishes the following nine categories of information which are exempt from the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a):
(1)(i) Specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive Order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy; and
(ii) Are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive order;
(2) Related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency;
(3) Specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than 5 U.S.C. 552(b)), provided that such statute:
(i) Requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue; or
(ii) Establishes particular criteria for withholding information or refers to particular types of information to be withheld;
(4) Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential;
(5) Inter-agency or intra-agency memoranda or letters which would not be available by law to a party other than an agency in litigation with the affected agency;
(6) Personnel and medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;
(7) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information:
(i) Could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings;
(ii) Would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication;
(iii) Could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;
(iv) Could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of a confidential source, including a State, local, or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of a record or information compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source;
(v) Would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions, or would disclose guidelines for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law; or
(vi) Could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety or any individual;
(8) Contained in or related to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions; or
(9) Geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells.
§ 2.106 Preservation of records.
Each FOI Officer shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the FOIA requests that it receives until disposition or destruction is authorized by title 44 of the United States Code or the National Archives and Records Administration's General Records Schedule 14. Copies of all responsive records should be maintained by the appropriate program office. Records shall not be disposed of while they are the subject of a pending request, appeal, or lawsuit under the FOIA.
§ 2.107 Fees.
(a) In general. The Agency will charge for processing requests under the FOIA in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, except where fees are limited under paragraph (d) of this section or where a waiver or reduction of fees is granted under paragraph (l) of this section. Requesters will pay fees by check or money order made payable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section:
(1) Commercial use request means a request from or on behalf of a person who seeks information for a use or purpose that furthers his/her commercial, trade, or profit interests, which can include furthering those interests through litigation. FOI Officers will determine, whenever reasonably possible, the use to which a requester will put the requested records. When it appears that the requester will put the records to a commercial use, either because of the nature of the request itself or because an office has reasonable cause to doubt a requester's stated use, the FOI Officer will provide the requester a reasonable opportunity to submit further clarification.
(2) Direct costs means those expenses that the Agency actually incurs in searching for and duplicating (and, in the case of commercial use requests, reviewing) records to respond to a FOIA request. Direct costs include, for example, the salary of the employee performing the work and the cost of operating duplication equipment. Not included in direct costs are overhead expenses such as the costs of space and heating or lighting of the facility in which the records are kept.
(3) Duplication means the making of a copy of a record, or of the information contained in it, necessary to respond to a FOIA request. Copies can take the form of paper, microform, audiovisual materials, or electronic records (for example, magnetic tape, disk, or compact disk), among others. The Agency will honor a requester's specified preference of form or format of disclosure if the record is readily reproducible with reasonable efforts in the requested form or format.
(4) Educational institution means a preschool, a public or private elementary or secondary school, an institution of undergraduate higher education, an institution of graduate higher education, an institution of professional education, or an institution of vocational education, that operates a program of scholarly research. To be in this category, a requester must show that the request is authorized by, and is made under the auspices of, a qualifying institution and that the records are not sought for a commercial use but are sought to further scholarly research.
(5) Noncommercial scientific institution means an institution that is not operated on a “commercial” basis, as that term is defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and that is operated solely for the purpose of conducting scientific research which is not intended to promote any particular product or industry. To be in this category, a requester must show that the request is authorized by, and is made under the auspices of, a qualifying institution and that the records are not sought for a commercial use but are sought to further scientific research.
(6) Representative of the news media or news media requester means any person actively gathering news for an entity that is organized and operated to publish or broadcast news to the public. The term “news” means information that is about current events or that would be of current interest to the public. Examples of news media include television or radio stations broadcasting to the public at large and publishers of periodicals (but only in those instances where they can qualify as disseminators of “news”) who make their products available for purchase or subscription by the general public. For “freelance” journalists to be regarded as working for a news organization, they must demonstrate a solid basis for expecting publication through that organization. A publication contract would be the clearest proof, but FOI Officers will also look to the past publication record of a requester in making this determination. To be in this category, a requester must not be seeking the requested records for a commercial use. A request for records supporting the news-dissemination function of the requester will not be considered to be for a commercial use.
(7) Review means the examination of a record located in response to a request in order to determine whether any portion of it is exempt from disclosure. It also includes processing any record for disclosure (for example, doing all that is necessary to redact it and prepare it for disclosure). Review costs are recoverable even if a record ultimately is not disclosed. Review time includes time spent considering any formal objection to disclosure made by a business submitter requesting confidential treatment, but does not include time spent resolving general legal or policy issues regarding the application of exemptions.
(8) Search means the process of looking for and retrieving records or information responsive to a request. It includes page-by-page or line-by-line identification of information within records and also includes reasonable efforts to locate and retrieve information from records maintained in electronic form or format. Offices will ensure that searches are done in the most efficient and least expensive manner reasonably possible. For example, offices will not search line-by-line where duplicating an entire document would be quicker and less expensive.
(c) Fees to be charged. (1) There are four categories of requests. Fees for each of these categories will be charged as follows:
(i) Commercial use requests. A requester seeking access to records for a commercial use will be charged for the time spent searching for the records, reviewing the records for possible disclosure, and for the cost of each page of duplication. The charges for searching for and/or reviewing the records may be charged even if no responsive records are found or if the records are located but are determined to be exempt from disclosure.
(ii) Educational or non-commercial scientific requests. Requesters from educational or scientific institutions, whose purpose is scholarly, noncommercial research, will be charged only for the cost of record duplication, except that the first 100 pages of duplication will be furnished at no charge.
(iii) News media requests. Requesters who are representatives of the news media, and whose purpose in seeking records is noncommercial, will be charged only for the cost of duplication, except that the first 100 pages of duplication will be furnished at no charge.
(iv) All other requests. Requesters not covered by one of the three categories above will be charged for the full cost of search and duplication, except that the first two hours of search time and the first 100 pages of duplication will be furnished without charge. The charges for searching for the records will be assessed even if no responsive records are found or if the records are located but are determined to be exempt from disclosure.
(2) In responding to FOIA requests, the Agency will charge the following fees unless a waiver or reduction of fees has been granted under paragraph (l) of this section:
(i) Search. (A) Search fees will be charged for all requests except for those made by educational institutions, noncommercial scientific institutions, or representatives of the news media subject to the limitations of paragraph (d) of this section. Offices will charge for time spent searching even if no responsive records are found or if the records are located but are determined to be exempt from disclosure.
(B) For searches and retrievals of requested records, either manually or electronically, conducted by clerical personnel, the fee will be $4.00 for each quarter hour of time. For searches and retrievals of requested records, either manually or electronically, requiring the use of professional personnel, the fee will be $7.00 for each quarter hour of time. For searches and retrievals of requested records, either manually or electronically, requiring the use of managerial personnel, the fee will be $10.25 for each quarter hour of time.
(C) When searches and retrievals are conducted by contractors, requesters will be charged for the actual charges up to but not exceeding the rate which would have been charged had EPA employees conducted the search. The costs of actual computer resource usage in connection with such searches will also be charged, to the extent they can be determined.
(ii) Duplication. Duplication fees will be charged to all requesters, subject to the limitations of paragraph (d) of this section. For either a photocopy or a computer-generated printout of a record (no more than one copy of which need be supplied), the fee will be fifteen (15) cents per page. For electronic forms of duplication, other than a computer-generated printout, offices will charge the direct costs of that duplication. Such direct costs will include the costs of the requested electronic medium on which the copy is to be made and the actual operator time and computer resource usage required to produce the copy, to the extent they can be determined.
(iii) Review. Review fees will be charged only to requesters who make a commercial use request. Review fees will be charged only for the initial record review (that is, the review done when an office is deciding whether an exemption applies to a particular record or portion of a record at the initial request level). No charge will be made for review at the administrative appeal level for an exemption already applied. However, records or portions of records withheld under an exemption that is subsequently determined not to apply may be reviewed again to determine whether any other exemption not previously considered applies; the costs of that review will be charged when it is made necessary by a change of circumstances. Review fees will be charged at the same rates as those charged for a search under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.
(d) Limitations on charging fees. (1) No search or review fees will be charged for requests by educational institutions, noncommercial scientific institutions, or representatives of the news media.
(2) No search fee or review fee will be charged for a quarter-hour period unless more than half of that period is required for search or review.
(3) Except for requesters seeking records for a commercial use, offices will provide without charge:
(i) The first 100 pages of duplication, and
(ii) The first two hours of search.
(4) Whenever a total fee calculated under paragraph (c) of this section is $14.00 or less for any request, no fee will be charged.
(5) The provisions of paragraphs (d)(3) and (4) of this section work together. This means that for requesters other than those seeking records for a commercial use, no fee will be charged unless the cost of search in excess of two hours plus the cost of duplication in excess of 100 pages totals more than $14.00.
(e) Notice of anticipated fees in excess of $25.00. When the Agency determines or estimates that the fees to be charged under this section will amount to more than $25.00, the Agency will notify the requester of the actual or estimated amount of the fees, unless the requester has indicated a willingness to pay fees as high as those anticipated. The amount of $25.00 is cumulative for multi-office requests. If only a portion of the fee can be estimated readily, the Agency will advise the requester that the estimated fee may be only a portion of the total fee. When a requester has been notified that actual or estimated fees will amount to more than $25.00, EPA will do no further work on the request until the requester agrees to pay the anticipated total fee. This time will be excluded from the twenty (20) working day time limit. EPA will memorialize any such agreement in writing. A notice under this paragraph will offer the requester an opportunity to discuss the matter with Agency personnel in order to reformulate the request to meet the requester's needs at a lower cost.
(f) Charges for other services. Apart from the other provisions of this section, when an office chooses as a matter of administrative discretion to provide a special service-such as certifying that records are true copies or sending records by other than ordinary mail-the direct costs of providing the service ordinarily will be charged.
(g) Charging interest. EPA may charge interest on any unpaid bill starting on the 31st day following the date of billing the requester. Interest charges will be assessed at the rate provided in 31 U.S.C. 3717 and will accrue from the date of the billing until payment is received by the Agency. EPA will follow the provisions of the Debt Collection Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97–365), as amended, and its administrative procedures, including the use of consumer reporting agencies, collection agencies, and offset. No penalty will be assessed against FOIA requesters for exercising their statutory right to ask that a fee be waived or reduced or to dispute a billing. If a fee is in dispute, penalties will be suspended upon notification.
(h) Delinquent requesters. If requesters fail to pay all fees within 60 calendar days of the fees assessment, they will be placed on a delinquency list. Subsequent FOIA requests will not be processed until payment of the overdue fees has first been made.
(i) Aggregating requests. When the Agency reasonably believes that a requester or a group of requesters acting together is attempting to divide a request into a series of requests for the purpose of avoiding fees, the Agency may aggregate those requests and charge accordingly. The Agency may presume that multiple requests of this type made within a 30-day period have been made in order to avoid fees. When requests are separated by a longer period, the Agency will aggregate them only if there exists a solid basis for determining that aggregation is warranted under all the circumstances involved. Multiple requests involving unrelated matters will not be aggregated.
(j) Advance payments. (1) For requests other than those described in paragraphs (j)(2) and (3) of this section, an office will not require the requester to make an advance payment (that is, a payment made before EPA begins or continues work on a request). Payment owed for work already completed (that is, a prepayment before copies are sent to a requester) is not an advance payment.
(2) When the Agency determines or estimates that a total fee to be charged under this section will be more than $250.00, it may require the requester to make an advance payment of an amount up to the amount of the entire anticipated fee before beginning to process the request, except when it receives a satisfactory assurance of full payment from a requester that has a history of prompt payment.
(3) When a requester has previously failed to pay a properly charged FOIA fee to the Agency within 30 calendar days of the date of billing, the Agency may require the requester to pay the full amount due, plus any applicable interest, and to make an advance payment of the full amount of any anticipated fee, before the Agency begins to process a new request or continues to process a pending request from that requester.
(4) When the Agency requires advance payment or payment due under paragraph (j)(3) of this section, the request will not be considered, and EPA will do no further work on the request until the required payment is made.
(k) Other statutes specifically providing for fees. The fee schedule of this section does not apply to fees charged under any other statute that specifically requires an agency to set and collect fees for particular types of records. When records responsive to requests are maintained for distribution by agencies operating such statutorily based fee schedule programs, EPA will inform requesters of the steps for obtaining records from those sources so that they may do so most economically.
(l) Waiver or reduction of fees. (1) Records responsive to a request will be furnished without charge or at a charge reduced below that established under paragraph (c) of this section when a FOI Office determines, based on all available information, that disclosure of the requested information is in the public interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government and is not primarily in the commercial interest of the requester.
(2) To determine whether the first fee waiver requirement is met, FOI Offices will consider the following factors:
(i) The subject of the request: Whether the subject of the requested records concerns “the operations or activities of the government.” The subject of the requested records must concern identifiable operations or activities of the Federal government, with a connection that is direct and clear, not remote.
(ii) The informative value of the information to be disclosed: Whether the disclosure is “likely to contribute” to an understanding of government operations or activities. The disclosable portions of the requested records must be meaningfully informative about government operations or activities in order to be “likely to contribute” to an increased public understanding of those operations or activities. The disclosure of information that already is in the public domain, in either a duplicative or a substantially identical form, would not be as likely to contribute to such understanding when nothing new would be added to the public's understanding.
(iii) The contribution to an understanding of the subject by the public is likely to result from disclosure: Whether disclosure of the requested information will contribute to “public understanding.” The disclosure must contribute to the understanding of a reasonably broad audience of persons interested in the subject, as opposed to the individual understanding of the requester. A requester's expertise in the subject area and ability and intention to effectively convey information to the public will be considered. It will be presumed that a representative of the news media will satisfy this consideration.
(iv) The significance of the contribution to public understanding: Whether the disclosure is likely to contribute “significantly” to public understanding of government operations or activities. The public's understanding of the subject in question, as compared to the level of public understanding existing prior to the disclosure, must be enhanced by the disclosure to a significant extent. FOI Offices will not make value judgments about whether information that would contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government is “important” enough to be made public.
(3) To determine whether the second fee waiver requirement is met, FOI Offices will consider the following factors:
(i) The existence and magnitude of a commercial interest: Whether the requester has a commercial interest that would be furthered by the requested disclosure. FOI Offices will consider any commercial interest of the requester (with reference to the definition of “commercial use request” in paragraph (b)(1) of this section), or of any person on whose behalf the requester may be acting, that would be furthered by the requested disclosure. Requesters will be given an opportunity in the administrative process to provide explanatory information regarding this consideration.
(ii) The primary interest in disclosure: Whether any identified commercial interest of the requester is sufficiently large, in comparison with the public interest in disclosure, that disclosure is “primarily in the commercial interest of the requester.” A fee waiver or reduction is justified where the public interest standard is satisfied and that public interest is greater in magnitude than that of any identified commercial interest in disclosure. FOI Offices ordinarily will presume that when a news media requester has satisfied the public interest standard, the public interest will be the interest primarily served by disclosure to that requester. Disclosure to data brokers or others who merely compile and market government information for direct economic return will not be presumed to primarily serve the public interest.
(4) When only some of the requested records satisfy the requirements for a waiver of fees, a waiver will be granted for only those records.
(5) Requests for the waiver or reduction of fees must address the factors listed in paragraphs (k) (l)–(3) of this section, insofar as they apply to each request. FOI Offices will exercise their discretion to consider the cost-effectiveness of their investment of administrative resources in deciding whether to grant waivers or reductions of fees and will consult the appropriate EPA offices as needed. Requests for the waiver or reduction of fees must be submitted along with the request.
(6) When a fee waiver request is denied, EPA will do no further work on the request until it receives an assurance of payment or an appeal of the fee waiver adverse determination is made and a final appeal determination is made pursuant to §2.104(j).
§ 2.108 Other rights and services.
Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to entitle any person, as a right, to any service or to the disclosure of any record to which such person is not entitled under the FOIA.
Subpart B—Confidentiality of Business Information
§ 2.201 Definitions.
For the purposes of this subpart:
(a) Person means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other public or private organization or legal entity, including Federal, State or local governmental bodies and agencies and their employees.
(b) Business means any person engaged in a business, trade, employment, calling or profession, whether or not all or any part of the net earnings derived from such engagement by such person inure (or may lawfully inure) to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
(c) Business information (sometimes referred to simply as information) means any information which pertains to the interests of any business, which was developed or acquired by that business, and (except where the context otherwise requires) which is possessed by EPA in recorded form.
(d) Affected business means, with reference to an item of business information, a business which has asserted (and not waived or withdrawn) a business confidentiality claim covering the information, or a business which could be expected to make such a claim if it were aware that disclosure of the information to the public was proposed.
(e) Reasons of business confidentiality include the concept of trade secrecy and other related legal concepts which give (or may give) a business the right to preserve the confidentiality of business information and to limit its use or disclosure by others in order that the business may obtain or retain business advantages it derives from its rights in the information. The definition is meant to encompass any concept which authorizes a Federal agency to withhold business information under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4), as well as any concept which requires EPA to withhold information from the public for the benefit of a business under 18 U.S.C. 1905 or any of the various statutes cited in §2.301 through §2.309.
(g) Information which is available to the public is information in EPA's possession which EPA will furnish to any member of the public upon request and which EPA may make public, release or otherwise make available to any person whether or not its disclosure has been requested.
(h) Business confidentiality claim (or, simply, claim) means a claim or allegation that business information is entitled to confidential treatment for reasons of business confidentiality, or a request for a determination that such information is entitled to such treatment.
(i) Voluntarily submitted information means business information in EPA's possession—
(1) The submission of which EPA had no statutory or contractual authority to require; and
(2) The submission of which was not prescribed by statute or regulation as a condition of obtaining some benefit (or avoiding some disadvantage) under a regulatory program of general applicability, including such regulatory programs as permit, licensing, registration, or certification programs, but excluding programs concerned solely or primarily with the award or administration by EPA of contracts or grants.
(j) Recorded means written or otherwise registered in some form for preserving information, including such forms as drawings, photographs, videotape, sound recordings, punched cards, and computer tape or disk.
(l) Administrator, Regional Administrator, General Counsel, Regional Counsel, and Freedom of Information Officer mean the EPA officers or employees occupying the positions so titled.
(m) EPA office means any organizational element of EPA, at any level or location. (The terms EPA office and EPA legal office are used in this subpart for the sake of brevity and ease of reference. When this subpart requires that an action be taken by an EPA office or by an EPA legal office, it is the responsibility of the officer or employee in charge of that office to take the action or ensure that it is taken.)
(n) EPA legal office means the EPA General Counsel and any EPA office overwhich the General Counsel exercises supervisory authority, including the various Offices of Regional Counsel. (See paragraph (m) of this section.) (continued)