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United States Regulations
33 CFR PART 164—NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS
Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters
PART 164—NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS
Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1222(5), 1223, 1231; 46 U.S.C. 2103, 3703; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1 (75). Sec. 164.13 also issued under 46 U.S.C. 8502. Sec. 164.61 also issued under 46 U.S.C. 6101.
§ 164.01 Applicability.
(a) This part (except as specifically limited by this section) applies to each self-propelled vessel of 1600 or more gross tons (except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, or for foreign vessels described in §164.02) when it is operating in the navigable waters of the United States except the St. Lawrence Seaway.
(b) Sections 164.70 through 164.82 of this part apply to each towing vessel of 12 meters (39.4 feet) or more in length operating in the navigable waters of the United States other than the St. Lawrence Seaway; except that a towing vessel is exempt from the requirements of §164.72 if it is—
(1) Used solely within a limited geographic area, such as a fleeting-area for barges or a commercial facility, and used solely for restricted service, such as making up or breaking up larger tows;
(2) Used solely for assistance towing as defined by 46 CFR 10.103;
(3) Used solely for pollution response; or
(4) Any other vessel exempted by the Captain of the Port (COTP). The COTP, upon written request, may, in writing, exempt a vessel from §164.72 for a specified route if he or she decides that exempting it would not allow its unsafe navigation under anticipated conditions.
(c) Provisions of §§164.11(a)(2) and (c), 164.30, 164.33, and 164.46 do not apply to warships or other vessels owned, leased, or operated by the United States Government and used only in government noncommercial service when these vessels are equipped with electronic navigation systems that have met the applicable agency regulations regarding navigation safety.
(d) Provisions of §164.46 apply to some self-propelled vessels of less than 1600 gross tonnage.
[CGD 83–004, 49 FR 43466, Oct. 29, 1984, as amended by CGD 94–020, 61 FR 35072, July 3, 1996; USCG–2000–8300, 66 FR 21864, May 2, 2001; USCG–2003–14757, 68 FR 39367, July 1, 2003]
§ 164.02 Applicability exception for foreign vessels.
(a) Except as provided in §164.46(a)(2) of this part, including §§164.38 and 164.39, this part does not apply to vessels that:
(1) Are not destined for, or departing from, a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; and
(2) Are in:
(i) Innocent passage through the territorial sea of the United States; or
(ii) Transit through navigable waters of the United States which form a part of an international strait.
[CGD 77–063, 44 FR 66530, Nov. 19, 1979, as amended by CGD 79–148, 45 FR 54039, Aug. 14, 1980; USCG–2003–14757, 68 FR 39367, July 1, 2003; 68 FR 60569, Oct. 22, 2003]
§ 164.03 Incorporation by reference.
(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the Coast Guard must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection at the Office of Vessel Traffic Management (G-MWV), Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street, SW., Washington, DC 20593–0001 and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. All approved material is available from the sources indicated in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this part and the sections affected are as follows:
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Ships of 300
[CGD 91–203, 58 FR 27632, May 10, 1993, as amended by CGD 83–043, 60 FR 24771, May 10, 1995; CGD 93–022, 60 FR 51734, Oct. 3, 1995; CGD 96–026, 61 FR 33669, June 28, 1996; CGD 94–020, 61 FR 35072, July 3, 1996; USCG–1999–5151, 64 FR 67176, Dec. 1, 1999; USCG–2002–12471, 67 FR 41333, June 18, 2002; USCG–2003–14757, 68 FR 39367, July 1, 2003; 68 FR 60569, Oct. 22, 2003; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; USCG–2004–18057, 69 FR 34926, June 23, 2004]
§ 164.11 Navigation under way: General.
The owner, master, or person in charge of each vessel underway shall ensure that:
(a) The wheelhouse is constantly manned by persons who:
(1) Direct and control the movement of the vessel; and
(2) Fix the vessel's position;
(b) Each person performing a duty described in paragraph (a) of this section is competent to perform that duty;
(c) The position of the vessel at each fix is plotted on a chart of the area and the person directing the movement of the vessel is informed of the vessel's position;
(d) Electronic and other navigational equipment, external fixed aids to navigation, geographic reference points, and hydrographic contours are used when fixing the vessel's position;
(e) Buoys alone are not used to fix the vessel's position;
Note: Buoys are aids to navigation placed in approximate positions to alert the mariner to hazards to navigation or to indicate the orientation of a channel. Buoys may not maintain an exact position because strong or varying currents, heavy seas, ice, and collisions with vessels can move or sink them or set them adrift. Although buoys may corroborate a position fixed by other means, buoys cannot be used to fix a position: however, if no other aids are available, buoys alone may be used to establish an estimated position.
(f) The danger of each closing visual or each closing radar contact is evaluated and the person directing the movement of the vessel knows the evaluation;
(g) Rudder orders are executed as given;
(h) Engine speed and direction orders are executed as given;
(i) Magnetic variation and deviation and gyrocompass errors are known and correctly applied by the person directing the movement of the vessel;
(j) A person whom he has determined is competent to steer the vessel is in the wheelhouse at all times; 1
1 See also 46 U.S.C. 8702(d), which requires an able seaman at the wheel on U.S. vessels of 100 gross tons or more in narrow or crowded waters during low visibility.
(k) If a pilot other than a member of the vessel's crew is employed, the pilot is informed of the draft, maneuvering characteristics, and peculiarities of the vessel and of any abnormal circumstances on the vessel that may affect its safe navigation.
(l) Current velocity and direction for the area to be transited are known by the person directing the movement of the vessel;
(m) Predicted set and drift are known by the person directing movement of the vessel;
(n) Tidal state for the area to be transited is known by the person directing movement of the vessel;
(o) The vessel's anchors are ready for letting go;
(p) The person directing the movement of the vessel sets the vessel's speed with consideration for:
(1) The prevailing visibility and weather conditions;
(2) The proximity of the vessel to fixed shore and marine structures;
(3) The tendency of the vessel underway to squat and suffer impairment of maneuverability when there is small underkeel clearance;
(4) The comparative proportions of the vessel and the channel;
(5) The density of marine traffic;
(6) The damage that might be caused by the vessel's wake;
(7) The strength and direction of the current; and
(8) Any local vessel speed limit;
(q) The tests required by §164.25 are made and recorded in the vessel's log; and
(r) The equipment required by this part is maintained in operable condition.
(s) Upon entering U.S. waters, the steering wheel or lever on the navigating bridge is operated to determine if the steering equipment is operating properly under manual control, unless the vessel has been steered under manual control from the navigating bridge within the preceding 2 hours, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(t) At least two of the steering-gear power units on the vessel are in operation when such units are capable of simultaneous operation, except when the vessel is sailing on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters, and except as required by paragraph (u) of this section.
(u) On each passenger vessel meeting the requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 (SOLAS 60) and on each cargo vessel meeting the requirements of SOLAS 74 as amended in 1981, the number of steering-gear power units necessary to move the rudder from 35° on either side to 30° on the other in not more than 28 seconds must be in simultaneous operation.
[CGD 74–77, 42 FR 5956, Jan. 31, 1977, as amended by CGD 83–004, 49 FR 43466, Oct. 29, 1984; CGD 91–203, 58 FR 27633, May 10, 1993; CGD 83–043, 60 FR 24771, May 10, 1995]
§ 164.13 Navigation underway: tankers.
(a) As used in this section, “tanker” means a self-propelled tank vessel, including integrated tug barge combinations, constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces and inspected and certificated as a tanker.
(b) Each tanker must have an engineering watch capable of monitoring the propulsion system, communicating with the bridge, and implementing manual control measures immediately when necessary. The watch must be physically present in the machinery spaces or in the main control space and must consist of at least a licensed engineer.
(c) Each tanker must navigate with at least two licensed deck officers on watch on the bridge, one of whom may be a pilot. In waters where a pilot is required, the second officer, must be an individual licensed and assigned to the vessel as master, mate, or officer in charge of a navigational watch, who is separate and distinct from the pilot.
(d) Except as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, a tanker may operate with an auto pilot engaged only if all of the following conditions exist:
(1) The operation and performance of the automatic pilot conforms with the standards recommended by the International Maritime Organization in IMO Resolution A.342(IX).
(2) A qualified helmsman is present at the helm and prepared at all times to assume manual control.
(3) The tanker is not operating in any of the following areas:
(i) The areas of the traffic separation schemes specified in subchapter P of this chapter.
(ii) The portions of a shipping safety fairway specified in part 166 of this chapter.
(iii) An anchorage ground specified in part 110 of this chapter.
(iv) An area within one-half nautical mile of any U.S. shore.
(e) A tanker equipped with an integrated navigation system, and complying with paragraph (d)(2) of this section, may use the system with the auto pilot engaged while in the areas described in paragraphs (d)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section. The master shall provide, upon request, documentation showing that the integrated navigation system—
(1) Can maintain a predetermined trackline with a cross track error of less than 10 meters 95 percent of the time;
(2) Provides continuous position data accurate to within 20 meters 95 percent of the time; and
(3) Has an immediate override control.
[CGD 91–203, 58 FR 27633, May 10, 1993, as amended by CGD 91–203, 58 FR 36141, July 6, 1993]
§ 164.15 Navigation bridge visibility.
(a) The arrangement of cargo, cargo gear, and trim of all vessels entering or departing from U.S. ports must be such that the field of vision from the navigation bridge conforms as closely as possible to the following requirements:
(1) From the conning position, the view of the sea surface must not be obscured by more than the lesser of two hip lengths or 500 meters (1640 feet) from dead ahead to 10 degrees on either side of the vessel. Within this arc of visibility any blind sector caused by cargo, cargo gear, or other permanent obstruction must not exceed 5 degrees.
(2) From the conning position, the horizontal field of vision must extend over an arc from at least 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on one side of the vessel, through dead ahead, to at least 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on the other side of the vessel. Blind sectors forward of the beam caused by cargo, cargo gear, or other permanent obstruction must not exceed 10 degrees each, nor total more than 20 degrees, including any blind sector within the arc of visibility described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
(3) From each bridge wing, the field of vision must extend over an arc from at least 45 degrees on the opposite bow, through dead ahead, to at least dead astern.
(4) From the main steering position, the field of vision must extend over an arc from dead ahead to at least 60 degrees on either side of the vessel.
(b) A clear view must be provided through at least two front windows at all times regardless of weather conditions.
[CGD 85–099, 55 FR 32247, Aug. 8, 1990]
§ 164.19 Requirements for vessels at anchor.
The master or person in charge of each vessel that is anchored shall ensure that:
(a) A proper anchor watch is maintained;
(b) Procedures are followed to detect a dragging anchor; and
(c) Whenever weather, tide, or current conditions are likely to cause the vessel's anchor to drag, action is taken to ensure the safety of the vessel, structures, and other vessels, such as being ready to veer chain, let go a second anchor, or get underway using the vessel's own propulsion or tug assistance.
[CGD 74–77, 42 FR 5956, Jan. 31, 1977]
§ 164.25 Tests before entering or getting underway.
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section no person may cause a vessel to enter into or get underway on the navigable waters of the United States unless no more than 12 hours before entering or getting underway, the following equipment has been tested:
(1) Primary and secondary steering gear. The test procedure includes a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage, and, where applicable, the operation of the following:
(i) Each remote steering gear control system.
(ii) Each steering position located on the navigating bridge.
(iii) The main steering gear from the alternative power supply, if installed.
(iv) Each rudder angle indicator in relation to the actual position of the rudder.
(v) Each remote steering gear control system power failure alarm.
(vi) Each remote steering gear power unit failure alarm.
(vii) The full movement of the rudder to the required capabilities of the steering gear.
(2) All internal vessel control communications and vessel control alarms.
(3) Standby or emergency generator, for as long as necessary to show proper functioning, including steady state temperature and pressure readings.
(4) Storage batteries for emergency lighting and power systems in vessel control and propulsion machinery spaces.
(5) Main propulsion machinery, ahead and astern.
(b) Vessels navigating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters, having once completed the test requirements of this subpart, are considered to remain in compliance until arriving at the next port of call on the Great Lakes.
(c) Vessels entering the Great Lakes from the St. Lawrence Seaway are considered to be in compliance with this sub-part if the required tests are conducted preparatory to or during the passage of the St. Lawrence Seaway or within one hour of passing Wolfe Island.
(d) No vessel may enter, or be operated on the navigable waters of the United States unless the emergency steering drill described below has been conducted within 48 hours prior to entry and logged in the vessel logbook, unless the drill is conducted and logged on a regular basis at least once every three months. This drill must include at a minimum the following:
(1) Operation of the main steering gear from within the steering gear compartment.
(2) Operation of the means of communications between the navigating bridge and the steering compartment.
(3) Operation of the alternative power supply for the steering gear if the vessel is so equipped.
(92 Stat. 1471 (33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.); 49 CFR 1.46(n)(4))
[CGD 77–183, 45 FR 18925, Mar. 24, 1980, as amended by CGD 83–004, 49 FR 43466, Oct. 29, 1984]
§ 164.30 Charts, publications, and equipment: General.
No person may operate or cause the operation of a vessel unless the vessel has the marine charts, publications, and equipment as required by §§164.33 through 164.41 of this part.
[CGD 82–055, 48 FR 44535, Sept. 29, 1983]
§ 164.33 Charts and publications.
(a) Each vessel must have the following:
(1) Marine charts of the area to be transited, published by the National Ocean Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or a river authority that—
(i) Are of a large enough scale and have enough detail to make safe navigation of the area possible; and
(ii) Are currently corrected.
(2) For the area to be transited, a currently corrected copy of, or applicable currently corrected extract from, each of the following publications:
(i) U.S. Coast Pilot.
(ii) Coast Guard Light List.
(3) For the area to be transited, the current edition of, or applicable current extract from:
(i) Tide tables published by private entities using data provided by the National Ocean Service.
(ii) Tidal current tables published by private entities using data provided by the National Ocean Service, or river current publication issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or a river authority.
(b) As an alternative to the requirements for paragraph (a) of this section, a marine chart or publication, or applicable extract, published by a foreign government may be substituted for a U.S. chart and publication required by this section. The chart must be of large enough scale and have enough detail to make safe navigation of the area possible, and must be currently corrected. The publication, or applicable extract, must singly or in combination contain similar information to the U.S. Government publication to make safe navigation of the area possible. The publication, or applicable extract must be currently corrected, with the exceptions of tide and tidal current tables, which must be the current editions.
(c) As used in this section, “currently corrected” means corrected with changes contained in all Notices to Mariners published by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, or an equivalent foreign government publication, reasonably available to the vessel, and that is applicable to the vessel's transit.
[CGD 82–055, 48 FR 44535, Sept. 29, 1983, as amended by USCG–2001–9286, 66 FR 33641, June 25, 2001]
§ 164.35 Equipment: All vessels.
Each vessel must have the following:
(a) A marine radar system for surface navigation.
(b) An illuminated magnetic steering compass, mounted in a binnacle, that can be read at the vessel's main steering stand.
(c) A current magnetic compass deviation table or graph or compass comparison record for the steering compass, in the wheelhouse.
(d) A gyrocompass.
(e) An illuminated repeater for the gyrocompass required by paragraph (d) of this section that is at the main steering stand, unless that gyrocompass is illuminated and is at the main steering stand.
(f) An illuminated rudder angle indicator in the wheelhouse.
(g) The following maneuvering information prominently displayed on a fact sheet in the wheelhouse:
(1) A turning circle diagram to port and starboard that shows the time and distance and advance and transfer required to alter course 90 degrees with maximum rudder angle and constant power settings, for either full and half speeds, or for full and slow speeds. For vessels whose turning circles are essentially the same for both directions, a diagram showing a turning circle in one direction, with a note on the diagram stating that turns to port and starboard are essentially the same, may be substituted.
(2) The time and distance to stop the vessel from either full and half speeds, or from full and slow speeds, while maintaining approximately the initial heading with minimum application of the rudder.
(3) For each vessel with a fixed propeller, a table of shaft revolutions per minute for a representative range of speeds.
(4) For each vessel with a controllable pitch propeller, a table of control settings for a representative range of speeds.
(5) For each vessel that is fitted with an auxiliary device to assist in maneuvering, such as a bow thruster, a table of vessel speeds at which the auxiliary device is effective in maneuvering the vessel.
(6) The maneuvering information for the normal load and normal ballast condition for:
(i) Calm weather—wind 10 knots or less, calm sea;
(ii) No current;
(iii) Deep water conditions—water depth twice the vessel's draft or greater; and
(iv) Clean hull.
(7) At the bottom of the fact sheet, the following statement:
The response of the (name of the vessel) may be different from that listed above if any of the following conditions, upon which the maneuvering information is based, are varied:
(1) Calm weather—wind 10 knots or less, calm sea;
(2) No current;
(3) Water depth twice the vessel's draft or greater;
(4) Clean hull; and
(5) Intermediate drafts or unusual trim.
(h) An echo depth sounding device.
(i) A device that can continuously record the depth readings of the vessel's echo depth sounding device, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(j) Equipment on the bridge for plotting relative motion.
(k) Simple operating instructions with a block diagram, showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems and steering gear power units, permanently displayed on the navigating bridge and in the steering gear compartment.
(l) An indicator readable from the centerline conning position showing the rate of revolution of each propeller, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(m) If fitted with controllable pitch propellers, an indicator readable from the centerline conning position showing the pitch and operational mode of such propellers, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(n) If fitted with lateral thrust propellers, an indicator readable from the centerline conning position showing the direction and amount of thrust of such propellers, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(o) A telephone or other means of communication for relaying headings to the emergency steering station. Also, each vessel of 500 gross tons and over and constructed on or after June 9, 1995 must be provided with arrangements for supplying visual compass-readings to the emergency steering station.
(92 Stat. 1471 (33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.); 49 CFR 1.46(n)(4))
[CGD 74–77, 42 FR 5956, Jan. 31, 1977, as amended by CGD 77–183, 45 FR 18925, Mar. 24, 1980; CGD 83–004, 49 FR 43466, Oct. 29, 1984; CGD 83–043, 60 FR 24771, May 10, 1995; 60 FR 28834, June 2, 1995]
§ 164.37 Equipment: Vessels of 10,000 gross tons or more.
(a) Each vessel of 10,000 gross tons or more must have, in addition to the radar system under §164.35(a), a second marine radar system that operates independently of the first.
Note: Independent operation means two completely separate systems, from separate branch power supply circuits or distribution panels to antennas, so that failure of any component of one system will not render the other system inoperative.
(b) On each tanker of 10,000 gross tons or more that is subject to 46 U.S.C. 3708, the dual radar system required by this part must have a short range capability and a long range capability; and each radar must have true north features consisting of a display that is stabilized in azimuth.
(Titles I and II, 86 Stat. 426, 427 (33 U.S.C. 1224; 46 U.S.C. 391(a); 49 CFR 1.46(n)(4))
[CGD 77–016, 43 FR 32112, July 24, 1978, as amended by CGD 79–033, 44 FR 26741, May 7, 1979; CGD 79–033, 47 FR 34389, Aug. 9, 1982; USCG–1998–3799, 63 FR 35532, June 30, 1998]
§ 164.38 Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).
(a) The following definitions are used in this section—
Bulk means material in any quantity that is shipped, stored, or handled without benefit of package, label, mark or count and carried in integral or fixed independent tanks.
Constructed means a stage of construction where—
(1) The keel is laid;
(2) Construction identifiable with a specific ship begins; or
(3) Assembly of that ship has commenced comprising at least 50 tons or 1 percent of the estimated mass of all structural material, whichever is less.
Hazardous material means—
(1) A flammable liquid as defined in 46 CFR 30.10–22 or a combustible liquid as defined in 46 CFR 30.10–15;
(2) A material listed in table 151.05 of 46 CFR 151.05, table 1 of 46 CFR 153, or table 4 of 46 CFR Part 154; or
(3) A liquid, liquefied gas, or compressed gas listed in 49 CFR 172.101.
Self-propelled vessel includes those combinations of pushing vessel and vessel being pushed ahead which are rigidly connected in a composite unit and are required by Rule 24(b) of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS) (App. A to 33 CFR Part 81) to exhibit the lights prescribed in Rule 23 for a “Power Driven Vessel Underway”.
Tank vessel means a vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry; or carries, oil or hazardous materials in bulk as cargo or cargo residue.
(b) An Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA) that complies with the standard for such devices adopted by the International Maritime Organization in its “Operational Standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids” (Appendix A), and that has both audible and visual alarms, must be installed as follows:
(1) Each self-propelled vessel, except a public vessel, of 10,000 gross tons or more carrying oil or hazardous materials in bulk as cargo or in residue on the navigable waters of the United States, or which transfers oil or hazardous materials in any port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, must be equipped with an ARPA.
(2) Each tank vessel of 10,000 gross tons or more operating on the navigable waters of the United States must be equipped with an ARPA.
(3) Each self-propelled vessel of 15,000 gross tons or more that is not a tank vessel, and is not carrying oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or in residue operating on the navigable waters of the United States, and was constructed before September 1, 1984, must be equipped with an ARPA, except when it is operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
(4) Each vessel of 10,000 gross tons or more, except when operating on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters, constructed on or after September 1, 1984 must be equipped with an ARPA.
(d)(1) Each device required under paragraph (b) of this section must have a permanently affixed label containing:
(i) The name and address of the manufacturer; and
(ii) The following statement:
“This device was designed and manufactured to comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) ‘Performance Standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA).’”
(2) Each device allowed under paragraph (c) of this section must have a permanently affixed label containing;
(i) The name and address of the manufacturer; and
(ii) The following statement:
“This device was designed and manufactured to comply with the U.S. Maritime Administration's ‘Collision Avoidance System Specification.’”
Appendix A to §164.38—Performance Standards For Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)
1.1 The Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA) should, in order to improve the standard of collision avoidance at sea:
.1 Reduce the work-load of observers by enabling them to automatically obtain information so that they can perform as well with multiple targets as they can by manually plotting a single target; and
.2 Provide continuous, accurate and rapid situation evaluation.
1.2 In addition to the General Requirements for Electronic Navigational Aids ([IMO] Res. A.281(VII)), the ARPA should comply with the following minimum performance standards.
2.1 Definitions of terms in these performance standards are given in Annex 1.
3 Performance Standards
3.1.1 Where a separate facility is provided for detection of targets, other than by the radar observer, it should have a performance not inferior to that which could be obtained by the use of the radar display.
3.2.1 Target acquisition may be manual or automatic. However, there should always be a facility to provide for manual acquisition and cancellation. ARPA with automatic acquisition should have a facility to suppress acquisition in certain areas. On any range scale where acquisition is suppressed over a certain area, the area of acquisition should be indicated on the display.
3.2.2 Automatic or manual acquisition should have a performance not inferior to that which could be obtained by the user of the radar display.
3.3.1 The ARPA should be able to automatically track, process, simultaneously display and continuously update the information on at least:
.1 20 targets, if automatic acquisition is provided, whether automatically or manually acquired; or
.2 10 targets, if only manual acquisition is provided.
3.3.2 If automatic acquisition is provided, description of the criteria of selection of targets for tracking should be provided to the user. If the ARPA does not track all targets visible on the display, targets which are being tracked should be clearly indicated on the display. The reliability of tracking should not be less than that obtainable using manual recording of successive target positions obtained from the radar display.
3.3.3 Provided the target is not subject to target swop, the ARPA should continue to track an acquired target which is clearly distinguishable on the display for 5 out of 10 consecutive scans.
3.3.4 The possibility of tracking errors, including target swop, should be minimized by ARPA design. A qualitative description of the effects of error sources on the automatic tracking and corresponding errors should be provided to the user, including the effects of low signal to noise and low signal to clutter ratios caused by sea returns, rain, snow, low clouds and non-synchronous emission.
3.3.5 The ARPA should be able to display on request at least four equally time-spaced past positions of any targets being tracked over a period of at least eight minutes.
3.4.1 The Display may be a separate or integral part of the ship's radar. However, the ARPA display should include all the data required to be provided by a radar display in accordance with the performance standards for navigational radar equipment adopted by the Organization.
3.4.2 The design should be such that any malfunction of ARPA parts producing information additional to information to be produced by the radar as required by the performance standards for navigational equipment adopted by IMO should not affect the integrity of the basic radar presentation.
3.4.3 The display on which ARPA information is presented should have an effective diameter of at least 340 mm.
3.4.4 The ARPA facilities should be available on at least the following range scales:
.1 12 or 16 miles;
.2 3 or 4 miles.
3.4.5 There should be a positive indication of the range scale in use.
3.4.6 The ARPA should be capable of operating with a relative motion display with “north-up” and either “head-up” or “course-up” azimuth stabilization. In addition, the ARPA may also provide for a true motion display. If true motion is provided, the operator should be able to select for his display either true or relative motion. There should be a positive indication of the display mode and orientation in use.
3.4.7 The course and speed information generated by the ARPA for acquired targets should be displayed in a vector or graphic form which clearly indicates the target's predicted motion. In this regard:
.1 ARPA presenting predicted information in vector form only should have the option of both true and relative vectors;
.2 An ARPA which is capable of presenting target course and speed information in graphic form, should also, on request, provide the target's true and/or relative vector;
.3 Vectors displayed should be either time adjustable or have a fixed time-scale;
.4 A positive indication of the time-scale of the vector in use should be given.
3.4.8 The ARPA information should not obscure radar information in such a manner as to degrade the process of detecting targets. The display of ARPA data should be under the control of the radar observer. It should be possible to cancel the display of unwanted ARPA data.
3.4.9 Means should be provided to adjust independently the brilliance of the ARPA data and radar data, including complete elimination of the ARPA data.
3.4.10 The method of presentation should ensure that the ARPA data is clearly visible in general to more than one observer in the conditions of light normally experienced on the bridge of a ship by day and by night. Screening may be provided to shade the display from sunlight but not to the extent that it will impair the observer's ability to maintain a proper lookout. Facilities to adjust the brightness should be provided.
3.4.11 Provisions should be made to obtain quickly the range and bearing of any object which appears on the ARPA display.
3.4.12 When a target appears on the radar display and, in the case of automatic acquisition, enters within the acquisition area chosen by the observer or, in the case of manual acquisition, has been acquired by the observer, the ARPA should present in a period of not more than one minute an indication of the target's motion trend and display within three minutes the target's predicted motion in accordance with paragraphs 3.4.7, 3.6, 3.8.2 and 3.8.3.
3.4.13 After changing range scales on which the ARPA facilities are available or resetting the display, full plotting information should be displayed within a period of time not exceeding four scans.
3.5 Operational Warnings
3.5.1 The ARPA should have the capability to warn the observer with a visual and/or audible signal of any distinguishable target which closes to a range or transits a zone chosen by the observer. The target causing the warning should be clearly indicated on the display.
3.5.2 The ARPA should have the capability to warn the observer with a visual and/or audible signal of any tracked target which is predicted to close to within a minimum range and time chosen by the observer. The target causing the warning should be clearly indicated on the display.
3.5.3 The ARPA should clearly indicate if a tracked target is lost, other than out of range, and the target's last tracked position should be clearly indicated on the display.
3.5.4 It should be possible to activate or de-activate the operational warnings.
3.6 Data Requirements
3.6.1 At the request of the observer the following information should be immediately available from the ARPA in alphanumeric form in regard to any tracked target:
1. Present range to the target;
2. Present bearing of the target;.
.3 Predicted target range at the closest point of approach (CPA);
.4 Predicted time to CPA (TCPA);
.5 Calculated true course of target;
.6 Calculated true speed of target.
3.7 Trial Manoeuvre
3.7.1 The ARPA should be capable of simulating the effect on all tracked targets of an own ship manoeuvre without interrupting the updating of target information. The simulation should be initiated by the depression either of a spring-loaded switch, or of a function key, with a positive identification on the display.
3.8.1 The ARPA should provide accuracies not less than those given in paragraphs 3.8.2 and 3.8.3 for the four scenarios defined in Annex 2. With the sensor errors specified in Annex 3, the values given relate to the best possible manual plotting performance under environmental conditions of plus and minus ten degrees of roll.
3.8.2 An ARPA should present within one minute of steady state tracking the relative motion trend of a target with the following accuracy values (95 percent probability values):
Scenario/data course speed CPA (n.m.)
1................................ 11 2.8 1.6
2................................ 7 0.6 ...........
3................................ 14 2.2 1.8
4................................ 15 1.5 2.0
3.8.3 An ARPA should present within three minutes of steady state tracking the motion of a target with the following accuracy values (95 percent probability values):
Relative Relative True
Scenario/data course speed C.P.A. TCPA course True speed
(degrees) (knots) (n.m.) (mins) (degrees) (knots)
1....................................... 3.0 0.8 0.5 1.0 7.5 1.2
2....................................... 2.3 .3 .......... .......... 2.9 .8
3....................................... 4.4 .9 .7 1.0 3.3 1.0
4....................................... 4.6 .8 .7 1.0 2.6 1.2
3.8.4 When a tracked target, or own ship, has completed a manoeuvre, the system should present in a period of not more than one minute an indication of the target's motion trend, and display within three minutes the target's predicted motion in accordance with paragraphs 3.4.7, 3.6, 3.8.2 and 3.8.3
3.8.5 The ARPA should be designed in such a manner that under the most favorable conditions of own ship motion the error contribution from the ARPA should remain insignificant compared to the errors associated with the input sensors, for scenarios of Annex 2.
3.9 Connections with other equipment
3.9.1 The ARPA should not degrade the performance of any equipment providing sensor inputs. The connection of the ARPA to any other equipment should not degrade the performance of that equipment.
3.10 Performance test and warnings
3.10.1 The ARPA should provide suitable warnings of ARPA malfunction to enable the observer to monitor the proper operation of the system. Additionally test programmes should be available so that the overall performance of ARPA can be assessed periodically against a known solution.
3.11 Equipment used with ARPA
3.11.1 Log and speed indicators providing inputs to ARPA equipment should be capable of providing the ship's speed through the water.
Annex 1 to Appendix A—Definitions of Terms To Be Used Only in Connection With ARPA Performance Standards
Relative course—The direction of motion of a target related to own ship as deduced from a number of measurements of its range and bearing on the radar. Expressed as an angular distance from North.
Relative speed—The speed of a target related to own ship, as deduced from a number of measurements of its range and bearing on the radar.
True course—The apparent heading of a target obtained by the vectorial combination of the target's relative motion and ship's own motion 1 . Expressed as an angular distance from North.
1 For the purpose of these definitions there is no need to distinguish between sea or ground stabilization.
True speed—The speed of a target obtained by the vectorial combination of its relative motion and own ship's motion 1 .
Bearing—The direction of one terrestrial point from another. Expressed as an angular distance from North.
Relative motion display—The position of own ship on such a display remains fixed.
True motion display—The position of own ship on such display moves in accordance with its own motion.
Azimuth stabilization—Own ship's compass information is fed to the display so that echoes of targets on the display will not be caused to smear by changes of own ship's heading.
/North-up—The line connecting the center with the top of this display is North.
/Head-up—The line connecting the center with the top of the display is own ship heading.
/Course-up—An intended course can be set to the line connecting the center with the top of the display.
Heading—The direction in which the bow of a vessel is pointing. Expressed as an angular distance from North.
Target's predicted motion—The indication on the display of a liner extrapolation into the future of a target's motion, based on measurements of the target's range and bearing on the radar in the recent past.
Target's motion trend—An early indication of the target's predicted motion.
Radar Plotting—The whole process of target detection, tracking, calculation of parameters and display of information.
Detection—The recognition of the presence of a target.
Acquisition—The selection of those targets requiring a tracking procedure and the initiation of their tracking.
Tracking—The process of observing the sequential changes in the position of a target, to establish its motion.
Display—The plan position presentation of ARPA data with radar data.
Manual—An activity which a radar observer performs, possibly with assistance from a machine.
Automatic—An activity which is performed wholly by a machine.
Annex 2 to Appendix A—Operational Scenarios
For each of the following scenarios predictions are made at the target position defined after previously tracking for the appropriate time of one or three minutes:
Own ship course—000°
Own ship speed—10 kt
Target range—8 n.m.
Bearing of target—000°
Relative course of target—180°
Relative speed of target—20 kt
Own ship course—000°
Own ship speed—10 kt
Target range—1 n.m.
Bearing of target—000°
Relative course of target—090°
Relative speed of target—10 kt
Own ship course—000°
Own ship speed—5 kt
Target range—8 n.m.
Bearing of target—045°
Relative course of target—225°
Relative speed of target—20 kt
Own ship course—000°
Own ship speed—25 kt
Target range—8 n.m.
Bearing of target—045°
Relative course of target—225°
Relative speed of target—20 kt
Annex 3 to Appendix A—Sensor Errors
The accuracy figures quoted in paragraph 3.8 are based upon the following sensor errors and are appropriate to equipment complying with the Organization's performance standards for shipborne navigational equipment. 2
2 In calculations leading to the accuracy figures quoted in paragraph 3.8, these sensor error sources and magnitudes were used. They were arrived at during discussions with national government agencies and equipment manufacturers and are appropriate to equipments complying with the Organization's draft performance standards for radar equipment (preliminary) (NAV XXII/WP.14), gyro compasses (NAV XXI/9, Annex X) and logs (preliminary) (NAV XXII/WP.15).
Independent studies carried out by national government agencies and equipment manufacturers have resulted in similar accuracies, where comparisons were made.
Note: o means “standard deviation”
Target Glint (Scintillation) (for 200 m length target)
Along length of target o = 30 m. (normal distribution)
Across beam of target o = 1 m. (normal distribution)
Roll-Pitch Bearing. The bearing error will peak in each of the four quadrants around own ship for targets on relative bearings of 045°, 135°, 225° and 315° and will be zero at relative bearings of 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. This error has a sinusoidal variation at twice the roll frequency. For a 10° roll the mean error is 0.22° with a 0.22° peak sine wave superimposed.
Beam shape—assumed normal distribution giving bearing error with o = 0.05.
Pulse shape— assumed normal distribution giving range error with o = 20 meters.
Antenna backlash—assumed rectangular distribution giving bearing error ±0.5 maximum.
Bearing—rectangular distribution ±0.01° maximum.
Range—rectangular distribution ±0.01 n.m. maximum.
Bearing encoder assumed to be running from a remote synchro giving bearing errors with a normal distribution o = 0.03°
Calibration error 0.5°.
Normal distribution about this with o = 0.12°.
Calibration error 0.5 kt.
Normal distribution about this, 3 o = 0.2 kt.
Appendix B to §164.38—U.S. Maritime Administration Collision Avoidance System Specification
A collision system designed as a supplement to both surface search navigational radars via interswitching shall be installed. The system shall provide unattended monitoring of all radar echoes and automatic audio and visual alarm signals that will alert the watch officer of a possible threat. The display shall be contained within a console capable of being installed adjacent to the radar displays in the wheelhouse and may form a part of the bridge console. (continued)
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