CCLME.ORG - 25 CFR PART 11有AW AND ORDER ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS
Loading (50 kb)...'
National
United States Regulations
25 CFR PART 11有AW AND ORDER ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS




Title 25: Indians





PART 11有AW AND ORDER ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; R.S. 463, 25 U.S.C. 2; R.S. 465, 25 U.S.C. 9; 42 Stat. 208, 25 U.S.C. 13; 38 Stat. 586, 25 U.S.C. 200.

Source: 58 FR 54411, Oct. 21, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A輸pplication; Jurisdiction
top
ァ 11.100 Listing of Courts of Indian Offenses.
top
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the regulations under this part are applicable to the Indian country (as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151) occupied by the following tribes:

(1) Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians (Minnesota).

(2) Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation (Nevada).

(3) Lovelock Paiute Tribe (Nevada).

(4) Te-Moak Band of Western Shoshone Indians (Nevada).

(5) Yomba Shoshone Tribe (Nevada).

(6) Kootenai Tribe (Idaho).

(7) Shoalwater Bay Tribe (Washington).

(8) Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (North Carolina).

(9) For the following tribes located in the former Oklahoma Territory (Oklahoma):

(i) Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma

(ii) Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

(iii) Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma

(iv) Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribe of Oklahoma

(v) Citizen Band of Potawatomi Indians of Oklahoma

(vi) Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma (except Comanche Children's Court)

(vii) Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma

(viii) Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma

(ix) Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma

(x) Kaw Tribe of Oklahoma

(xi) Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

(xii) Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma

(xiii) Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Oklahoma

(xiv) Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma

(xv) Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma

(xvi) Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma

(xvii) Wichita and Affiliated Tribes of Oklahoma.

(10) Hoopa Valley Tribe, Yurok Tribe, and Coast Indian Community of California (California Jurisdiction limited to special fishing regulations).

(11) Louisiana Area (includes Coushatta and other tribes in the State of Louisiana which occupy Indian country and which accept the application of this part);

Provided that this part shall not apply to any Louisiana tribe other than the Coushatta Tribe until notice of such application has been published in the Federal Register.

(12) For the following tribes located in the former Indian Territory (Oklahoma):

(i) Chickasaw Nation

(ii) Choctaw Nation

(iii) Thlopthlocco Tribal Town

(iv) Seminole Nation

(v) Eastern Shawnee Tribe

(vi) Miami Tribe

(vii) Modoc Tribe

(viii) Ottawa Tribe

(ix) Peoria Tribe

(x) Quapaw Tribe

(xi) Wyandotte Tribe

(xii) Seneca-Cayuga Tribe

(xiii) Osage Tribe.

(13) Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (Colorado).

(14) Santa Fe Indian School Property, including the Santa Fe Indian Health Hospital, and the Albuquerque Indian School Property (land held in trust for the 19 Pueblos of New Mexico).

(15) Winnemucca Indian Tribe (land in trust for the Winnemucca Indian Tribe of Nevada).

(b) It is the purpose of the regulations in this part to provide adequate machinery for the administration of justice for Indian tribes in those areas of Indian country where tribes retain jurisdiction over Indians that is exclusive of state jurisdiction but where tribal courts have not been established to exercise that jurisdiction.

(c) The regulations in this part shall continue to apply to tribes listed under ァ11.100(a) until a law and order code which includes the establishment of a court system has been adopted by the tribe in accordance with its constitution and by-laws or other governing documents, has become effective, and the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs or his or her designee has received a valid tribal enactment identifying the effective date of the code's implementation, and the name of the tribe has been deleted from the listing of Courts of Indian Offenses under ァ11.100(a).

(d) For the purposes of the enforcement of the regulations in this part, an Indian is defined as a person who is a member of an Indian tribe which is recognized by the Federal Government as eligible for services from the BIA, and any other individual who is an 的ndian for purposes of 18 U.S.C. 11521153.

(e) The governing body of each tribe occupying the Indian country over which a Court of Indian Offenses has jurisdiction may enact ordinances which, when approved by the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs or his or her designee, shall be enforceable in the Court of Indian Offenses having jurisdiction over the Indian country occupied by that tribe, and shall supersede any conflicting regulation in this part.

(f) Each Court of Indian Offenses shall apply the customs of the tribe occupying the Indian country over which it has jurisdiction to the extent that they are consistent with the regulations of this part.

[58 FR 54411, Oct. 21, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48722, Sept. 22, 1994; 61 FR 10674, Mar. 15, 1996; 66 FR 22121, May 3, 2001; 66 FR 48087, Sept. 18, 2001; 67 FR 44355, July 2, 2002; 67 FR 59783, Sept. 24, 2002; 68 FR 44616, July 30, 2003; 69 FR 51559, Aug. 20, 2004; 70 FR 15761, Mar. 29, 2005]

ァ 11.101 Prospective application of regulations.
top
Civil and criminal causes of actions arising prior to the effective date of these regulations shall not abate but shall be determined in accordance with the regulations in effect at the time the cause arose.

ァ 11.102 Criminal jurisdiction; limitation of actions.
top
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, each Court of Indian Offenses shall have jurisdiction over any action by an Indian (hereafter referred to as person) that is made a criminal offense under this part and that occurred within the Indian country subject to the court's jurisdiction.

(b) No person shall be prosecuted, tried or punished for any offense unless the complaint is filed within five years after such offense shall have been committed.

ァ 11.103 Civil jurisdiction; limitation of actions.
top
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, each Court of Indian Offenses shall have jurisdiction over any civil action arising within the territorial jurisdiction of the court in which the defendant is an Indian, and of all other suits between Indians and non-Indians which are brought before the court by stipulation of the parties.

(b) Any civil action commenced in a Court of Indian Offenses shall be barred unless the complaint is filed within three years after the right of action first accrues.

ァ 11.104 Jurisdictional limitations.
top
(a) No Court of Indian Offenses may exercise any jurisdiction over a Federal or state official that it could not exercise if it were a tribal court.

(b) Unless otherwise provided by a resolution or ordinance of the tribal governing body of the tribe occupying the Indian country over which a Court of Indian country over which a Court of Indian Offenses has jurisdiction, no Court of Indian Offenses may adjudicate an election dispute or take jurisdiction over a suit against the tribe or adjudicate any internal tribal government dispute.

(c) The decision of the BIA on who is a tribal official is binding in a Court of Indian Offenses.

(d) The Department of the Interior will accord the same weight to decisions of a Court of Indian Offenses that it accords to decisions of a tribal court.

(e) A tribe may not be sued in a Court of Indian Offenses unless its tribal governing body explicitly waives its tribal immunity by tribal resolution or ordinance.

Subpart B佑ourts of Indian Offenses; Personnel; Administration
top
ァ 11.200 Composition of court.
top
(a) Each court shall be composed of a trial division and an appellate division.

(b) A chief magistrate will be appointed for each court who will, in addition to other judicial duties, be responsible for the administration of the court and the supervision of all court personnel.

(c) Appeals shall be heard by a panel of three magistrates who were not involved in the trial of the case.

(d) Decisions of the appellate division are final and are not subject to administrative appeals within the Department of the Interior.

ァ 11.201 Appointment of magistrates.
top
(a) Each magistrate shall be appointed by the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs or his or her designee subject to confirmation by a majority vote of the tribal governing body of the tribe occupying the Indian country over which the court has jurisdiction, or, in the case of multi-tribal courts, confirmation by a majority of the tribal governing bodies of the tribes under the jurisdiction of a Court of Indian Offenses.

(b) Each magistrate shall hold office for a period of four years, unless sooner removed for cause or by reason of the abolition of the office, but is eligible for reappointment.

(c) No person is eligible to serve as a magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses who has ever been convicted of a felony or, within one year of the date of service or application, of a misdemeanor.

(d) No magistrate shall be qualified to act as such wherein he or she has any direct conflicting interest, real or apparent.

(e) A tribal governing body may set forth such other qualifications for magistrates of the Court of Indian Offenses as it deems appropriate, subject to the approval of the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs, or his or her designee.

(f) A tribal governing body may also recommend requirements for the training of magistrates of the Court of Indian Offenses to the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs.

ァ 11.202 Removal of magistrates.
top
Any magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses may be suspended, dismissed or removed by the Assistant Secretary悠ndian Affairs, or his or her designee, for cause, upon the written recommendation of the tribal governing body, and, in the case of multi-tribal courts, upon the recommendation of a majority of the tribal governing bodies of the tribes under the jurisdiction of a Court of Indian Offenses, or pursuant to his or her own discretion.

ァ 11.203 Court clerks.
top
(a) Except as may otherwise be provided in a contract with the tribe occupying the Indian country over which the court has jurisdiction, the chief magistrate shall appoint a clerk of court for the Court of Indian Offenses within his or her jurisdiction, subject to the superintendent's approval.

(b) The clerk shall render assistance to the court, to local law enforcement officers and to individual members of the tribe in the drafting of complaints, subpoenas, warrants, commitments, and other documents incidental to the functions of the court. The clerk shall also attend and keep a record of all proceedings of the court and manage all monies received by the court.

(c) The clerk of court shall forward any monies received on judgments due to the person, agency, or corporation to which entitled, within 30 days unless directed otherwise by a magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses.

ァ 11.204 Prosecutors.
top
Except as may otherwise be provided in a contract with the tribe occupying the Indian country over which the court has jurisdiction, the superintendent shall appoint a prosecutor for each Court of Indian Offenses within his or her jurisdiction.

ァ 11.205 Standards governing appearance of attorneys and lay counselors.
top
(a) No defendant in a criminal proceeding shall be denied the right to counsel.

(b) The chief magistrate shall prescribe in writing standards governing the admission and practice in the Court of Indian Offenses of professional attorneys and lay counselors.

ァ 11.206 Court records.
top
(a) Each Court of Indian Offenses shall keep a record of all proceedings of the court containing the title of the case, the names of the parties, the complaint, all pleadings, the names and addresses of all witnesses, the date of any hearing or trial, the name of any magistrate conducting such hearing or trial, the findings of the court or jury, the judgment and any other information the court determines is important to the case.

(b) The record in each case shall be available for inspection by the parties to the case.

(c) Except for cases in which a juvenile is a party or the subject of a proceeding, and for cases whose records have been sealed by the court, all case records shall be available for inspection by the public.

(d) Such court records are part of the records of the BIA agency having jurisdiction over the Indian country where the Court of Indian Offenses is located and shall be protected in accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3102.

ァ 11.207 Cooperation by Bureau of Indian Affairs Employees.
top
(a) No employee of the BIA may obstruct, interfere with, or control the functions of any Court of Indian Offenses, or influence such functions in any manner except as permitted by Federal statutes or the regulations in this part or in response to a request for advice or information from the court.

(b) Employees of the BIA shall assist the court, upon its request, in the preparation and presentation of facts in the case and in the proper treatment of individual offenders.

ァ 11.208 Payment of judgments from individual Indian money accounts.
top
(a) Any Court of Indian Offenses may make application to the superintendent who administers the individual Indian money account of a defendant who has failed to satisfy a money judgment from the court to obtain payment of the judgment from funds in the defendant's account. The court shall certify the record of the case to the superintendent. If the superintendent so directs, the disbursing agent shall pay over to the injured party the amount of the judgment or such lesser amount as may be specified by the superintendent.

(b) A judgment of a Court of Indian Offenses shall be considered a lawful debt in all proceedings held by the Department of the Interior or by a Court of Indian Offenses to distribute decedents' estates.

ァ 11.209 Disposition of fines.
top
All money fines imposed for the commission of an offense shall be in the nature of an assessment for the payment of designated court expenses. The fines assessed shall be paid over by the clerk of the court to the disbursing agent of the reservation for deposit as a 都pecial deposit, court funds to the disbursing agent's official credit in the Treasury of the United States. The disbursing agent shall withdraw such funds, in accordance with existing regulations, upon order of the clerk of the court signed by a judge of the court for the payment of specified expenses. The disbursing agent and the clerk of the court shall keep an account of all such deposits and withdrawals available for public inspection.

Subpart C佑riminal Procedure
top
ァ 11.300 Complaints.
top
(a) A complaint is a written statement of the essential facts charging that a named individual(s) has committed a particular offense. All criminal prosecutions shall be initiated by a complaint filed with the court by a law enforcement officer and sworn to by a person having personal knowledge of the offense.

(b) Complaints shall contain:

(1) The signature of the complaining witness, or witnesses, sworn before a magistrate, a court clerk, a prosecutor, or any law enforcement officer.

(2) A written statement by the complaining witness or witnesses having personal knowledge of the violation, describing in ordinary language the nature of the offense committed including the time and place as nearly as may be ascertained.

(3) The name or description of the person alleged to have committed the offense.

(4) A description of the offense charged and the section of the code allegedly violated.

(c) Complaints must be submitted without unnecessary delay by a law enforcement officer to the prosecutor and, if he or she approves, to a judge to determine whether an arrest warrant or summons should be issued.

(d) When an accused has been arrested without a warrant, a complaint shall be filed forthwith with the court for review as to whether probable cause exists to hold the accused, and in no instance shall a complaint be filed later than at the time of arraignment.

ァ 11.301 Arrests.
top
(a) Arrest is the taking of a person into police custody in order that he or she may be held to answer for a criminal offense.

(b) No law enforcement officer shall arrest any person for a criminal offense except when:

(1) The officer shall have a warrant signed by a magistrate commanding the arrest of such person, or the officer knows for a certainty that such a warrant has been issued; or

(2) The offense shall occur in the presence of the arresting officer; or

(3) The officer shall have probable cause to believe that the person arrested has committed an offense.

ァ 11.302 Arrest warrants.
top
(a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue warrants to apprehend any person the magistrate has probable cause to believe has committed a criminal offense in violation of the regulations under this part based on a written complaint filed with the court by a law enforcement officer and bearing the signature of the complainant.

(b) The arrest warrant shall contain the following information:

(1) Name or description and address, if known, of the person to be arrested.

(2) Date of issuance of the warrant.

(3) Description of the offense charged.

(4) Signature of the issuing magistrate.

(c) Such warrants may be served only by a BIA or tribal police officer or other officer commissioned to enforce the regulations of this part.

ァ 11.303 Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.
top
Prior to custodial interrogation, the suspect shall be advised of the following rights:

(a) That he or she has the right to remain silent.

(b) That any statements made by him or her may be used against him or her in court.

(c) That he or she has the right to obtain counsel and, if indigent, to have counsel appointed for him/her.

ァ 11.304 Summons in lieu of warrant.
top
(a) When otherwise authorized to arrest a suspect, a law enforcement officer or a magistrate may, in lieu of a warrant, issue a summons commanding the accused to appear before the Court of Indian Offenses at a stated time and place and answer to the charge.

(b) The summons shall contain the same information as a warrant, except that it may be signed by a police officer.

(c) The summons shall state that if a defendant fails to appear in response to a summons, a warrant for his or her arrest shall be issued.

(d) The summons, together with a copy of the complaint, shall be served upon the defendant by delivering a copy to the defendant personally or by leaving a copy at his or her usual residence or place of business with any person 18 years of age or older who also resides or works there. Service shall be made by an authorized law enforcement officer, who shall file with the record of the case a form indicating when the summons was served.

ァ 11.305 Search warrants.
top
(a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical evidence of a criminal violation under the regulations of this part located within the Indian country over which the court has jurisdiction.

(b) No warrant for search or seizure may be issued unless it is based on a written and signed statement establishing, to the satisfaction of the magistrate, that probable cause exists to believe that the search will lead to discovery of evidence of a criminal violation under the regulations of this part.

(c) No warrant for search or seizure shall be valid unless it contains the name or description of the person, vehicle, or premises to be searched, describes the evidence to be seized, and bears the signature of the magistrate who issued it.

(d) Warrants may be executed only by a BIA or tribal police officer or other official commissioned to enforce the regulations under this part. The executing officer shall return the warrant to the Court of Indian Offenses within the time limit shown on the face of the warrant, which in no case shall be longer than ten (10) days from the date of issuance. Warrants not returned within such time limits shall be void.

ァ 11.306 Search without a warrant.
top
No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except:

(a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or

(b) With the voluntary consent of the person being searched; or

(c) When the search is of a moving vehicle and the officer has probable cause to believe that it contains contraband, stolen property, or property otherwise unlawfully possessed.

ァ 11.307 Disposition of seized property.
top
(a) The officer serving and executing a warrant shall make an inventory of all seized property, and a copy of such inventory shall be left with every person from whom property is seized.

(b) A hearing shall be held by the Court of Indian Offenses to determine the disposition of all seized property. Upon satisfactory proof of ownership, the property shall be delivered immediately to the owner, unless such property is contraband or is to be used as evidence in a pending case. Property seized as evidence shall be returned to the owner after final judgment. Property confiscated as contraband shall be destroyed or otherwise lawfully disposed of as ordered by the Court of Indian Offenses.

ァ 11.308 Commitments.
top
No person may be detained, jailed or imprisoned under the regulations of this part for longer than 48 hours unless the Court of Indian Offenses issues a commitment bearing the signature of a magistrate. A temporary commitment shall be issued for each person held before trial. A final commitment shall be issued for each person sentenced to jail after trial.

ァ 11.309 Arraignments.
top
(a) Arraignment is the bringing of an accused before the court, informing him or her of his or her rights and of the charge(s) against him or her, receiving the plea, and setting conditions of pretrial release as appropriate in accordance with this part.

(b) Arraignment shall be held in open court without unnecessary delay after the accused is taken into custody and in no instance shall arraignment be later than the next regular session of court.

(c) Before an accused is required to plead to any criminal charges the magistrate shall:

(1) Read the complaint to the accused and determine that he or she understands it and the section(s) of this part that he or she is charged with violating, including the maximum authorized penalty; and

(2) Advise the accused that he or she has the right to remain silent, to be tried by a jury if the offense charged is punishable by imprisonment, to be represented by counsel (which shall be paid for by the government if the accused is indigent) and that the arraignment will be postponed should he or she desire to consult with counsel.

(d) The magistrate shall call upon the defendant to plead to the charge:

(1) If the accused pleads 渡ot guilty to the charge, the magistrate shall then inform the accused of the trial date and set conditions for release prior to trial.

(2) If the accused pleads 堵uilty to the charge, the magistrate shall accept the plea only if he or she is satisfied that the plea is made voluntarily and that the accused understands the consequences of the plea, including the rights waived by the plea. The magistrate may then impose sentence or defer sentencing for a reasonable time in order to obtain any information he or she deems necessary for the imposition of a just sentence. The accused shall be afforded an opportunity to be heard by the court prior to sentencing.

(3) If the accused refuses to plead, the judge shall enter a plea of 渡ot guilty on his or her behalf.

(e) The court may, in its discretion, allow a defendant to withdraw a plea of guilty if it appears that the interest of justice would be served by doing so.

ァ 11.310 Bail.
top
(a) Each person charged with a criminal offense under this part shall be entitled to release from custody pending trial under whichever one or more of the following conditions is deemed necessary to reasonably assure the appearance of the person at any time lawfully required:

(1) Release on personal recognizance upon execution by the accused of a written promise to appear at trial and all other lawfully required times;

(2) Release to the custody of a designated person or organization agreeing to assure the accused's appearance;

(3) Release with reasonable restrictions on the travel, association, or place of residence of the accused during the period of release;

(4) Release after deposit of a bond or other sufficient collateral in an amount specified by the magistrate or a bail schedule;

(5) Release after execution of a bail agreement by two responsible members of the community; or

(6) Release upon any other condition deemed reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the accused as required.

(b) Any law enforcement officer authorized to do so by the court may admit an arrested person to bail pending trial pursuant to a bail schedule and conditions prepared by the court.

(c) A convicted person may be released from custody pending appeal on such conditions as the magistrate determines will reasonably assure the appearance of the accused unless the magistrate determines that release of the accused is likely to pose a danger to the community, the accused, or any other person.

(d) The Court of Indian Offenses may revoke its release of the defendant and order him or her committed at any time where it determines that the conditions of release will not reasonably assure the appearance of the defendant, or if any conditions of release have been violated.

ァ 11.311 Subpoenas.
top
(a) Upon request of any party, the court shall issue subpoenas to compel the testimony of witnesses, or the production of books, records, documents or any other physical evidence relevant to the determination of the case and not an undue burden on the person possessing the evidence. The clerk of the court may act on behalf of the court and issue subpoenas which have been signed either by the clerk of the court or by a magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses and which are to be served within Indian country over which the Court of Indian Offenses has jurisdiction.

(b) A subpoena shall bear the signature of the chief magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses, and it shall state the name of the court, the name of the person or description of the physical evidence to be subpoenaed, the title of the proceeding, and the time and place where the witness is to appear or the evidence is to be produced.

(c) A subpoena may be served at any place but any subpoena to be served outside of the Indian country over which the Court of Indian Offenses has jurisdiction shall be issued personally by a magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses.

(d) A subpoena may be served by any law enforcement officer or other person appointed by the court for such purpose. Service of a subpoena shall be made by delivering a copy of it to the person named or by leaving a copy at his or her place of residence or business with any person 18 years of age or older who also resides or works there.

(e) Proof of service of the subpoena shall be filed with the clerk of the court by noting on the back of the subpoena the date, time and place that it was served and noting the name of the person to whom it was delivered. Proof of service shall be signed by the person who actually served the subpoena.

(f) In the absence of a justification satisfactory to the court, a person who fails to obey a subpoena may be deemed to be in contempt of court and a bench warrant may be issued for his or her arrest.

ァ 11.312 Witness fees.
top
(a) Each fact witness answering a subpoena is entitled to a fee of not less than the hourly minimum wage scale established by 29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1) and any of its subsequent revisions, plus actual cost of travel. Each fact witness testifying at a hearing shall receive pay for a full day (eight hours) plus travel allowance.

(b) The Court of Indian Offenses may order any party calling a witness to testify without a subpoena to compensate the witness for actual traveling and living expenses incurred in testifying.

(c) If the Court of Indian Offenses finds that a complaint was not filed in good faith but with a frivolous or malicious intent, it may order the complainant to reimburse the court for expenditures incurred under this section, and such order may constitute a judgment upon which execution may levy.

ァ 11.313 Trial procedure.
top
(a) The time and place of court sessions, and all other details of judicial procedure shall be set out in rules of court approved by the chief magistrate of the Court of Indian Offenses.

(b) Courts of Indian Offenses shall be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence, except insofar as such rules are superseded by order of the court or by the existence of inconsistent tribal rules of evidence.

ァ 11.314 Jury trials.
top
(a) In any criminal case punishable by a sentence of six months in jail and in any criminal case in which the prosecutor informs the court before the case comes to trial that a jail sentence will be sought, the defendant has a right, upon demand, to a jury trial. If the prosecutor informs the court that no prison sentence will be sought, the court may not impose a prison sentence for the offense.

(b) A jury shall consist of eight Indian residents of the vicinity in which trial is held, selected from a list of eligible jurors prepared each year by the court. An eligible juror shall be at least 18 years of age, shall not have been convicted of a felony, and shall not otherwise be unqualified according to standards established by the Court of Indian Offenses under its general rulemaking authority. Any party may challenge without cause not more than three members of the jury panel so chosen.

(c) The magistrate shall instruct the jury with regard to the applicable law and the jury shall decide all questions of fact on the basis of the law.

(d) The jury shall deliberate in secret and return a verdict of guilty or not guilty. Six out of the eight jurors must concur to render a verdict.

(e) Each juror who serves on a jury is entitled to a fee not less than the hourly minimum wage scale established by 29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1), and any of its subsequent revisions, plus mileage not to exceed the maximum rate per mile established by the Federal Government of jurors and witnesses. Each juror shall receive pay for a full day (eight hours) for any portion of a day served, plus travel allowance.

ァ 11.315 Sentencing.
top
(a) Any person who has been convicted in a Court of Indian Offenses of a criminal offense under the regulations of this part may be sentenced to one or a combination of the following penalties:

(1) Imprisonment for a period not to exceed the maximum permitted by the section defining the offense, which in no case shall be greater than six months.

(2) A money fine in an amount not to exceed the maximum permitted by the section defining the offense, which in no case shall be greater than five hundred dollars ($500).

(3) Labor for the benefit of the tribe.

(4) Rehabilitative measures.

(b) In addition to or in lieu of the penalties provided in paragraph (a) of this section, the court may require a convicted offender who has inflicted injury upon the person or property of another to make restitution or compensate the injured person by means of the surrender of property, payment of money damages, or the performance of any other act for the benefit of the injured party.

(c) If, solely because of indigence, a convicted offender is unable to pay forthwith a money fine assessed under any applicable section, the court shall allow him or her a reasonable period of time to pay the entire sum or allow him or her to make reasonable installment payments to the clerk of the court at specified intervals until the entire sum is paid. If the offender defaults on such payments the court may find him or her in contempt of court and imprison him or her accordingly.

ァ 11.316 Probation.
top
(a) Where a sentence of imprisonment has been imposed on a convicted offender, the Court of Indian Offenses may, in its discretion, suspend the serving of such sentence and release the person on probation under any reasonable conditions deemed appropriate by the court, provided that the period of probation shall not exceed one year.

(b) Any person who violates the terms of his or her probation may be required by the court to serve the sentence originally imposed or such part of it as the court may determine to be suitable giving consideration to all the circumstances, provided that such revocation of probation shall not be ordered without a hearing before the court at which the offender shall have the opportunity to explain his or her actions.

ァ 11.317 Parole.
top
(a) Any person sentenced by the court of detention or labor shall be eligible for parole at such time and under such reasonable conditions as set by the Court of Indian Offenses.

(b) Any person who violates the conditions of his or her parole may be required by the court to serve the whole original sentence, provided that such revocation or parole shall not be ordered without a hearing before the court at which the offender shall have the opportunity to explain his or her actions.

ァ 11.318 Extradition.
top
Any Court of Indian Offenses may order delivery to the proper state, tribal or BIA law enforcement authorities of any person found within the jurisdiction of the court, who is charged with an offense in another jurisdiction. Prior to delivery to the proper officials, the accused shall be accorded a right to contest the propriety of the court's order in a hearing before the court.

Subpart D佑riminal Offenses
top
ァ 11.400 Assault.
top
(a) A person is guilty of assault if he or she:

(1) Attempts to cause or purposely, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury to another; or

(2) Negligently causes bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon; or

(3) Attempts by physical menace to put another in fear of imminent serious bodily injury.

(b) Assault is a misdemeanor unless committed in a fight or scuffle entered into by mutual consent, in which case it is a petty misdemeanor.

ァ 11.401 Recklessly endangering another person.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she recklessly engages in conduct which places or may place another person in danger of death or serious bodily injury. Recklessness and danger shall be presumed where a person knowingly points a firearm at or in the direction of another person, whether or not the actor believed the firearm to be loaded.

[58 FR 54411, Oct. 21, 1993; 58 FR 58729, Nov. 3, 1993]

ァ 11.402 Terroristic threats.
top
A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation of a building, place of assembly or facility of public transportation, or otherwise to cause serious public inconvenience or in reckless disregard of the risk of causing such terror or inconvenience.

ァ 11.403 Unlawful restraint.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly:

(a) Restrains another unlawfully in circumstances exposing him or her to risk of serious bodily injury; or

(b) Holds another in a condition of involuntary servitude.

ァ 11.404 False imprisonment.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly restrains another unlawfully so as to interfere substantially with his or her liberty.

ァ 11.405 Interference with custody.
top
(a) Custody of children. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any child under the age of 18 from the custody of his or her parent, guardian or other lawful custodian, when he or she has no privilege to do so.

(b) Custody of committed person. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any committed person away from lawful custody when he or she does not have the privilege to do so. Committed person means, in addition to anyone committed under judicial warrant, any orphan, neglected or delinquent child, mentally defective or insane person, or other dependent or incompetent person entrusted to another's custody by or through a recognized social agency or otherwise by authority of law.

ァ 11.406 Criminal coercion.
top
(a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if, with purpose to unlawfully restrict another's freedom of action to his or her detriment, he or she threatens to:

(1) Commit any criminal offense; or

(2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or

(3) Take or withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action.

(b) Criminal coercion is classified as a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.407 Sexual assault.
top
(a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not his or her spouse, or causes such other person to have sexual contact with him or her, is guilty of sexual assault as a misdemeanor, if:

(1) He or she knows that the conduct is offensive to the other person; or

(2) He or she knows that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders him or her incapable of appraising the nature or his or her conduct; or

(3) He or she knows that the other person is unaware that a sexual act is being committed; or

(4) The other person is less than 10 years old; or

(5) He or she has substantially impaired the other person's power to appraise or control his or her conduct, by administering or employing without the other's knowledge drugs, intoxicants or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance; or

(6) The other person is less than 16 years old and the actor is at least four years older than the other person; or

(7) The other person is less than 21 years old and the actor is his or her guardian or otherwise responsible for general supervision of his or her welfare; or

(8) The other person is in custody of law or detained in a hospital or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over him or her.

(b) Sexual contact is any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim.

ァ 11.408 Indecent exposure.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she exposes his or her genitals under circumstances in which he or she knows his or her conduct is likely to cause affront or alarm.

ァ 11.409 Reckless burning or exploding.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely starts a fire or causes an explosion, whether on his or her property or another's, and thereby recklessly:

(a) Places another person in danger of death or bodily injury; or

(b) Places a building or occupied structure of another in danger of damage or destruction.

ァ 11.410 Criminal mischief.
top
(a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if he or she:

(1) Damages tangible property of another purposely, recklessly, or by negligence in the employment of fire, explosives, or other dangerous means; or

(2) Purposely or recklessly tampers with tangible property of another so as to endanger person or property; or

(3) Purposely or recklessly causes another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat.

(b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if the actor purposely causes pecuniary loss in excess of $100, or a petty misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly causes pecuniary loss in excess of $25. Otherwise, criminal mischief is a violation.

ァ 11.411 Criminal trespass.
top
(a) A person commits an offense if, knowing that he or she is not licensed or privileged to do so, he or she enters or surreptitiously remains in any building or occupied structure. An offense under this subsection is a misdemeanor if it is committed in a dwelling at night. Otherwise it is a petty misdemeanor.

(b) A person commits an offense if, knowing that he or she is not licensed or privileged to do so, he or she enters or remains in any place as to which notice against trespass is given by:

(1) Actual communication to the actor; or

(2) Posting in a manner prescribed by law or reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders; or

(3) Fencing or other enclosure manifestly designed to exclude intruders.

(c) An offense under this section constitutes a petty misdemeanor if the offender defies an order to leave personally communicated to him or her by the owner of the premises or other authorized person. Otherwise it is a violation.

ァ 11.412 Theft.
top
A person who, without permission of the owner, shall take, shoplift, possess or exercise unlawful control over movable property not his or her own or under his or her control with the purpose to deprive the owner thereof or who unlawfully transfers immovable property of another or any interest therein with the purpose to benefit himself or herself or another not entitled thereto shall be guilty of theft, a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.413 Receiving stolen property.
top
A person is guilty of receiving stolen property, a misdemeanor, if he or she purposely receives, retains, or disposes of movable property of another knowing that it has been stolen, or believing that it has probably been stolen, unless the property is received, retained, or disposed with purpose to restore it to the owner. Receiving means acquiring possession, control or title, or lending on the security of the property.

ァ 11.414 Embezzlement.
top
A person who shall, having lawful custody of property not his or her own, appropriate the same to his or her own use, with intent to deprive the owner thereof, shall be guilty of embezzlement, a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.415 Fraud.
top
A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false interpreting, or by the use of false weights or measures obtain any money or other property, shall be guilty of fraud, a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.416 Forgery.
top
(a) A person is guilty of forgery, a misdemeanor, if, with purpose to defraud or injure anyone, or with knowledge that he or she is facilitating fraud or injury to be perpetrated by anyone, he or she:

(1) Alters, makes, completes, authenticates, issues or transfers any writing of another without his or her authority; or

(2) Utters any writing which he or she knows to be forged in a manner above specified.

(b) 展riting includes printing or any other method of recording information, money, coins, tokens, stamps, seals, credit cards, badges, trademarks, and other symbols of value, right, privilege, or identification.

ァ 11.417 Extortion.
top
A person who shall willfully, by making false charges against another person or by any other means whatsoever, extort or attempt to extort any moneys, goods, property, or anything else of any value, shall be guilty of extortion, a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.418 Misbranding.
top
A person who shall knowingly and willfully misbrand or alter any brand or mark on any livestock of another person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's automobile, airplane, motorcycle, motorboat, or other motor-propelled vehicle without consent of the owner. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this section that the actor reasonably believed that the owner would have consented to the operation had he or she known of it.

ァ 11.420 Tampering with records.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if, knowing that he or she has no privilege to do so, he or she falsifies, destroys, removes or conceals any writing or record, with purpose to deceive or injure anyone or to conceal any wrongdoing.

ァ 11.421 Bad checks.
top
(a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for the payment of money, knowing that it will not be honored by the drawee, commits a misdemeanor.

(b) For the purposes of this section, an issuer is presumed to know that the check or order would not be paid, if:

(1) The issuer had no account with the drawee at the time the check or order was issued; or

(2) Payment was refused by the drawee for lack of funds, upon presentation within 30 days after issue, and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal.

ァ 11.422 Unauthorized use of credit cards.
top
(a) A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she uses a credit card for the purpose of obtaining property or services with knowledge that:

(1) The card is stolen or forged; or

(2) The card has been revoked or cancelled; or

(3) For any other reason his or her use of the card is unauthorized by the issuer.

(b) Credit card means a writing or other evidence of an undertaking to pay for property or services delivered or rendered to or upon the order of a designated person or bearer.

ァ 11.423 Defrauding secured creditors.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she destroys, conceals, encumbers, transfers or otherwise deals with property subject to a security interest with purpose to hinder that interest.

ァ 11.424 Neglect of children.
top
(a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the child's welfare by violating a duty of care, protection or support.

(b) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a violation if he or she neglects or refuses to send the child to school.

ァ 11.425 Persistent non-support.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she persistently fails to provide support which he or she can provide and which he or she knows he or she is legally obliged to provide to a spouse, child or other dependent.

ァ 11.426 Bribery.
top
(a) A person is guilty of bribery, a misdemeanor, if he or she offers, confers or agrees to confer upon another, or solicits, accepts or agrees to accept from another:

(1) Any pecuniary benefit as consideration for the recipient's decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion as a public servant, party official or voter; or

(2) Any benefit as consideration for the recipient's decision, vote, recommendation or other exercise of official discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding; or

(3) Any benefit as consideration for a violation of a known legal duty as a public servant or party official.

(b) It is no defense to prosecution under this section that a person whom the actor sought to influence was not qualified to act in the desired way, whether because he or she had not yet assumed office, or lacked jurisdiction, or for any other reason.

ァ 11.427 Threats and other improper influence in official and political matters.
top
(a) A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she:

(1) Threatens unlawful harm to any person with purpose to influence his or her decision, vote or other exercise of discretion as a public servant, party official or voter; or

(2) Threatens harm to any public servant with purpose to influence his decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding; or

(3) Threatens harm to any public servant with purpose to influence his decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding; or

(b) It is no defense to prosecution under this section that a person whom the actor sought to influence was not qualified to act in the desired way, whether because he or she had not yet assumed office, or lacked jurisdiction, or for any other reason.

ァ 11.428 Retaliation for past official action.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she harms another by any unlawful act in retaliation for anything lawfully done by the latter in the capacity of public servant.

ァ 11.429 Perjury.
top
A person is guilty of perjury, a misdemeanor, if in any official proceeding he or she makes a false statement under oath or equivalent affirmation, or swears or affirms the truth of a statement previously made, when the statement is material and he or she does not believe it to be true.

(a) No person shall be guilty of an offense under this section if he or she retracted the falsification in the course of the proceeding in which it was made before it became manifest that the falsification was or would be exposed and before the falsification substantially affected the proceeding.

(b) No person shall be convicted of an offense under this section where proof of falsity rests solely upon contradiction by testimony of a single person other than the defendant.

ァ 11.430 False alarms.
top
A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or other emergency to be transmitted to, or within any organization, official or volunteer, for dealing with emergencies involving danger to life or property commits a misdemeanor.

ァ 11.431 False reports.
top
(a) A person who knowingly gives false information to any law enforcement officer with the purpose to implicate another commits a misdemeanor.

(b) A person commits a petty misdemeanor if he or she:

(1) Reports to law enforcement authorities an offense or other incident within their concern knowing that it did not occur; or

(2) Pretends to furnish such authorities with information relating to an offense or incident when he or she knows he or she has no information relating to such offense or incident.

ァ 11.432 Impersonating a public servant.
top
A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she falsely pretends to hold a position in the public service with purpose to induce another to submit to such pretended official authority or otherwise to act in reliance uponthat pretense to his or her prejudice. (continued)