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United States Regulations

Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade



Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801–1882; 16 U.S.C. 1531–1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361–1407; 16 U.S.C. 3371–3378; 16 U.S.C. 1431–1439; 16 U.S.C. 773–773k; 16 U.S.C. 951–961; 16 U.S.C. 5001–5012; 16 U.S.C. 3631–3644; 42 U.S.C. 9101 et seq.; 30 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.; 16 U.S.C. 971–971k; 16 U.S.C. 781 et seq.; 16 U.S.C. 2401–2413; 16 U.S.C. 2431–2444; 16 U.S.C. 972–972h; 16 U.S.C. 916–916l; 16 U.S.C. 1151–1175; 16 U.S.C. 3601–3608; 16 U.S.C. 1851 note; 15 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.; Pub. L. 105–277; 16 U.S.C. 1822 note, Section 801(f); 16 U.S.C. 2465(a); 16 U.S.C. 5103(b); 16 U.S.C. 1385 et seq.; 16 U.S.C. 1822 note (Section 4006); 16 U.S.C. 4001–4017; 22 U.S.C. 1980(g); 16 U.S.C. 5506(a); 16 U.S.C. 5601–5612; 16 U.S.C. 1822; 16 U.S.C. 973–973(r); 15 U.S.C. 330–330(e).

Source: 71 FR 12448, Mar. 10, 2006, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General
§ 904.1 Purpose and scope.
(a) This part sets forth the procedures governing NOAA's administrative proceedings for assessment of civil penalties, suspension, revocation, modification, or denial of permits, issuance and use of written warnings, and release or forfeiture of seized property.

(b) This subpart defines terms appearing in this part and sets forth rules for the filing and service of documents in administrative proceedings covered by this part.

(c) The following statutes authorize NOAA to assess civil penalties, impose permit sanctions, issue written warnings, and/or seize and forfeit property in response to violations of those statutes:

(1) American Fisheries Act of 1998, Public Law 105–277;

(2) Anadromous Fish Products Act, 16 U.S.C. 1822 note, Section 801(f);

(3) Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2401–2413;

(4) Antarctic Marine Living Resources Convention Act of 1984, 16 U.S.C. 2431–2444;

(5) Antarctic Protection Act of 1990, 16 U.S.C. 2465(a);

(6) Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act, 16 U.S.C. 5103(b);

(7) Atlantic Salmon Convention Act of 1982, 16 U.S.C. 3601–3608;

(8) Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. 1851 note;

(9) Atlantic Tunas Convention Act of 1975, 16 U.S.C. 971–971k;

(10) Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act, 30 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.;

(11) Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act, 16 U.S.C. 1385 et seq.;

(12) Driftnet Impact Monitoring, Assessment, and Control Act, 16 U.S.C. 1822 note (Section 4006);

(13) Eastern Pacific Tuna Licensing Act of 1984, 16 U.S.C. 972–972h;

(14) Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531–1543;

(15) Fish and Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, 16 U.S.C. 4001–4017;

(16) Fisherman's Protective Act of 1967, 22 U.S.C. 1980(g);

(17) Fur Seal Act Amendments of 1983, 16 U.S.C. 1151–1175;

(18) High Seas Fishing Compliance Act, 16 U.S.C. 5506(a);

(19) Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371–3378;

(20) Land Remote-Sensing Policy Act of 1992, 15 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.;

(21) Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 16 U.S.C. 1801–1882;

(22) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361–1407;

(23) National Marine Sanctuaries Act, 16 U.S.C. 1431–1439;

(24) North Pacific Anadromous Stocks Convention Act of 1992, 16 U.S.C. 5001–5012;

(25) Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982, 16 U.S.C. 773–773k;

(26) Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Convention Act of 1995, 16 U.S.C. 5601–5612;

(27) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, 42 U.S.C. 9101 et seq.;

(28) Pacific Salmon Treaty Act of 1985, 16 U.S.C. 3631–3644;

(29) Shark Finning Prohibition Act, 16 U.S.C. 1822;

(30) South Pacific Tuna Act of 1988, 16 U.S.C. 973–973(r);

(31) Sponge Act, 16 U.S.C. 781 et seq.;

(32) Tuna Conventions Act of 1950, 16 U.S.C. 951–961;

(33) Weather Modification Reporting Act, 15 U.S.C. 330–330e; and

(34) Whaling Convention Act of 1949, 16 U.S.C. 916–916l.

(d) The procedures set forth in this part are intended to apply to administrative proceedings under these and any other statutes or authorities administered by NOAA.

§ 904.2 Definitions and acronyms.
Unless the context otherwise requires, or as otherwise noted, terms in this Part have the meanings prescribed in the applicable statute or regulation. In addition, the following definitions apply:

Administrator means the Administrator of NOAA or a designee.

Agency means the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

ALJ Docketing Center means the Docketing Center of the Office of Administrative Law Judges.

Applicable statute means a statute cited in §904.1(c), and any regulations issued by NOAA to implement it.

Authorized officer means:

(1) Any commissioned, warrant, or petty officer of the USCG;

(2) Any special agent or fishery enforcement officer of NMFS;

(3) Any officer designated by the head of any Federal or state agency that has entered into an agreement with the Secretary to enforce the provisions of any statute administered by NOAA; or

(4) Any USCG personnel accompanying and acting under the direction of any person described in paragraph (1) of this definition.

Citation means a written warning (see section 311(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 16 U.S.C. 1861(c), and section 11(c) of the Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982, 16 U.S.C. 773i(c)).

Civil penalty means a civil administrative monetary penalty assessed under the civil administrative process described in this part.

Decision means an initial or final administrative decision of the Judge.

Ex parte communication means an oral or written communication not on the public record with respect to which reasonable prior notice to all parties is not given, but does not include inquiries regarding procedures, scheduling, and status.

Final administrative decision means an order or decision of NOAA assessing a civil penalty or permit sanction which is not subject to further Agency review under this part, and which is subject to collection proceedings or judicial review in an appropriate Federal district court as authorized by law.

Forfeiture includes, but is not limited to, surrender or relinquishment of any claim to an item by written agreement, or otherwise; or extinguishment of any claim to, and transfer of title to an item to the U.S. Government by court order or by order of the Administrator under a statute.

Hearing means a civil administrative hearing on a NOVA, NOPS and/or NIDP.

Initial decision means a decision of the Judge that, under applicable statute and regulation, is subject to review by the Administrator.

Judge means Administrative Law Judge.

NIDP means Notice of Intent to Deny Permit.

NMFS means the National Marine Fisheries Service.

NOAA (see Agency) means either the Administrator or a designee acting on behalf of the Administrator.

NOPS means Notice of Permit Sanction.

NOVA means Notice of Violation and Assessment of civil penalty.

Party means the respondent and the Agency; a joint and several respondent, vessel owner, or permit holder, if they enter an appearance; and any other person allowed to participate under §904.204(b).

Permit means any license, permit, certificate, or other approval issued by NOAA under an applicable statute.

Permit holder means the holder of a permit or any agent or employee of the holder, and includes the owner and operator of a vessel for which the permit was issued.

Permit sanction means suspension, revocation, or modification of a permit (see §904.320).

PPIP means Preliminary Position on Issues and Procedures.

Respondent means a person issued a written warning, NOVA, NOPS, NIDP or other notice.

Settlement agreement means any agreement resolving all or part of an administrative or judicial action. The terms of such an agreement may include, but are not limited to, payment of a civil penalty, and/or imposition of a permit sanction.

USCG means the U.S. Coast Guard.

Vessel owner means the owner of any vessel that may be liable in rem for any civil penalty, or whose permit may be subject to sanction in proceedings under this part.

Written warning means a notice in writing to a person that a violation has been documented against the person or against the vessel which is owned or operated by the person, where no civil penalty or permit sanction is imposed or assessed.

§ 904.3 Filing and service of notices, documents, and other papers.
(a) Service of a NOVA (§904.101), NOPS (§904.302), NIDP (§904.303), Notice of Proposed Forfeiture (§904.504), Notice of Seizure (§904.501), Notice of Summary Sale (§904.505) or Written Warning (§904.402) may be made by certified mail (return receipt requested), facsimile, electronic transmission, or third party commercial carrier to an addressee's last known address or by personal delivery. Service of a notice under this subpart will be considered effective upon receipt.

(b) Service of documents and papers, other than such Notices as described in paragraph (a) of this section, may be made by first class mail (postage prepaid), facsimile, electronic transmission, or third party commercial carrier, to an addressee's last known address or by personal delivery. Service of documents and papers will be considered effective upon the date of postmark (or as otherwise shown for government-franked mail), facsimile transmission, delivery to third party commercial carrier, electronic transmission or upon personal delivery.

(c) Whenever this part requires service of a NOVA, NOPS, NIDP, document, or other paper, such service may effectively be made on the agent for service of process, on the attorney for the person to be served, or other representative. Refusal by the person to be served (including an agent, attorney, or representative) of service of a document or other paper will be considered effective service of the document or other paper as of the date of such refusal. In cases where certified notification is returned unclaimed, service will be considered effective if the U.S. Postal Service provides an affidavit stating that the party was receiving mail at the same address during the period when certified service was attempted.

(d) Any documents or pleadings filed or served must be signed:

(1) By the person or persons filing the same,

(2) By an officer thereof if a corporation,

(3) By an officer or authorized employee if a government instrumentality, or

(4) By an attorney or other person having authority to sign.

§ 904.4 Computation of time periods.
For a NOVA, NOPS or NIDP, the 30 day response period begins to run on the date the notice is received. All other time periods begin to run on the day following the service date of the document, paper, or event that begins the time period. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays will be included in computing such time, except that when such time expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, in which event such period will be extended to include the next business day. This method of computing time periods also applies to any act, such as paying a civil penalty, required by this part to take place within a specified period of time. When the period of time prescribed or allowed is less than 11 days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays will be excluded in the computation.

§ 904.5 Appearances.
(a) A party may appear in person or by or with counsel or other representative.

(b) Whenever an attorney or other representative contacts the Agency on behalf of another person with regard to any matter that has resulted in, or may result in, a written warning, a NOVA, NOPS, NIDP, or a forfeiture proceeding, that attorney or other representative shall file a Notice of Appearance with the Agency. Such notice shall indicate the name of the person on whose behalf the appearance is made.

(c) Each attorney or other representative who represents a party in any hearing shall file a written Notice of Appearance with the Judge. Such notice shall indicate the name of the case, the docket number, and the party on whose behalf the appearance is made.

Subpart B—Civil Penalties
§ 904.100 General.
This subpart sets forth the procedures governing NOAA administrative proceedings for the assessment of civil penalties under the statutes cited in §904.1(c).

§ 904.101 Notice of violation and assessment (NOVA).
(a) A NOVA will be issued by NOAA and served upon the respondent(s). The NOVA will contain:

(1) A concise statement of the facts believed to show a violation;

(2) A specific reference to the provisions of the Act, regulation, license, permit, agreement, or order allegedly violated;

(3) The findings and conclusions upon which NOAA bases the assessment;

(4) The amount of the civil penalty assessed; and

(5) Information concerning the respondent's rights upon receipt of the NOVA, and will be accompanied by a copy of the regulations in this part governing the proceedings.

(b) In assessing a civil penalty, NOAA will take into account information available to the Agency concerning any factor to be considered under the applicable statute, and any other information that justice or the purposes of the statute require.

(c) The NOVA may also contain a proposal for compromise or settlement of the case. NOAA may also attach documents that illuminate the facts believed to show a violation.

§ 904.102 Procedures upon receipt of a NOVA.
(a) The respondent has 30 days from receipt of the NOVA in which to respond. During this time the respondent may:

(1) Accept the penalty or compromise penalty, if any, by taking the actions specified in the NOVA;

(2) Seek to have the NOVA amended, modified, or rescinded under paragraph (b) of this section;

(3) Request a hearing under §904.201(a);

(4) Request an extension of time to respond under paragraph (c) of this section; or

(5) Take no action, in which case the NOVA becomes a final administrative decision in accordance with §904.104.

(b) The respondent may seek amendment or modification of the NOVA to conform to the facts or law as that person sees them by notifying Agency counsel at the telephone number or address specified in the NOVA. If amendment or modification is sought, Agency counsel will either amend the NOVA or decline to amend it, and so notify the respondent.

(c) The respondent may, within the 30 day period specified in paragraph (a) of this section, request an extension of time to respond. Agency counsel may grant an extension of up to 30 days unless he or she determines that the requester could, exercising reasonable diligence, respond within the 30 day period. If Agency counsel does not respond to the request within 48 hours of its receipt, the request is granted automatically for the extension requested, up to a maximum of 30 days. A telephonic response to the request within the 48 hour period is considered an effective response, and will be followed by written confirmation.

(d) Agency counsel may, for good cause, grant an additional extension beyond the 30 day period specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

§ 904.103 Hearing.
(a) Any hearing request under §904.102(a)(3) is governed by the hearing and review procedures set forth in subpart C of this part.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 904.104 Final administrative decision.
(a) If no request for hearing is timely filed as provided in §904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted.

(b) If a request for hearing is timely filed in accordance with §904.201(a), the date of the final administrative decision is as provided in subpart C of this part.

§ 904.105 Payment of final civil penalty.
(a) Respondent must make full payment of the civil penalty within 30 days of the date upon which the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA under §904.104 or the date of the final administrative decision as provided in subpart C of this part. Payment must be made by mailing or delivering to NOAA at the address specified in the NOVA a check or money order made payable in U.S. currency in the amount of the assessment to the “Department of Commerce/NOAA,” by credit card, or as otherwise directed.

(b) Upon any failure to pay the civil penalty assessed, NOAA may request the U.S. Department of Justice to recover the amount assessed in any appropriate district court of the United States, may act under §904.106, or may commence any other lawful action.

§ 904.106 Compromise of civil penalty.
(a) NOAA, in its sole discretion, may compromise, modify, remit, or mitigate, with or without conditions, any civil penalty assessed, or which is subject to assessment, except as stated in paragraph (d) of this section.

(b) The compromise authority of NOAA under this section may be exercised either upon the initiative of NOAA or in response to a request by the respondent or a representative subject to the requirements of §904.5. Any such request should be sent to Agency counsel at the address specified in the NOVA.

(c) Neither the existence of the compromise authority of NOAA under this section nor NOAA's exercise thereof at any time changes the date upon which a NOVA becomes final.

(d) NOAA will not compromise, modify, or remit a civil penalty assessed, or subject to assessment, under the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act while an action to review or recover the civil penalty is pending in a court of the United States.

§ 904.107 Joint and several respondents.
(a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for the entire penalty but, in total, no more than the amount finally assessed may be collected from the respondents.

(b) A hearing request by one joint and several respondent is considered a request by the other joint and several respondent(s). Agency counsel, having received a hearing request from one joint and several respondent, will send a copy of it to the other joint and several respondent(s) in the case. However, if the requesting joint and several respondent settles with the Agency prior to the hearing, upon notification by the Agency, any remaining joint and several respondent(s) must affirmatively request a hearing within the time period specified or the case will be removed from the court's docket as provided in §904.213.

(c) A final administrative decision by the Judge or the Administrator after a hearing requested by one joint and several respondent is binding on all parties including all other joint and several respondent(s), whether or not they entered an appearance unless they have otherwise resolved the matter through settlement with the Agency.

§ 904.108 Factors considered in assessing civil penalties.
(a) Factors to be taken into account in assessing a civil penalty, depending upon the statute in question, may include the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the alleged violation; the respondent's degree of culpability, any history of prior violations, and ability to pay; and such other matters as justice may require.

(b) NOAA may, in consideration of a respondent's ability to pay, increase or decrease a civil penalty from an amount that would otherwise be warranted by the other relevant factors. A civil penalty may be increased if a respondent's ability to pay is such that a higher civil penalty is necessary to deter future violations, or for commercial violators, to make a civil penalty more than a cost of doing business. A civil penalty may be decreased if the respondent establishes that he or she is unable to pay an otherwise appropriate civil penalty amount.

(c) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, if a respondent asserts that a civil penalty should be reduced because of an inability to pay, the respondent has the burden of proving such inability by providing verifiable, complete, and accurate financial information to NOAA. NOAA will not consider a respondent's inability to pay unless the respondent, upon request, submits such financial information as Agency counsel determines is adequate to evaluate the respondent's financial condition. Depending on the circumstances of the case, Agency counsel may require the respondent to complete a financial information request form, answer written interrogatories, or submit independent verification of his or her financial information. If the respondent does not submit the requested financial information, he or she will be presumed to have the ability to pay the civil penalty.

(d) Financial information relevant to a respondent's ability to pay includes but is not limited to, the value of respondent's cash and liquid assets; ability to borrow; net worth; liabilities; income tax returns; past, present, and future income; prior and anticipated profits; expected cash flow; and the respondent's ability to pay in installments over time. A respondent will be considered able to pay a civil penalty even if he or she must take such actions as pay in installments over time, borrow money, liquidate assets, or reorganize his or her business. NOAA's consideration of a respondent's ability to pay does not preclude an assessment of a civil penalty in an amount that would cause or contribute to the bankruptcy or other discontinuation of the respondent's business.

(e) Financial information regarding respondent's ability to pay should be submitted to Agency counsel as soon as possible after the receipt of the NOVA. If a respondent has requested a hearing on the violation alleged in the NOVA and wants the initial decision of the Judge to consider his or her inability to pay, verifiable, complete, and accurate financial information must be submitted to Agency counsel at least 30 days in advance of the hearing, except where the applicable statute expressly provides for a different time period. No information regarding the respondent's ability to pay submitted by the respondent less than 30 days in advance of the hearing will be admitted at the hearing or considered in the initial decision of the Judge, unless the Judge rules otherwise. If the Judge decides to admit any information related to the respondent's ability to pay submitted less than 30 days in advance of the hearing, Agency Counsel will have 30 days to respond to the submission from the date of admission. In deciding whether to submit such information, the respondent should keep in mind that the Judge may assess de novo a civil penalty either greater or smaller than that assessed in the NOVA.

(f) Issues regarding ability to pay will not be considered in an administrative review of an initial decision if the financial information was not previously presented by the respondent to the Judge prior to or at the hearing.

(g) Whenever a statute requires NOAA to take into consideration a respondent's ability to pay when assessing a civil penalty, NOAA will take into consideration information available to it concerning a respondent's ability to pay. In all cases, the NOVA will advise, in accordance with §904.102, that the respondent may seek to have the civil penalty amount modified by Agency counsel on the basis that he or she does not have the ability to pay the civil penalty assessed. A request to have the civil penalty amount modified on this basis must be made in accordance with §904.102 and should be accompanied by supporting financial information. Agency counsel may request that the respondent submit such additional verifiable, complete and accurate financial information as Agency counsel determines is necessary to evaluate the respondent's financial condition (such as by responding to a financial information request form or written interrogatories, or by authorizing independent verification of respondent's financial condition). A respondent's failure to provide the requested information may serve as the basis for inferring that such information would not have supported the respondent's assertion of inability to pay the civil penalty assessed in the NOVA.

(h) Whenever a statute requires NOAA to take into consideration a respondent's ability to pay when assessing a civil penalty and the respondent has requested a hearing on the violation alleged in the NOVA, the Agency must submit information on the respondent's financial condition so that the Judge may consider that information, along with any other factors required to be considered, in the Judge's de novo assessment of a civil penalty. Agency counsel may obtain such financial information through discovery procedures under §904.240, or otherwise. A respondent's refusal or failure to respond to such discovery requests may serve as the basis for inferring that such information would have been adverse to any claim by respondent of inability to pay the assessed civil penalty, or result in respondent being barred from asserting financial hardship.

Subpart C—Hearing and Appeal Procedures
§ 904.200 Scope and applicability.
(a) This subpart sets forth the procedures governing the conduct of hearings and the issuance of initial and final administrative decisions of NOAA involving alleged violations of the laws cited in §904.1(c) and regulations implementing these laws, including civil penalty assessments and permit sanctions and denials. By separate regulation, these rules may be applied to other proceedings.

(b) The Judge is delegated authority to make the initial or final administrative decision of the Agency in proceedings subject to the provisions of this subpart, and to take actions to promote the efficient and fair conduct of hearings as set out in this subpart. The Judge has no authority to rule on constitutional issues or challenges to the validity of regulations promulgated by the Agency or statutes administered by NOAA.

(c) This subpart is not an independent basis for claiming the right to a hearing but, instead, prescribes procedures for the conduct of hearings, the right to which is provided by other authority.

§ 904.201 Hearing requests and case docketing.
(a) If the respondent wishes a hearing on a NOVA, NOPS or NIDP, the request must be dated and in writing, and must be served either in person or mailed to the Agency counsel specified in the notice. The respondent must either attach a copy of the NOVA, NOPS or NIDP or refer to the relevant NOAA case number. Agency counsel will promptly forward the request for hearing to the ALJ Docketing Center.

(b) If a written application is made to NOAA after the expiration of the time period established in this part for the required filing of hearing requests, Agency counsel will promptly forward the request for hearing along with a motion in opposition, documentation of service and any other relevant materials to the ALJ Docketing Center for a determination on whether such request shall be considered timely filed. Determinations by the ALJ regarding untimely hearing requests under this section shall be in writing.

(c) Upon its receipt for filing in the ALJ Docketing Center, each request for hearing will be promptly assigned a docket number and thereafter the proceeding will be referred to by such number. Written notice of the assignment of hearing to a Judge will promptly be given to the parties.

§ 904.202 Filing of documents.
(a) Pleadings, papers, and other documents in the proceeding must be filed in conformance with §904.3 directly with the Judge, with copies served on the ALJ Docketing Center and all other parties.

(b) Unless otherwise ordered by the Judge, discovery requests and answers will be served on the opposing party and need not be filed with the Judge.

§ 904.203 [Reserved]
§ 904.204 Duties and powers of Judge.
The Judge has all powers and responsibilities necessary to preside over the parties and the hearing, to hold prehearing conferences, to conduct the hearing, and to render decisions in accordance with these regulations and 5 U.S.C. 554 through 557, including, but not limited to, the authority and duty to do the following:

(a) Rule on timeliness of hearing requests pursuant to §904.201(b);

(b) Rule on a request to participate as a party in the hearing by allowing, denying, or limiting such participation (such ruling will consider views of the parties and be based on whether the requester could be directly and adversely affected by the determination and whether the requester can be expected to contribute materially to the disposition of the proceedings);

(c) Schedule the time, place, and manner of conducting the pre-hearing conference or hearing, continue the hearing from day to day, adjourn the hearing to a later date or a different place, and reopen the hearing at any time before issuance of the decision, all in the Judge's discretion, having due regard for the convenience and necessity of the parties and witnesses;

(d) Schedule and regulate the course of the hearing and the conduct of the participants and the media, including the power to rule on motions to close the hearing in the interests of justice; seal the record from public scrutiny to protect privileged information, trade secrets, and confidential commercial or financial information; and strike testimony of a witness who refuses to answer a question ruled to be proper;

(e) Administer oaths and affirmations to witnesses;

(f) Rule on contested discovery requests, establish discovery schedules, and, whenever the ends of justice would thereby be served, take or cause depositions or interrogatories to be taken and issue protective orders under §904.240(d);

(g) Rule on motions, procedural requests, and similar matters;

(h) Receive, exclude, limit, and otherwise rule on offers of proof and evidence;

(i) Examine and cross-examine witnesses and introduce into the record on the Judge's own initiative documentary or other evidence;

(j) Rule on requests for appearance of witnesses or production of documents and take appropriate action upon failure of a party to effect the appearance or production of a witness or document ruled relevant and necessary to the proceeding; as authorized by law, issue subpoenas for the appearance of witnesses or production of documents;

(k) Require a party or witness at any time during the proceeding to state his or her position concerning any issue or his or her theory in support of such position;

(l) Take official notice of any matter not appearing in evidence that is among traditional matters of judicial notice; or of a non-privileged document required by law or regulation to be filed with or published by a duly constituted government body; or of any reasonably available public document; provided that the parties will be advised of the matter noticed and given reasonable opportunity to show the contrary;

(m) For stated good reason(s), assess a civil penalty de novo without being bound by the civil penalty assessed in the NOVA;

(n) Prepare and submit a decision or other appropriate disposition document and certify the record;

(o) Award attorney fees and expenses as provided by applicable statute or regulation;

(p) Grant preliminary or interim relief; or

(q) Impose, upon the motion of any party, or sua sponte, appropriate sanctions.

(1) Sanctions may be imposed when any party, or any person representing a party, in an administrative proceeding under this part has failed to comply with this part, or any order issued under this part, and such failure to comply:

(i) Materially injures or prejudices another party by causing additional expenses; prejudicial delay; or other injury or prejudice;

(ii) Is a clear and unexcused violation of this part, or any order issued under this part; or

(iii) Unduly delays the administrative proceeding.

(2) Sanctions that may be imposed include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following:

(i) Issuing an order against the party;

(ii) Rejecting or striking any testimony or documentary evidence offered, or other papers filed, by the party;

(iii) Expelling the party from the administrative proceedings;

(iv) Precluding the party from contesting specific issues or findings;

(v) Precluding the party from making a late filing or conditioning a late filing on any terms that are just;

(vi) Assessing reasonable expenses, incurred by any other party as a result of the improper action or failure to act; and

(vii) Taking any other action, or imposing any restriction or sanction, authorized by applicable statute or regulation, deemed appropriate by the Judge.

(3) No sanction authorized by this section, other than refusal to accept late filings, shall be imposed without prior notice to all parties and an opportunity for any party against whom sanctions would be imposed to be heard. Such opportunity to be heard may be on such notice, and the response may be in such form as the Judge directs and may be limited to an opportunity for a party or a party's representative to respond orally immediately after the act or inaction is noted by the Judge.

(4) The imposition of sanctions is subject to interlocutory review pursuant to §904.254 in the same manner as any other ruling.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be read as precluding the Judge from taking any other action, or imposing any restriction or sanction, authorized by applicable statute or regulation.

§ 904.205 Disqualification of Judge.
(a) The Judge may withdraw voluntarily from an administrative proceeding when the Judge deems himself/herself disqualified.

(b) A party may in good faith request the Judge to withdraw on the grounds of personal bias or other disqualification. The party seeking the disqualification must file with the Judge a timely affidavit or statement setting forth in detail the facts alleged to constitute the grounds for disqualification, and the Judge will rule on the matter. If the Judge rules against disqualification, the Judge will place all matters relating to such claims of disqualification in the record.

§ 904.206 Pleadings, motions, and service.
(a) The original of all pleadings and documents must be filed with the Judge and a copy served upon the ALJ Docketing Center and each party. All pleadings or documents when submitted for filing must show that service has been made upon all parties. Such service must be made in accordance with §904.3(b).

(b) Pleadings and documents to be filed may be reproduced by printing or any other process, provided the copies are clear and legible; must be dated, the original signed in ink or as otherwise verified for electronic mail; and must show the docket description and title of the proceeding, and the title, if any, address, and telephone number of the signatory. If typewritten, the impression may be on only one side of the paper and must be double spaced, if possible, except that quotations may be single spaced and indented.

(c) Motions must normally be made in writing and must state clearly and concisely the purpose of and relief sought by the motion, the statutory or principal authority relied upon, and the facts claimed to constitute the grounds requiring the relief requested.

(d) Unless otherwise provided, the answer to any written motion, pleading, or petition must be served within 20 days after service of the motion. If a motion states that opposing counsel has no objection, it may be acted upon as soon as practicable, without awaiting the expiration of the 20 day period. Answers must be in writing, unless made in response to an oral motion made at a hearing; must fully and completely advise the parties and the Judge concerning the nature of the opposition; must admit or deny specifically and in detail each material allegation of the pleading answered; and must state clearly and concisely the facts and matters of law relied upon. Any new matter raised in an answer will be deemed controverted.

(e) A response to an answer will be called a reply. A short reply restricted to new matters raised in the answer may be served within 15 days after service of an answer. The Judge has discretion to dispense with the reply. No further responses are permitted.

§ 904.207 Amendment of pleading or record.
(a) A party may amend its pleading as a matter of course at least 20 days prior to a hearing. Within 20 days prior to a hearing a party may amend its pleading only by leave of the Judge or by written consent of the adverse party; leave shall be freely given when justice so requires. A party shall plead in response to an amended pleading within the time remaining for response to the original pleading or within 10 days after service of the amended pleading, whichever period is longer, unless the Judge otherwise orders.

(b) The Judge, upon his or her own initiative or upon application by a party, may order a party to make a more definite statement of any pleading.

(c) Harmless errors in pleadings or elsewhere in the record may be corrected (by deletion or substitution of words or figures), and broad discretion will be exercised by the Judge in permitting such corrections.

§ 904.208 Extensions of time.
If appropriate and justified, the Judge may grant any request for an extension of time. Requests for extensions of time must, except in extraordinary circumstances, be made in writing.

§ 904.209 Expedited administrative proceedings.
In the interests of justice and administrative efficiency, the Judge, on his or her own initiative or upon the application of any party, may expedite the administrative proceeding. A motion by a party to expedite the administrative proceeding may, at the discretion of the Judge, be made orally or in writing with concurrent actual notice to all parties. Upon granting a motion to expedite the scheduling of an administrative proceeding, the Judge may expedite pleading schedules, prehearing conferences and the hearing, as appropriate. If a motion for an expedited administrative proceeding is granted, a hearing on the merits may not be scheduled with less than 5 business days notice, unless all parties consent to an earlier hearing.

§ 904.210 Summary decision.
The Judge may render a summary decision disposing of all or part of the administrative proceeding if:

(a) Jointly requested by every party to the administrative proceeding; and

(b) There is no genuine issue as to any material fact and a party is entitled to summary decision as a matter of law.

§ 904.211 Failure to appear.
(a) If, after proper service of notice, any party appears at the hearing and an opposing party fails to appear, the Judge is authorized to:

(1) Dismiss the case with prejudice, where the Agency is a non-appearing party; or

(2) Where the respondents have failed to appear, find the facts as alleged in the NOVA, NOPS and/or NIDP and enter a default judgment against the respondents.

(b) Following an order of default judgment, a non-appearing party may file a petition for reconsideration, in accordance with §904.272. Only petitions citing reasons for non-appearance, as opposed to arguing the merits of the case, will be considered.

(c) The Judge will place in the record all the facts concerning the issuance and service of the notice of time and place of hearing.

(d) The Judge may deem a failure of a party to appear after proper notice a waiver of any right to a hearing and consent to the making of a decision on the record.

(e) Failure to appear at a hearing shall not be deemed to be a waiver of the right to be served with a copy of the Judge's decision.

§ 904.212 Failure to prosecute or defend.
(a) Whenever the record discloses the failure of any party to file documents, respond to orders or notices from the Judge, or otherwise indicates an intention on the part of any party not to participate further in the administrative proceeding, the Judge may issue:

(1) An order requiring any party to show why the matter that is the subject of the failure to respond should not be disposed of adversely to that party's interest;

(2) An order requiring any party to certify intent to appear at any scheduled hearing; or

(3) Any order, except dismissal, as is necessary for the just and expeditious resolution of the case.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 904.213 Settlements.
If settlement is reached before the Judge has certified the record, the Judge shall remove the case from the docket upon notification by the Agency.

§ 904.214 Stipulations.
The parties may, by stipulation, agree upon any matters involved in the administrative proceeding and include such stipulations in the record with the consent of the Judge. Written stipulations must be signed and served upon all parties.

§ 904.215 Consolidation.
The Chief Administrative Law Judge may order that two or more administrative proceedings that involve substantially the same parties or the same issues be consolidated and/or heard together, either upon request of a party or sua sponte.

§ 904.216 Prehearing conferences.
(a) Prior to any hearing or at any other time deemed appropriate, the Judge may, upon his or her own initiative, or upon the application of any party, direct the parties to appear for a conference or arrange a telephone conference. The Judge shall provide at least 24 hours notice of the conference to the parties, and shall record such conference by audio recording or court reporter, to consider:

(1) Simplification or clarification of the issues or settlement of the case by consent;

(2) The possibility of obtaining stipulations, admissions, agreements, and rulings on admissibility of documents, understandings on matters already of record, or similar agreements that will avoid unnecessary proof;

(3) Agreements and rulings to facilitate the discovery process;

(4) Limitation of the number of expert witnesses or other avoidance of cumulative evidence;

(5) The procedure, course, and conduct of the administrative proceeding;

(6) The distribution to the parties and the Judge prior to the hearing of written testimony and exhibits in order to expedite the hearing; or

(7) Such other matters as may aid in the disposition of the administrative proceeding, including the status of settlement discussions.

(b) The Judge in his or her discretion may issue an order showing the matters disposed of in such conference, and shall provide a transcript of the conference upon the request of a party.

§ 904.240 Discovery generally.
(a) Preliminary position on issues and procedures (PPIP). Prior to hearing the Judge will ordinarily require the parties to submit a written PPIP. Except for information regarding a respondent's ability to pay an assessed civil penalty, this PPIP will normally obviate the need for further discovery.

(1) The PPIP shall include the following information: A factual summary of the case; a summary of all factual and legal issues in dispute; a list of all defenses that will be asserted, together with a summary of all factual and legal bases supporting each defense; a list of all potential witnesses, together with a summary of their anticipated testimony; and a list of all potential exhibits.

(2) The PPIP shall be signed by the party and by an attorney, if one is retained. The PPIP shall be served upon all parties, along with a copy of each potential exhibit listed in the PPIP.

(3) A party has the affirmative obligation to supplement the PPIP as available information or documentation relevant to the stated charges or defenses becomes known to the party.

(b) Additional discovery. Upon written motion by a party, the Judge may allow additional discovery only upon a showing of relevance, need, and reasonable scope of the evidence sought, by one or more of the following methods: Deposition upon oral examination or written questions, written interrogatories, production of documents or things for inspection and other purposes, and requests for admission. With respect to information regarding a respondent's ability to pay an assessed civil penalty, the Agency may serve any discovery request (i.e., deposition, interrogatories, admissions, production of documents) directly upon the respondent without first seeking an order from the Judge.

(c) Time limits. Motions for depositions, interrogatories, admissions, or production of documents or things may not be filed within 20 days of the hearing except on order of the Judge for good cause shown. Oppositions to a discovery motion must be filed within 10 days of service unless otherwise provided in these rules or by the Judge.

(d) Oppositions. Oppositions to any discovery motion or portion thereof must state with particularity the grounds relied upon. Failure to object in a timely fashion constitutes waiver of the objection.

(e) Scope of discovery. The Judge may limit the scope, subject matter, method, time, or place of discovery. Unless otherwise limited by order of the Judge, the scope of discovery is as follows:

(1) In general. As allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, parties may obtain discovery of any matter, not privileged, that is relevant to the allegations of the charging document, to the proposed relief, or to the defenses of any respondent, or that appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.

(2) Hearing preparation: Materials. A party may not obtain discovery of materials prepared in anticipation of litigation except upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has a substantial need for the materials in preparation of his or her case and is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. Mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party are not discoverable under this section.

(3) Hearing preparation: Experts. A party may discover the substance of the facts and opinions to which an expert witness is expected to testify and a summary of the grounds for each opinion. A party may also discover facts known or opinions held by an expert consulted by another party in anticipation of litigation but not expected to be called as a witness upon a showing of exceptional circumstances making it impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain such facts or opinions by other means.

(f) Failure to comply. If a party fails to comply with any provision of this section, including any PPIP, subpoena or order concerning discovery, the Judge may, in the interest of justice:

(1) Infer that the admission, testimony, documents, or other evidence would have been adverse to the party;

(2) Rule that the matter or matters covered by the order or subpoena are established adversely to the party;

(3) Rule that the party may not introduce into evidence or otherwise rely upon, in support of any claim or defense, testimony by such party, officer, or agent, or the documents or other evidence;

(4) Rule that the party may not be heard to object to introduction and use of secondary evidence to show what the withheld admission, testimony, documents, or other evidence would have shown; or

(5) Strike part or all of a pleading (except a request for hearing), a motion or other submission by the party, concerning the matter or matters covered by the order or subpoena.

§ 904.241 Depositions.
(a) Notice. If a motion for deposition is granted, and unless otherwise ordered by the Judge, the party taking the deposition of any person must serve on that person and on any other party written notice at least 15 days before the deposition would be taken (or 25 days if the deposition is to be taken outside the United States). The notice must state the name and address of each person to be examined, the time and place where the examination would be held, the name and mailing address of the person before whom the deposition would be taken, and the subject matter about which each person would be examined.

(b) Taking the deposition. Depositions may be taken before any officer authorized to administer oaths by the law of the United States or of the place where the examination is to be held, or before a person appointed by the Judge. Each deponent will be sworn, and any party has the right to cross-examine. Objections are not waived by failure to make them during the deposition unless the ground of the objection is one that might have been removed if presented at that time. The deposition will be recorded, transcribed, signed by the deponent, unless waived, and certified by the officer before whom the deposition was taken. All transcription costs associated with the testimony of a deponent will be borne by the party seeking the deposition. Each party will bear its own expense for any copies of the transcript. See also §904.252(a).

(c) Alternative deposition methods. By order of the Judge, the parties may use other methods of deposing parties or witnesses, such as telephonic depositions or depositions upon written questions. Objections to the form of written questions are waived unless made within 5 days of service of the questions.

(d) Use of depositions at hearing. (1) At hearing, part or all of any deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence applied as though the witness were then testifying, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or had reasonable notice.

(2) The deposition of a witness may be used by any party for any purpose if the Judge finds:

(i) That the witness is unable to attend due to death, age, health, imprisonment, disappearance or distance from the hearing site; or (continued)