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Legible or legibility. Legible and legibility mean the quality of a letter or numeral that enables the observer to identify it positively and quickly to the exclusion of all other letters or numerals.
License. Authority issued by the Bureau of Industry and Security authorizing an export, reexport, or other regulated activity. The term “license” does not include authority represented by a “License Exception.”
License application; application for license. License application and similar wording mean an application to BIS requesting the issuance of a license to the applicant.
License Exception. An authorization described in part 740 of the EAR that allows you to export or reexport, under stated conditions, items subject to the EAR that otherwise would require a license. Unless otherwise indicated, these License Exceptions are not applicable to exports under the licensing jurisdiction of agencies other than the Department of Commerce.
Licensee. The person to whom a license has been issued by BIS. See §750.7(c) of the EAR for a complete definition and identification of a licensee's responsibilities.
“Linearity”. (Cat 2)—“Linearity” (usually measured in terms of non-linearity) is the maximum deviation of the actual characteristic (average of upscale and downscale readings), positive or negative, from a straight line so positioned as to equalize and minimize the maximum deviations.
“Local area network”. (Cat 4)—A data communication system that:
(a) Allows an arbitrary number of independent “data devices” to communicate directly with each other; and
(b) Is confined to a geographical area of moderate size (e.g., office building, plant, campus, warehouse).
Note: “Data device”: equipment capable of transmitting or receiving sequences of digital information.
“MBTR”—See “maximum bit transfer rate”.
MTCR. See Missile Technology Control Regime.
MTEC. See Missile Technology Export Control Group.
“Magnetic Gradiometers”. (Cat 6)—Are designed to detect the spatial variation of magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument. They consist of multiple “magnetometers” and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of magnetic field gradient. (See also “Intrinsic Magnetic Gradiometer”.)
“Magnetometers”. (Cat 6)—Are designed to detect magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument. They consist of a single magnetic field sensing element and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of the magnetic field.
“Main storage”. (Cat 4)—The primary storage for data or instructions for rapid access by a central processing unit. It consists of the internal storage of a “digital computer” and any hierarchical extension thereto, such as cache storage or non-sequentially accessed extended storage.
“Matrix”. (Cat 1, 2, 8, and 9)—A substantially continuous phase that fills the space between particles, whiskers or fibers.
“Maximum bit transfer rate”. (MBTR) (Cat 4)—Of solid state storage equipment: the number of data bits per second transferred between the equipment and its controller. Of a disk drive: the internal data transfer rate calculated as follows:
“MBTR” (bits per second)=B × R × T, where:
B=Maximum number of data bits per track available to read or write in a single revolution;
R=Revolutions per second;
T=Number of tracks that can be used or written simultaneously.
“Measurement uncertainty”. (Cat 2)—The characteristic parameter that specifies in what range around the output value the correct value of the measurable variable lies with a confidence level of 95%. It includes the uncorrected systematic deviations, the uncorrected backlash, and the random deviations (Ref.: ISO 10360–2 or VDI/VDE 2617).
“Mechanical alloying”. (Cat 1)—An alloying process resulting from the bonding, fracturing and rebonding of elemental and master alloy powders by mechanical impact. Non-metallic particles may be incorporated in the alloy by addition of the appropriate powders.
“Media access unit”. (Cat 5)—Equipment that contains one or more communication interfaces (“network access controller”, “communications channel controller”, modem or computer bus) to connect terminal equipment to a network.
Medical devices. For purposes of the EAR, medical devices are “devices” as defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321) including medical supplies, instruments, equipment, equipped ambulances, institutional washing machines for sterilization, and vehicles with medical testing equipment. Note that certain component parts and spares to be exported for incorporation into medical devices are on the Commerce Control List. Only items meeting the definition of “medical device” and that are classified as EAR99 are eligible for export to Iran and Sudan under the licensing procedures set forth in the appropriate regulations promulgated and administered by Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control.
Medicines. Medicines means “drug” as defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321). For purposes of the EAR, medicines includes prescription and over the counter medicines for humans and animals. Note that certain medicines, such as vaccines and immunotoxins, are on the Commerce Control List. Only items meeting the definition of “medicine” and that are classified as EAR99 are eligible for export to Iran and Sudan under the licensing procedures set forth in the appropriate regulations promulgated and administered by Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control.
“Melt Extraction”. (Cat 1)—A process to “solidify rapidly” and extract a ribbon-like alloy product by the insertion of a short segment of a rotating chilled block into a bath of a molten metal alloy.
Note: “Solidify rapidly”: solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/sec.
“Melt Spinning”. (Cat 1)—A process to “solidify rapidly” a molten metal stream impinging upon a rotating chilled block, forming a flake, ribbon or rod-like product.
Note: “Solidify rapidly”: solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/sec.
Microcomputer microcircuit. (Cat 3) means a “monolithic integrated circuit” or “multichip integrated circuit” containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing a series of general purpose instructions from an internal storage, on data contained in the internal storage.
Technical Note 1: The “microprocessor microcircuit” normally does not contain integral user-accessible storage, although storage present on-the-chip may be used in performing its logic function.
Technical Note 2: The internal storage may be augmented by an external storage.
Note: This definition includes chip sets which are designed to operate together to provide the function of a “microprocessor microcircuit.”
“Microorganisms.” (Cat 1 and 2) means bacteria, viruses, mycoplasms, rickettsiae, chlamydiae or fungi, whether natural, enhanced or modified, either in the form of isolated live cultures or as material including living material which has been deliberately inoculated or contaminated with such cultures.
“Microprocessor microcircuit”. (Cat 3)—A “monolithic integrated circuit” or “multichip integrated circuit” containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing a series of general purpose instructions from an external storage.
N.B. 1: The “microprocessor microcircuit” normally does not contain integral user-accessible storage, although storage present on-the-chip may be used in performing its logic function.
N.B. 2: This definition includes chip sets that are designed to operate together to provide the function of a “microprocessor microcircuit”.
“Microprogram”. (Cat 4 and 5)—A sequence of elementary instructions, maintained in a special storage, the execution of which is initiated by the introduction of its reference instruction into an instruction register.
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The United States and other nations in this multilateral control regime have agreed to guidelines for restricting the export and reexport of dual-use items that may contribute to the development of missiles. The MTCR Annex lists missile-related equipment and technology controlled either by the Department of Commerce or by the Department of State's Office of Defense Trade Controls (22 CFR parts 120 through 130).
Missile Technology Export Control Group (MTEC). Chaired by the Department of State, the MTEC primarily reviews applications involving items controlled for Missile Technology (MT) reasons. The MTEC also reviews applications involving items not controlled for MT reasons, but destined for a country and/or end-use/end-user of concern.
“Missiles”. (All)—Rocket systems (including ballistic missile systems, space launch vehicles, and sounding rockets) and unmanned air vehicle systems (including cruise missile systems, target drones, and reconnaissance drones) “capable of” delivering at least 500 kilograms payload to a range of at least 300 kilometers. See §746.3 for definition of a “ballistic missile” to be exported or reexported to Iraq or transferred within Iraq.
“Monolithic integrated circuit”. (Cat 3)—A combination of passive or active “circuit elements” or both that:
(a) Are formed by means of diffusion processes, implantation processes or deposition processes in or on a single semiconducting piece of material, a so-called 'chip';
(b) Can be considered as indivisibly associated; and
(c) Perform the function(s) of a circuit.
Note: “Circuit element”: a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.
“Monospectral imaging sensors.” (Cat 6) are capable of acquisition of imaging data from one discrete spectral band.
“Motion control board”. (Cat 2)—An electronic “assembly” specially designed to provide a computer system with the capability to coordinate simultaneously the motion of axes of machine tools for “contouring control”.
“Multichip integrated circuit”. (Cat 3)—Two or more “monolithic integrated circuits” bonded to a common “substrate”.
“Multi-data-stream processing”. (Cat 4)—The “microprogram” or equipment architecture technique that permits simultaneous processing of two or more data sequences under the control of one or more instruction sequences by means such as:
(a) Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architectures such as vector or array processors;
(b) Multiple Single Instruction Multiple Data (MSIMD) architectures;
(c) Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) architectures, including those that are tightly coupled, closely coupled or loosely coupled; or
(d) Structured arrays of processing elements, including systolic arrays.
“Multilevel security”. (Cat 5)—A class of system containing information with different sensitivities that simultaneously permits access by users with different security clearances and need-to-know, but prevents users from obtaining access to information for which they lack authorization.
Note: “Multilevel security” is computer security and not computer reliability that deals with equipment fault prevention or human error prevention in general.
“Multispectral Imaging Sensors”. (Cat 6)—Are capable of simultaneous or serial acquisition of imaging data from two or more discrete spectral bands. Sensors having more than twenty discrete spectral bands are sometimes referred to as hyperspectral imaging sensors.
“N.E.S.” N.E.S or n.e.s. is an abbreviation meaning “not elsewhere specified”.
NLR. NLR (“no license required”) is a symbol entred on the Shipper's Export Declaration or an Automated Export System record certifying that no license is required.
NSG. See Nuclear Suppliers Group.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). A strategic defensive organization that consists of the following member nations: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
“Natural uranium.” (Cat 0) means uranium containing the mixtures of isotopes occurring in nature.
Net value. The actual selling price, less shipping charges or current market price, whichever is the larger, to the same type of purchaser in the United States.
“Neural computer”. (Cat 4)—A computational device designed or modified to mimic the behavior of a neuron or a collection of neurons (i.e., a computational device that is distinguished by its hardware capability to modulate the weights and numbers of the interconnections of a multiplicity of computational components based on previous data).
“Noise level”. (Cat 6)—An electrical signal given in terms of power spectral density. The relation between “noise level” expressed in peak-to-peak is given by S 2 pp=8No(f2–f1), where Spp is the peak-to-peak value of the signal (e.g., nanoteslas), No is the power spectral density (e.g., (nanotesla) 2 /Hz) and (f2–f1) defines the bandwidth of interest.
“Nuclear reactor.” (Cat 0 and 2) includes the items within or attached directly to the reactor vessel, the equipment which controls the level of power in the core, and the components which normally contain, come into direct contact with or control the primary coolant of the reactor core.
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). The United States and other nations in this multilateral control regime have agreed to guidelines for restricting the export or reexport of items with nuclear applications. Members include: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States. See also §742.3 of the EAR.
“Numerical control”. (Cat 2)—The automatic control of a process performed by a device that makes use of numeric data usually introduced as the operation is in progress (Ref. ISO 2382).
“Object code”. (or object language) (Cat 9)—An equipment executable form of a convenient expression of one or more processes (“source code” (or source language)) that has been converted by a programming system. (See also “source code”)
Office of Foreign Assets Control (FAC) or (OFAC). The office at the Department of the Treasury responsible for blocking assets of foreign countries subject to economic sanctions, controlling participation by U.S. persons, including foreign subsidiaries, in transactions with specific countries or nationals of such countries, and administering embargoes on certain countries or areas of countries. (See 31 CFR parts 500 through 590.)
“Open cryptographic interface”. A mechanism which is designed to allow a customer or other party to insert cryptographic functionality without the intervention, help or assistance of the manufacturer or its agents, e.g., manufacturer's signing of cryptographic code or proprietary interfaces. If the cryptographic interface implements a fixed set of cryptographic algorithms, key lengths or key exchange management systems, that cannot be changed, it will not be considered an “open” cryptographic interface. All general application programming interfaces (e.g., those that accept either a cryptographic or non-cryptographic interface but do not themselves maintain any cryptographic functionality) will not be considered “open” cryptographic interfaces.
“Operate autonomously”. (Cat 8)—Fully submerged, without snorkel, all systems working and cruising at minimum speed at which the submersible can safely control its depth dynamically by using its depth planes only, with no need for a support vessel or support base on the surface, sea-bed or shore, and containing a propulsion system for submerged or surface use.
Operating Committee (OC). The OC voting members include representatives of appropriate agencies in the Departments of Commerce, State, Defense, Justice (for encryption exports), and Energy and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. The appropriate representatives of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Director of the Nonproliferation Center of the Central Intelligence Agency are non-voting members. The Department of Commerce representative, appointed by the Secretary, is the Chair of the OC and serves as the Executive Secretary of the Advisory Committee on Export Policy. The OC may invite representatives of other Government agencies or departments (other than those identified in this definition) to participate in the activities of the OC when matters of interest to such agencies or departments are under consideration.
“Optical amplification”. (Cat 5)—In optical communications, an amplification technique that introduces a gain of optical signals that have been generated by a separate optical source, without conversion to electrical signals, i.e., using semiconductor optical amplifiers, optical fiber luminescent amplifiers.
“Optical computer”. (Cat 4)—A computer designed or modified to use light to represent data and whose computational logic elements are based on directly coupled optical devices.
“Optical integrated circuit”. (Cat 3)—A “monolithic integrated circuit” or a “hybrid integrated circuit”, containing one or more parts designed to function as photosensor or photoemitter or to perform (an) optical or (an) electro-optical function(s).
“Optical switching”. (Cat 5)—The routing of or switching of signals in optical form without conversion to electrical signals.
Order Party. The person in the United States who conducted the direct negotiations or correspondence with the foreign purchaser or ultimate consignee and who, as a result of these negotiations, received the order from the foreign purchaser or ultimate consignee.
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Means the international organization, located in The Hague, Netherlands, that administers the Chemical Weapons Convention.
Other party authorized to receive license. The person authorized by the applicant to receive the license. If a person and address is listed in Block 15 of the BIS-748P Multipurpose Application Form, the Bureau of Industry and Security will send the license to that person instead of the applicant. Designation of another party to receive the license does not alter the responsibilities of the applicant, licensee or exporter.
“Overall current density”. (Cat 3)—The total number of ampere-turns in the coil (i.e., the sum of the number of turns multiplied by the maximum current carried by each turn) divided by the total cross-section of the coil (comprising the superconducting filaments, the metallic matrix in which the superconducting filaments are embedded, the encapsulating material, any cooling channels, etc.).
“Part program”. (Cat. 2)—An ordered set of instructions that is in a language and in a format required to cause operations to be effected under automatic control and that is either written in the form of a machine program on an input medium or prepared as input data for processing in a computer to obtain a machine program (Ref. ISO 2806–1980).
“Payload” (MTCR). The total mass that can be carried or delivered by the specified rocket system or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system that is not used to maintain flight.
Note: The particular equipment, subsystems, or components to be included in the payload depends on the type and configuration of the vehicle under consideration.
a. Ballistic Missiles
1. “Payload” for systems with separating re-entry vehicles (RVs) includes:
i. The RVs, including:
A. Dedicated guidance, navigation, and control equipment;
B. Dedicated countermeasures equipment;
ii. Munitions of any type (e.g., explosive or non-explosive);
iii. Supporting structures and deployment mechanisms for the munitions (e.g. hardware used to attach to, or separate the RV from, the bus/post-boost vehicle) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
iv. Mechanisms and devices for safing, arming, fuzing, or firing;
v. Any other countermeasures equipment (e.g., decoys, jammers, or chaff dispensers) that separate from the RV bus/post-boost vehicle;
vi. The bus/post-boost vehicle or attitude control/velocity trim module not including systems/subsystems essential to the operation of other stages.
2. “Payload” for systems with non-separating re-entry vehicles includes:
i. Munitions of any type (e.g., explosive or non-explosive);
ii. Supporting structures and deployment mechanisms for the munitions that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
iii. Mechanisms and devices for safing, arming, fuzing or firing;
iv. Any countermeasures equipment (e.g., decoys, jammers, or chaff dispensers) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle.
b. Space Launch Vehicles—“Payload” includes:
1. Satellites (single or multiple);
2. Satellite-to-launch vehicle adapters including, if applicable, apogee/perigee kick motors or similar maneuvering systems;
c. Sounding Rockets—“Payload” includes:
1. Equipment required for a mission, such as data gathering, recording or transmitting devices for mission-specific data;
2. Recovery equipment (e.g., parachutes) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle.
d. Cruise Missiles—“Payload” includes:
1. Munitions of any type (e.g., explosive or non-explosive);
2. Supporting structures and mechanisms for the munitions that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
3. Mechanisms and devices for safing, arming, fuzing or firing;
4. Countermeasures equipment (e.g., decoys, jammers or chaff dispensers) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
5. Signature alteration equipment that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
e. Other UAVs—“Payload” includes:
1. Munitions of any type (e.g., explosive or non-explosive);
2. Mechanisms and devices for safing, arming, fuzing or firing;
3. Countermeasures equipment (e.g., decoys, jammers or chaff dispensers) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
4. Signature alteration equipment that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle;
5. Equipment required for a mission such as data gathering, recording or transmitting devices for mission-specific data;
6. Recovery equipment (e.g., parachutes) that can be removed without violating the structural integrity of the vehicle.
“Peak power”. (Cat 6)—Energy per pulse in Joule divided by the pulse duration in seconds.
Person. A natural person, including a citizen or national of the United States or of any foreign country; any firm; any government, government agency, government department, or government commission; any labor union; any fraternal or social organization; and any other association or organization whether or not organized for profit. This definition does not apply to part 760 of the EAR (Restrictive Trade Practices or Boycotts).
“Personalized smart card.” (Cat 5) A smart card containing a microcircuit which has been programmed for a specific application and cannot be reprogrammed for any other application by the user.
Port of export. The port where the cargo to be shipped abroad is laden aboard the exporting carrier. It includes, in the case of an export by mail, the place of mailing.
“Positioning accuracy”. (Cat. 2)—The positioning accuracy of “numerically controlled” machine tools is to be determined and presented in accordance with ISO/DIS 230/2 (1988), paragraph 2.13, in conjunction with the following requirements:
(a) Test conditions:
(1) For 12 hours before and during measurements, the machine tool and accuracy measuring equipment will be kept at the same ambient temperature. During the pre-measurement time the slides of the machine will be continuously cycled in the same manner that the accuracy measurements will be taken;
(2) The machine shall be equipped with any mechanical, electronic, or software compensation to be exported with the machine;
(3) Accuracy of measuring equipment for the measurements shall be at least four times more accurate than the expected machine tool accuracy;
(4) Power supply for slide drives shall be as follows:
(i) Line voltage variation shall exceed ±10% of nominal rated voltage;
(ii) Frequency variation shall not exceed ±2 Hz of normal frequency;
(iii) Lineouts or interrupted service are not permitted.
(b) Test programs:
(1) Feed rate (velocity of slides) during measurement shall be the rapid traverse rate;
Note: In case of machine tools that generate optical quality surfaces, the feedrate shall be equal to or less than 50 mm per minute.
(2) Measurements shall be made in an incremental manner from one limit of the axis travel to the other without returning to the starting position for each move to the target position;
(3) Axes not being measured shall be retained at mid travel during the test of an axis.
(c) Presentation of test results: The results of the measurement must include:
(1) Position accuracy (A); and
(2) The mean reversal error (B).
“Power management”. (Cat 7)—Changing the transmitted power of the altimeter signal so that received power at the “aircraft” altitude is always at the minimum necessary to determine the altitude.
“Previously separated.” (Cat 1) The application of any process intended to increase the concentration of the controlled isotope.
“Primary flight control.” (Cat 7) “Aircraft” stability or maneuvering control using force/moment generators, i.e., aerodynamic control surfaces or propulsive thrust vectoring.
“Principal element”. (Cat 4)—An element is a “principal element” when its replacement value is more than 35% of the total value of the system of which it is an element. Element value is the price paid for the element by the manufacturer of the system, or by the system integrator. Total value is the normal international selling price to unrelated parties at the point of manufacture or consolidation of shipment.
Principal parties in interest. Those persons in a transaction that receive the primary benefit, monetary or otherwise, of the transaction. Generally, the principals in a transaction are the seller and the buyer. In most cases, the forwarding or other agent is not a principal party in interest.
“Production”. (General Technology Note) (All Categories)—Means all production stages, such as: product engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, quality assurance.
“Production equipment”. (MTCR context)—Tooling, templates, jigs, mandrels, moulds, dies, fixtures, alignment mechanisms, test equipment, other machinery and components therefor, limited to those specially designed or modified for “development” or for one or more phases of “production”.
Production. (General Technology Note)—Means all production stages, such as: product engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, quality assurance.
“Program.” (Cat 2, 4, 5, and 6)—A sequence of instructions to carry out a process in, or convertible into, a form executable by an electronic computer.
“Proof test”. (Cat 5)—On-line or off-line production screen testing that dynamically applies a prescribed tensile stress over a 0.5 to 3 m length of fiber at a running rate of 2 to 5 m/s while passing between capstans approximately 150 mm in diameter. The ambient temperature is a nominal 293 K (20 °C) and relative humidity 40%.
Note: Equivalent national standards for executing the “proof test” may be used.
Publicly available information. Information that is generally accessible to the interested public in any form and, therefore, not subject to the EAR (See part 732 of the EAR).
Publicly available technology and software. Technology and software that are already published or will be published; arise during, or result from fundamental research; are educational; or are included in certain patent applications (see §734.3(b)(3) of the EAR).
“Pulse compression”. (Cat 6)—The coding and processing of a radar signal pulse of long time duration to one of short time duration, while maintaining the benefits of high pulse energy.
“Pulse duration”. (Cat 6)—Duration of a “laser” pulse measured at Full Width Half Intensity (FWHI) levels.
Purchaser. The person abroad who has entered into a transaction to purchase an item for delivery to the ultimate consignee. In most cases, the purchaser is not a bank, forwarding agent, or intermediary. The purchaser and ultimate consignee may be the same entity.
“Q-switched laser”. (Cat 6)—A “laser” in which the energy is stored in the population inversion or in the optical resonator and subsequently emitted in a pulse.
RWA. See Return Without Action.
“Radar frequency agility”. (Cat 6)—Any technique that changes, in a pseudo-random sequence, the carrier frequency of a pulsed radar transmitter between pulses or between groups of pulses by an amount equal to or larger than the pulse bandwidth.
“Radar spread spectrum”. (Cat 6)—Any modulation technique for spreading energy originating from a signal with a relatively narrow frequency band, over a much wider band of frequencies, by using random or pseudo-random coding.
“Range”. (Cat 8)—Half the maximum distance a submersible vehicle can cover.
“Range” (MTCR). The maximum distance that the specified rocket system or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is capable of traveling in the mode of stable flight as measured by the projection of its trajectory over the surface of the Earth.
a. The maximum capability based on the design characteristics of the system, when fully loaded with fuel or propellant, will be taken into consideration in determining range.
b. The range for both rocket systems and UAV systems will be determined independently of any external factors such as operational restrictions, limitations imposed by telemetry, data links or other external constraints.
c. For rocket systems, the range will be determined using the trajectory that maximizes range, assuming ICAO standard atmosphere with zero wind.
d. For UAV systems, the range will be determined for a one-way distance using the most fuel-efficient flight profile (e.g., cruise speed and altitude), assuming ICAO standard atmosphere with zero wind.
“Readable or readability”. Readable and readability mean the quality of a group of letters or numerals being recognized as complete words or numbers.
“Real-time bandwidth”. (Cat 3)—For “dynamic signal analyzers”, the widest frequency range that the analyzer can output to display or mass storage without causing any discontinuity in the analysis of the input data. For analyzers with more than one channel, the channel configuration yielding the widest “real-time bandwidth” shall be used to make the calculation.
“Real-time processing”. (Cat 2, 4, 6, and 7)—The processing of data by a computer system providing a required level of service, as a function of available resources, within a guaranteed response time, regardless of the load of the system, when stimulated by an external event.
Reasons for Control. Reasons for Control are: Anti-Terrorism (AT), Chemical & Biological Weapons (CB), Crime Control (CC), High Performance Computer (XP), Missile Technology (MT), National Security (NS), Nuclear Nonproliferation (NP), Regional Stability (RS), Short Supply (SS), and United Nations sanctions (UN). Items controlled within a particular ECCN may be controlled for more than one reason.
Recoverable commodities and software. As applied to encryption items, means any of the following:
(a) A stored data product containing a recovery feature that, when activated, allows recovery of the plaintext of encrypted data without the assistance of the end-user; or
(b) A product or system designed such that a network administrator or other authorized persons who are removed from the end-user can provide law enforcement access to plaintext without the knowledge or assistance of the end-user. This includes, for example, products or systems where plaintext exists and is accessible at intermediate points in a network or infrastructure system, enterprise-controlled recovery systems, and products which permit recovery of plaintext at the server where a system administrator controls or can provide recovery of plaintext across an enterprise.
Note to this definition: “Plaintext” indicates that data that is initially received by or presented to the recoverable product before encryption takes place.
Reexport. “Reexport” means an actual shipment or transmission of items subject to the EAR from one foreign country to another foreign country. For purposes of the EAR, the export or reexport of items subject to the EAR that will transit through a country or countries, or be transshipped in a country or countries to a new country, or are intended for reexport to the new country, are deemed to be exports to the new country. (See §734.2(b)of the EAR.) In addition, for purposes of satellites controlled by the Department of Commerce, the term “reexport” also includes the transfer of registration of a satellite or operational control over a satellite from a party resident in one country to a party resident in another country.
Replacement license. An authorization by the Bureau of Industry and Security revising the information, conditions, or riders stated on a license issued by BIS. See §750.7 of the EAR.
“Required”. (General Technology Note)(Cat 4, 5, 6, and 9)—As applied to “technology” or “software”, refers to only that portion of “technology” or “software” which is peculiarly responsible for achieving or exceeding the controlled performance levels, characteristics or functions. Such “required” “technology” or “software” may be shared by different products. For example, assume product “X” is controlled if it operates at or above 400 MHz and is not controlled if it operates below 400 MHz. If production technologies “A”, “B”, and “C” allow production at no more than 399 MHz, then technologies “A”, “B”, and “C” are not “required” to produce the controlled product “X”. If technologies “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, and “E” are used together, a manufacturer can produce product “X” that operates at or above 400 MHz. In this example, technologies “D” and “E” are “required” to make the controlled product and are themselves controlled under the General Technology Note. (See the General Technology Note.)
“Resolution”. (Cat 2)—The least increment of a measuring device; on digital instruments, the least significant bit (Ref.: ANSI B–89.1.12).
“Return Without Action (RWA)”. An application may be RWA'd for one of the following reasons:
(a) The applicant has requested the application be returned;
(b) A License Exception applies;
(c) The items are not under Department of Commerce jurisdiction;
(d) Required documentation has not been submitted with the application; or
(e) The applicant cannot be reached after several attempts to request additional information necessary for processing of the application.
“Robot”. (Cat 2 and 8)—A manipulation mechanism, which may be of the continuous path or of the point-to-point variety, may use “sensors”, and has all the following characteristics:
(a) Is multifunctional;
(b) Is capable of positioning or orienting material, parts, tools or special devices through variable movements in a three dimensional space;
(c) Incorporates three or more closed or open loop servo-devices that may include stepping motors; and
(d) Has “user-accessible programmability” by means of teach/playback method or by means of an electronic computer that may be a programmable logic controller, i.e., without mechanical intervention.
Note: This definition does not include the following devices:
(a) Manipulation mechanisms that are only manually/teleoperator controllable;
(b) Fixed sequence manipulation mechanisms that are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is mechanically limited by fixed stops, such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are not variable or changeable by mechanical, electronic or electrical means;
(c) Mechanically controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms that are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is mechanically limited by fixed, but adjustable stops, such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are variable within the fixed program pattern. Variations or modifications of the program pattern (e.g., changes of pins or exchanges of cams) in one or more motion axes are accomplished only through mechanical operations;
(d) Non-servo-controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms that are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is variable, but the sequence proceeds only by the binary signal from mechanically fixed electrical binary devices or adjustable stops;
(e) Stacker cranes defined as Cartesian coordinate manipulator systems manufactured as an integral part of a vertical array of storage bins and designed to access the contents of those bins for storage or retrieval.
“Rotary Atomization”. (Cat 1)—A process to reduce a stream or pool of molten metal to droplets to a diameter of 500 micrometer or less by centrifugal force.
“Routed export transaction”. A transaction where the foreign principal party in interest authorizes a U.S. forwarding or other agent to facilitate export of items from the United States.
“Run-out”. (out-of-true running) (Cat 2)—Radial displacement in one revolution of the main spindle measured in a plane perpendicular to the spindle axis at a point on the external or internal revolving surface to be tested (Ref.: ISO 230 Part 1–1986, paragraph 5.61).
“SHPL.” (Cat 6) is equivalent to “Super High Power Laser”, see definition for “super high power laser.”
SNEC. See Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination.
“Scale factor”. (gyro or accelerometer) (Cat 7)—The ratio of change in output to a change in the input intended to be measured. Scale factor is generally evaluated as the slope of the straight line that can be fitted by the method of least squares to input-output data obtained by varying the input cyclically over the input range.
Schedule B numbers. The commodity numbers appearing in the current edition of the Bureau of the Census publication, Schedule B Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. (See part 758 of the EAR for information on use of Schedule B numbers.)
“Settling time”. (Cat 3)—The time required for the output to come within one-half bit of the final value when switching between any two levels of the converter.
Shield. Chaired by the Department of State, the Shield primarily reviews applications involving items controlled for Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) reasons. The Shield also reviews applications involving items not controlled for CBW reasons, but destined for a country and/or end-use/end-user of concern. See §750.4 of the EAR.
“Signal analyzers”. (Cat 3)—Apparatus capable of measuring and displaying basic properties of the single-frequency components of multi-frequency signals.
“Signal analyzers”. (dynamic) (Cat 3)—(See “Dynamic signal analyzers”.)
“Signal processing”. (Cat 3, 4, 5, and 6)—The processing of externally derived information-bearing signals by algorithms such as time compression, filtering, extraction, selection, correlation, convolution or transformations between domains (e.g., fast Fourier transform or Walsh transform).
Single shipment. All items moving at the same time from one exporter to one consignee or intermediate consignee on the same exporting carrier, even if these items will be forwarded to one or more ultimate consignees. Items being transported in this manner shall be treated as a single shipment even if the items represent more than one order or are in separate containers.
“Software”. (Cat: all)—A collection of one or more “programs” or “microprograms” fixed in any tangible medium of expression.
“Source code”. (or source language) (Cat 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9)—A convenient expression of one or more processes that may be turned by a programming system into equipment executable form (“object code” (or object language)).
“Spacecraft”. (Cat 7 and 9)—Active and passive satellites and space probes.
“Space qualified”. (Cat 3 and 6)—Products designed, manufactured and tested to meet the special electrical, mechanical or environmental requirements for use in the launch and deployment of satellites or high-altitude flight systems operating at altitudes of 100 km or higher.
“Special fissile material.” (Cat 0) means plutonium-239, uranium-233, “uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233”, and any material containing the foregoing.
Note: As defined by 10 CFR 110.2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations, “Special fissile material” means: plutonium, uranium-233 or uranium enriched above 0.711 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235.
Specially Designated National (SDN). Any person who is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated national for any reason under regulations issued by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (see 31 CFR parts 500 through 590).
Specially Designated Terrorist (SDT). Any person who is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated terrorist under notices or regulations issued by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (see 31 CFR chapter V).
“Specially designed”. (MTCR context)—Equipment, parts, components or “software” that, as a result of “development”, have unique properties that distinguish them for certain predetermined purposes. For example, a piece of equipment that is “specially designed” for use in a “missile” will only be considered so if it has no other function or use. Similarly, a piece of manufacturing equipment that is “specially designed” to produce a certain type of component will only be considered such if it is not capable of producing other types of components.
“Specific modulus”. (Cat 1)—Young's modulus in pascals, equivalent to N/m 2 divided by specific weight in N/m 3 , measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2) °C) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 5)%.
“Specific tensile strength”. (Cat 1)—Ultimate tensile strength in pascals, equivalent to N/m 2 divided by specific weight in N/m 3 , measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2) °C) and relative humidity of (50 ± 5)%.
“Spectral efficiency”. (Cat 5)—A figure of merit parametrized to characterize the efficiency of transmission system that uses complex modulation schemes such as QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), Trellis coding, QSPK (Q-phased shift key), etc. It is defined as follows:
“Splat Quenching”. (Cat 1)—A process to “solidify rapidly” a molten metal stream impinging upon a chilled block, forming a flake-like product.
Note: “Solidify rapidly”: solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/sec.
“Spread spectrum”. (Cat 5)—The technique whereby energy in a relatively narrow-band communication channel is spread over a much wider energy spectrum.
“Spread spectrum radar”. (Cat 6)—(see “Radar spread spectrum”)
“Stability”. (Cat 7)—Standard deviation (1 sigma) of the variation of a particular parameter from its calibrated value measured under stable temperature conditions. This can be expressed as a function of time.
“Stored program controlled”. (Cat 2, 3, and 5)—A control using instructions stored in an electronic storage that a processor can execute in order to direct the performance of predetermined functions.
Note: Equipment may be “stored program controlled” whether the electronic storage is internal or external to the equipment.
Strategic partner (of a U.S. company). As applied to encryption items, means a foreign-based entity that:
(a) Has a business need to share the proprietary information with one or more U.S. companies; and
(b) Is contractually bound to the U.S. company (e.g., has an established pattern of continuing or recurring contractual relations).
Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination (SNEC). Chaired by the Department of State, the SNEC primarily reviews applications involving items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation (NP) reasons. The SNEC also reviews applications involving items not controlled for NP reasons, but destined for a country and/or end-use/end-user of NP concern.
Subject to the EAR. A term used in the EAR to describe those commodities, software, technology, and activities over which the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) exercises regulatory jurisdiction under the EAR (See §734.2(a) of the EAR).
“Substrate”. (Cat 3)—A sheet of base material with or without an interconnection pattern and on which or within which “discrete components” or integrated circuits or both can be located.
Note: “Discrete component”: a separately packaged “circuit element” with its own external connections.
“Substrate blanks.” (Cat 6)—Monolithic compounds with dimensions suitable for the production of optical elements such as mirrors or optical windows.
“Superalloy”. (Cat 2 and 9)—Nickel-, cobalt-, or iron-base alloys having strengths superior to any alloys in the AISI 300 series at temperatures over 922 K (694 degrees C) under severe environmental and operating conditions.
“Superconductive”. (Cat 1, 3, 6, and 8)—Materials, i.e., metals, alloys, or compounds that can lose all electrical resistance, i.e., that can attain infinite electrical conductivity and carry very large electrical currents without Joule heating.
Note: The “superconductive” state of a material is individually characterized by a “critical temperature”, a critical magnetic field that is a function of temperature, and a critical current density that is a function of both magnetic field and temperature.
“Super High Power Laser”. (SHPL) (Cat 6)—A “laser” capable of delivering (the total or any portion of) the output energy exceeding 1 kJ within 50 ms or having an average or CW power exceeding 20 kW.
“Superplastic forming”. (Cat 1 and 2)—A deformation process using heat for metals that are normally characterized by low elongation (less than 20%) at the breaking point as determined at room temperature by conventional tensile strength testing, in order to achieve elongations during processing that are at least 2 times those values.
“Symmetric algorithm”. (Cat 5, Part II) A cryptographic algorithm using an identical key for both encryption and decryption. A common use of “symmetric algorithms” is confidentiality of data.
“System tracks”. (Cat 6)—Processed, correlated (fusion of radar target data to flight plan position) and updated aircraft flight position report available to the Air Traffic Control center controllers.
“Systolic array computer”. (Cat 4)—A computer where the flow and modification of the data is dynamically controllable at the logic gate level by the user.
“Technology”. (General Technology Note)—Specific information necessary for the “development”, “production”, or “use” of a product. The information takes the form of “technical data” or “technical assistance”. Controlled “technology” is defined in the General Technology Note and in the Commerce Control List (Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR).
N.B.: Technical assistance—May take forms such as instruction, skills training, working knowledge, consulting services.
Note: “Technical assistance” may involve transfer of “technical data”.
“Technical data”—May take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, read-only memories.
“Terminal interface equipment”. (Cat 4)—Equipment at which information enters or leaves the telecommunication systems, e.g., telephone, data device, computer, facsimile device.
“Three dimensional Vector Rate”. (Cat 4)—The number of vectors generated per second that have 10 pixel poly line vectors, clip tested, randomly oriented, with either integer or floating point X-Y-Z coordinate values (whichever produces the maximum rate).
“Tilting spindle”. (Cat 2)—A tool-handling spindle that alters, during the machining process, the angular position of its center line with respect to any other axis.
“Time constant”. (Cat 6)—The time taken from the application of a light stimulus for the current increment to reach a value of 1–1/e times the final value (i.e., 63% of the final value).
“Time-modulated ultra-wideband”. (Cat 5 part 1 and Cat 5 part 2) The technique in which very short precisely time-controlled RF pulses are modulated in accordance with communications data by shifting pulse positions (usually called Pulse Position Modulation, PPM) channelized or scrambled in accordance with pseudo-random noise codes by PPM, then transmitted and received in the direct pulse form without using any carrier frequencies, consequently having extremely low power density over ultra-wide frequency bands. It is also known as Impulse Radio.
“Total control of flight.” (Cat 7) means an automated control of “aircraft” state variables and flight path to meet mission objectives responding to real time changes in data regarding objectives, hazards or other “aircraft.” (continued)